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  • 1. WRITING (BASIC SIMPLE PATTERNS) NOVIANA SARI, M.A.
  • 2. 1. BASIC SENTENCE • A basic sentence, that is, simple, active and positive has the following pattern: subject + predicate
  • 3. 2. SUBJECT • A sentence must have a subject. • The subject is a part of a sentence which refers to PERSON or SOMETHING that is spoken • A subject is a noun – A person, place or thing » Ms. Jones » Los Angeles Mission College » Hat • Or a pronoun – A word that takes the place of a noun » She/he/they » It
  • 4. 3. PREDICATE • The predicate is a part of a sentence which tells the information about subject • There are two kinds of predicate: a. NOMINAL PREDICATE, composed by NON ACTION ELEMENTS. They can be a name, status, adjective, number and place. b. VERBAL PREDICATE, composed by ACTION of the subject • Examples: to sing, to joke, to run, to walk
  • 5. • A sentence must also have a verb. • There are 3 types of verbs: 1. Linking Verbs • Linking verbs needs no action, it needs only status, characte, place, etc. This verb is used in nominal predicate. The main element of predicate is something that modifies subject, it is called compliment • Examples: to be (is, am, are, was, were), to seem, to become, get, grow, keep, seem, etc.
  • 6. 2. Intransitive Verbs • The verbs that don’t need objects. • Examples: arrive, come, go (pergi), sleep, sit, stand, live, walk, run, fly, die, etc. 3. Transitive Verbs • The verbs that need objects. • Examples: buy, sell, read, write, drive, send, give, kick, kill, bring, take, make, etc.
  • 7. Example of three patterns of basic sentences: SUBJECT LINKING VERB COMPLEMENT ADJUNCT I AM A STUDENT NOW THEY GOT ANGRY THEN THE DRESS LOOKS GOOD ON YOU
  • 8. Example of three patterns of basic sentences: SUBJECT INTRANSITIVE VERB ADJUNCT I CAME LATE THE HORSE RUNS QUICKLY SHE STOOD QUIETLY
  • 9. Example of three patterns of basic sentences: SUBJECT I TRANSITIVE VERB MEET OBJECT ADJUNCT THE BOYS HERE THEY GOT ANGRY YESTERDAY WE SAW TONY THERE
  • 10. Identifying Subjects and Verbs • To identify the subject and verb in a sentence, ask these questions: –What is the action? What word links two or more other words? • the verb – Who or what is performing the action? • the subject
  • 11. Practice 1. Barbara sang.  What is the action? Sang (verb – action)  Who sang? Barbara (subject) 2. The children were happy.  What word joins the description to the subject? Were (verb – linking)  Who were happy? Children (subject)
  • 12. More Practice • Identify the subjects and verbs in the following sentences: 1. Terry laughs. Verb = laughs (action) Subject = Terry 2. Lady Gaga is famous. Verb = is (links description to subject) Subject = Lady Gaga 3. The dog barked. Verb = barked (action) Subject = the dog 4. Maulana creates funny characters. Verb = creates (action) Subject = Maulana
  • 13. WRITING EXERCISE 1 {WRITE 5 (five) SENTENCES OF EACH PATTERN!} tulis masing-masing: 5 kalimat dari linking verbs, 5 kalimat dari intransitive verbs, dan 5 kalimat dari transitive verbs
  • 14. THE USED OF LINKING BE forms Element usage Infinitive Be I will be there To + infinitive To be We want to be good Past participle Been We have been here She has been there Present tense Am, is, are I am ready It is fine They are right Past tense Was, were She was sick You were right
  • 15. • LINKING BE is used the most frequently in english and used in the nominal predicate. In bahasa Indonesia, the equivalent words is adalah. • Examples: Saya orang Indonesia Dia kawan saya Mereka di rumah kemarin SUBJECT I She The man They LINKING BE am is Is were COMPLEMENT ADJUNCT an Indonesian my friend sick at home yesterday
  • 16. • PRONOMINAL includes: a. Personal Pronouns: i, me, you, it, we, they, etc. b. Possessive Pronouns: mine, yours, hers, ours, theirs c. Demonstrative Prounouns: this, that, these, those d. Indefinite Pronouns: all, some, both, one, something, etc.
  • 17. • The COMPLEMENT can be composed by: a. Noun: information, Name, Country, etc. b. Noun Phrase: little time, my friend, the women, these people, a few example, a boy, etc. c. Adjective: good, easy, dead, etc. d. Adjective Phrase: very nice, much better, etc. e. Prepositional Phrase: for them, with the girls, in Palangkaraya, in the market, etc. f. Numeral: one, two, three, the first, the second, etc. g. Gerund: Learning, working, doing h. To Infinitive: to learn, to work, etc.
  • 18. • The ADJUNCT element are expressed in adverbial elements such as: a. Adverb of manner: quickly, slowly, fast, hard, well, early, better, badly, etc. b. Adverb of place: in town, at the market, etc. c. Adverb of frequency: never, seldom, sometimes, usually, often, always. d. Adverb of time: now, right now, at the moment yesterday, tomorrow, etc. e. Adverb of degree: very, quite, rather, fairly, awfully f. Averb of modality (keterangan kemungkinan): maybe, perhaps, probably, likely, possibly, etc.
  • 19. OTHER EXAMPLES: SUBJECT LINKING BE COMPLEMENT ADJUNCT I am A student You were a baby then He is our leader here She is very beautiful We were In Palangkaraya last week Some of the boys are Outside This letter is for you They were in trouble My sister is on time usually
  • 20. WRITING EXERCISE 2 1. 2. 3. 4. We ____________ Indonesians Our national language __________ Indonesia I _________ proud of my native country All of us _______ arrived in Banjarmasin Last night 5. He ________ very tired now