Muscular and largest single organ in the mouth Anterior 2/3 located in the floor of the mouth Posterior 1/3 in the pharynx Divided antero porterior by the sulcus terminlis. Divided into anterior lateral halves by the lingual septum
Filiform papilla: numerous, pointed, cone shaped Fungiform papilla: mushroom shape Foliate papilla: are narrow mucosal flds bilaterally located along the posterior border of the body about 4 to 8 in number. Well developed at birth and became atrophied in mature individual Vallate: largest papilla. 8 to 10 in numbers. Arranged in v-shape manner.
Masses of lymphoid tissue with the primary function of producing lymphocytes andhas a role in immunization4 in numbers. And formed the protective ring of waldeyerPalatine tonsils, lingual tonsils and pharyngeal tonsils
Clinical crown Anatomical crown Anatomical root (covered by cementum) Clinical root ( implanted and surrounded by the periodontium
Enamel: hardes calcified tissue covering the anatomical crowns of teeth Dentin: main bulk of the tooth underneath the enamel and cementum Cementum: calcified tissue that covers the anatomical root Alveolar bone: part of the jaw that forms the alveolar socket where the tooth is embeded Gingiva: a firm mucosa around the neck of the teeth Periodontal ligament is the fibrous connective tissue found between the roots of the teeth and alveolar bone.
Human facial development begins at approximately four weeks post conception with the appearance of the five processes, which surrounds the early oral cavity or the so called STOMODEUM. Frontonasa process Maxillary process (paired) Mandibular process (paired)
Development of the frontonasal process rapidly enlagres as the underlying forebrain expands into bilateral cerebral hemispheres Themandibular processes unite to provide continuity to the forbearer of the lower jaw and lip.
Medialand lateral nasal processes from within the enlarge frontonasal process to surround an early ectodermal thickening, the nasal placode.
Medial growth of the maxillary processes dominates subsequent development of the face resulting in contact then fusion with the lateral nasal processes.(forming nasolacrimal duct, cheek and alar base of future nose)
Further growth towards the midline pushes the lateral nasalprocesses superiorly and allows fusion of the maxillaryprocesses with the medial processess inferiorly merging themtogether in the midline to form:Central portion of the nose, upper lip philtrum and primarypalate.
The palatine shelves are forming from the maxillaryprocesses and are directed downward on each side of thedeveloping tongue.
Thetongue has been depressed and the palatine shelves are elevated but not fussed.
Fusion of the shelves and the nasal septum is completed.
Clefts of the lip and clefts of the palate can occur simultaneously or separately. Identify as primary or secondary. The primary palate includes: Lip and Alveolus The secondary palate includes: Hard palate, Soft palate, Uvula
Any cleft of the primary or secondary palate maybe complete or incomplete, depending on whetheror not the cleft involves the entire anatomic structure.Any cleft of the primary or secondary palate maybe unilateral or bilateral. Submucous clefts of the secondary palate may alsooccur.