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Spirochetes et.al.                         Spirochetes                        Mycoplasma                   Rickettsia & Ch...
Spirochetesx   Gram negative, motile,    x   Heterogenous group    long helical corkscrew        of motile organisms    ap...
Spirochetes      x Family Spirochaaetaceae ( free living, large        spiral organisms )      x Family Treponemataceae   ...
Treponema pallidum                   Subspecies           Disease                    Pallidum            Syphillis        ...
Characteristics of Treponema      x 0.2 um in diameter up to 15 um in length      x Actively motile, rotating steadily aro...
Culture      x Has never been cultured continuously on        artificial media, in fertile eggs, or in tissue        cultu...
Growth characteristics      x Microaerophilic organism      x Survives best with 1-4% oxygen      x Grows in a defined med...
Reactions & antigens      x Killed by drying or temperature elevation        (42 degrees)      x Immobilized and killed by...
Syphillis      x Acquired Syphillis      x Congenital Syphillis – 10th to 15th fetal week      x Nontreponemal antigen Tes...
Trivia      x Most common type of Syphilis is “Rabbit        Syphilis” caused by T.cuniculi      x Natural STD in rabbits ...
Microbiology HTL
Borrelia      x B. reccurrentis causes relapsing fever in        epidemic form      x Transmitted by the human body louse ...
Culture & Growth      x Cultured in media containing blood, serum,        tissue      x Rapidly loses pathogenicity for an...
B. burgdorferi      x Causes lyme disease ( named after the place        Lyme, CT )      x Isolated in children and transm...
Microbiology HTL
Leptospira & leptospirosis   x L. interrogans causes leptospirosis which is     a zoonosis of worldwide distribution   x C...
Culture, growth & antigens      x Grow best under aerobic conditions at        28-30 degrees in serum containing semi-    ...
Microbiology HTL
Mycoplasmax   lack of cell wall          x   also causes rhinitis -x   obligate intracellular         nose of chickens &  ...
Microbiology HTL
Rickettsia & Chlamydia: (1)x   Gram(-) bacteria which      x   R. typhi - endemic    used to be grouped w/           typhu...
Rickettsia & Chlamydia: (2)x   C. psittaci - psittacosis   x   Chlamydia has 2 cell    (parrot fever)                  typ...
Microbiology HTL
Microbiology HTL
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Module 8a spirochetes

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Transcript of "Module 8a spirochetes"

  1. 1. Spirochetes et.al. Spirochetes Mycoplasma Rickettsia & ChlamydiaMicrobiology HTL
  2. 2. Spirochetesx Gram negative, motile, x Heterogenous group long helical corkscrew of motile organisms appearance x Contains one outerx spirochete flagella - sheath of endoflagella glycosaminoglycansx aerobic & facultative x Contains series of anaerobes cytoplasmic tubulesx reproduce by transverse (body fibrils) fissionMicrobiology HTL
  3. 3. Spirochetes x Family Spirochaaetaceae ( free living, large spiral organisms ) x Family Treponemataceae – Genus Treponema – T. pallidum – Genus Borrelia – B. recurrentis – Genus Leptospira – L. interrogansMicrobiology HTL
  4. 4. Treponema pallidum Subspecies Disease Pallidum Syphillis Pertenue Yaws Endemicum Endemic syphilis ( Bejel) Carateum PintaMicrobiology HTL
  5. 5. Characteristics of Treponema x 0.2 um in diameter up to 15 um in length x Actively motile, rotating steadily around their endoflagella even after attaching to cells x Spirals are thin and only seen in immunofluorescent stain or darkfield microscopy x Can be stained with silver impregnation mtdMicrobiology HTL
  6. 6. Culture x Has never been cultured continuously on artificial media, in fertile eggs, or in tissue culture x Nonpathogenic treponemes ( Reiter Stain ) can be cultured anaerobically in vitro x They are saprophyticMicrobiology HTL
  7. 7. Growth characteristics x Microaerophilic organism x Survives best with 1-4% oxygen x Grows in a defined medium with 11 amino acids, vitamins, salts & serum albumin x Remain motile 3-6 days at 25 degrees, and in whole blood remain viable for at least 24 hours at 4 degrees  clinical significance in blood transfusionMicrobiology HTL
  8. 8. Reactions & antigens x Killed by drying or temperature elevation (42 degrees) x Immobilized and killed by trivalent arsenic, mercury & bismuth x Slow killing time with penicillin, sometimes tolerance is demonstrated x Not culturable = hard to characterize antigens = more than 100 antigensMicrobiology HTL
  9. 9. Syphillis x Acquired Syphillis x Congenital Syphillis – 10th to 15th fetal week x Nontreponemal antigen Test – (VDRL) x Treponemal Antibody test – Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody (FTA-ABS) – Particle Agglutination test – TP-PAMicrobiology HTL
  10. 10. Trivia x Most common type of Syphilis is “Rabbit Syphilis” caused by T.cuniculi x Natural STD in rabbits producing minor lesions in the genitalia x Moral of the story: Doesn’t pay to be too sexually active like the rabbit! ( Hooray for bugs bunny )Microbiology HTL
  11. 11. Microbiology HTL
  12. 12. Borrelia x B. reccurrentis causes relapsing fever in epidemic form x Transmitted by the human body louse x Highly flexible and move by rotation & twisting x Stain readily with blood stains ( Wright’s & Giemsa stain )Microbiology HTL
  13. 13. Culture & Growth x Cultured in media containing blood, serum, tissue x Rapidly loses pathogenicity for animal after repeated culture in vitro x Multiplication is quick in chick embryo x Can survive at 4 degrees in infected blood or cultureMicrobiology HTL
  14. 14. B. burgdorferi x Causes lyme disease ( named after the place Lyme, CT ) x Isolated in children and transmitted thru the bite of a small ixodes tick x Characteristic skin lesion, erythema migrans, along with flu like symptoms with late manifestations often with arthritisMicrobiology HTL
  15. 15. Microbiology HTL
  16. 16. Leptospira & leptospirosis x L. interrogans causes leptospirosis which is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution x Contains more than 260 serotypes x Tightly coiled spirochete and not easily stainable ( silver impregnation) x No traditional method of classification due to high heterogeneityMicrobiology HTL
  17. 17. Culture, growth & antigens x Grow best under aerobic conditions at 28-30 degrees in serum containing semi- solid media ( Fletcher’s or Stuarts media ) x Derives energy from oxidation of long chain FA & cannot use aminoacids and carbohydrates x Mainstream antigens are called serovars (many) with rodents & canine urine as main sourceMicrobiology HTL
  18. 18. Microbiology HTL
  19. 19. Mycoplasmax lack of cell wall x also causes rhinitis -x obligate intracellular nose of chickens & parasites & fermenters turkeysx colonies : fried egg x due to absence of cell appearance wall can squeeze thrux long spiral to perfectly small openings ,not round cocci filterable.x Mycoplasma pneumoniae – Penicillin & - atypical Streptomycin AbMicrobiology HTL
  20. 20. Microbiology HTL
  21. 21. Rickettsia & Chlamydia: (1)x Gram(-) bacteria which x R. typhi - endemic used to be grouped w/ typhus virus because of its size x R. rickettsi - Rockyx Chlamydia - 0.2 -0.7 u mountain spotted feverx Rickettsia - 0.3 - 1.0 u x Coxiella burnetti - Qx obligate intracellular fever parasites x Rickettsial diseases arex R. prowazekii - epidemic all systemic typhus x C. trachomatis -Microbiology HTL trachoma ( blindness)
  22. 22. Rickettsia & Chlamydia: (2)x C. psittaci - psittacosis x Chlamydia has 2 cell (parrot fever) types:x Rickettsial pathogens are – Chlamydiospore- carried by arthropods elementary body (lice, ticks, mites) – Vegetative cell -x chlamydia are from reticulate body human to human x most importantx rickettsia reproduce by substance needed by simple division both from host isMicrobiology HTL ATP
  23. 23. Microbiology HTL
  24. 24. Microbiology HTL
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