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Module 7   bacilli
 

Module 7 bacilli

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    Module 7   bacilli Module 7 bacilli Presentation Transcript

    • Bacilli Gram (+) non-spore forming Gram (+) spore forming Gram (-) bacilliMicrobiology HTL
    • Taxonomical Classification: x Gram (+) non-spore x Gram (+) spore formers: formers x Aerobic - Bacillus x Mycobacterium x B. anthracis x Corynebacterium x B. subtilis x gravis x Anaerobic-Clostridium x mitis x Intermedius x C. tetani x Lactobacillus x C. botulinum x Erysipelothrix x C. perfringens x ListeriaMicrobiology HTL
    • Taxonomical Classification: (2) x Gram (-) bacilli - Enterics x Citrobacter x Escherichia x Edwardsiella x Salmonella x Serratia x Shigella x Proteus x Klebsiella x Morganella x Arizona x Providencia x VibrioMicrobiology HTL
    • Small gram (-) bacilli x Bordatella x Hemophilus x Brucella x PasteurellaMicrobiology HTL
    • Mycobacterium: (1) x M. tuberculosis x Types: (Koch’s bacilli) x Human -man x long, slender, x Bovine - hogs & granular curved or cattle rounded end x Avian - birds x AFS (+), Gm (+) x Pathogenecity: no x *glycerine toxins produced x Lowenstein, x Productive Lesions Petroffs, Dorset’s , x Exudative Lesion CorpersMicrobiology HTL
    • AFS property of Mycobacterium: x Due to the presence of mycolic acid. x Mycolic acid gives M. tuberculosis many characteristics that defy medical treatment. x They lend the organisms increased resistance to chemical damage & dehydration. x Prevent the effective activity of hydrophobic antibiotics x Allows it to grow within macrophages which makes it resistant to the immune system actionMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Mycobacterium (2) x Types of tuberclosis x M. leprae ( Leprae bacilli, Hansen’s bacilli) x Primary infection x long, slender, usually x Reactivation TB straight, non-motile, x Millary TB grouped like cigarette x Diagnosis: packets x microscopic exam x Pathognesis: Leprosy x chest x-ray x Acute nodular x tuberculin test x Anesthetic or nerve x culture of sputumMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Mycobacterium (3) x M. leprae ( Leprae x transmission: bacilli, Hansens prolonged contact bacilli) x organisms found in x grouped like packet mucous membrane of cigarettes x diagnosis: Mitsuda, x leprosy: Lepromin test x acute nodular - x Stains: leproma x Ziehl Neelsen x anesthetic - nerve x Baumgarten leprosy x Papenheim’sMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Corynebacterium: (1)x C.diptheriae: Kleb x more in children Loefler’s bacilli x Pathogenesis: toxinx pleomorphic, globular, is absorbed -- club shaped, bard-shaped, destruction of cells -- irregular swelling & inflammatory staining ---Babe Ernst response -- formation bodies of pseudomembranex Gram (+), AFS (-) -- bleeding -- edemax Culture: BAP, Pai’s x Specimen : nose & Tellurite throat swabsMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Corynebacterium: (2) x Diagnosis: x Methods of x direct Acquired immunity microscopic exam x fetal transfer x culture x attack or x virulence test -in infection vivo & in vitro x Artificial x DPT vaccine: immunization Diptheria Pertussis from infection & Tetanus combinationMicrobiology HTL
    • Corynebacterium: (3) gravis mitis intermedius short in long , granular long , barred tellurite in tellurite in tellurite (-) hemolysis (+) hemolysis (-) hemolysis large colonies small colonies small colonies forms pellicle grows granular in broth diffusely sedimentsMicrobiology HTL
    • LACTOBACILLUS -Most species of this non-spore-forming bacterium ferment glucose into lactose, hence the name Lactobacillus. -The most common application of Lactobacillus is industrial, i.e. for dairy production. -This genus also contains several bacteria that make up part of the natural flora of the human vagina..Microbiology HTL
    • x Because of their ability to derive lactic acid from glucose, these bacteria create an acidic environment which inhibits growth of many bacterial species which can lead to urogenital infections. x Lactobacillus is generally harmless to humans, rarely inciting harmful infections or diseases. x Treatment of this vancomycin-resistant microbe usually consists of high doses of penicillin in combination with gentamicinMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • ERYSIPELOTHRIX x E. rhusiopathiae, the only species of this genus, is better known as a veterinary pathogen than as a human pathogen. x When cultured on blood agar or some other nutrient medium, Erysipelothrix forms notably large colonies. x This ubiquitous microbe has been found in many farm animals such as pigs, horses, and turkeys.Microbiology HTL
    • x Occasionaly, though, it can infect a human host and cause an inflammatory skin disease, Erysipeloid. x Treatment usually consists of penicillin G, ampicillin, or cephalothin. x Most clinical strains have been found to be resistant to the super-antibiotic, vancomycin.Microbiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • LISTERIA: x Gram-positive rod which is not capable of forming endospores. x Although several species of this bacterium exist, our discussion will focus only on the two species of human pathogenic significance: L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii. x In particular, L. monocytogenes has been implicated in several food poisoning epidemics. This is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract and of animal fecesMicrobiology HTL
    • x Infected suffers from vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. x Those at high risk include newborns, pregnant women and their fetuses, the elderly, and persons lacking a healthy immune system. x The bacterium usually causes septicema and meningitis in patients with supressed immune function. x Causes Listeriosis, an inflammation of the brain. x Antibiotics are recommended for treatment of infection because most strains of Listeria are sensitive to ampicillin and gentamicin.Microbiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Bacillus : (1) xcultural char.: x B. anthracis (anthrax x medusa head colonies bacillus) x inverted fir tree in stab x Gram (+) , aerobic, x Biochemical char.: central spore, motile, non-pathogenic except x ferment dextrose anthracis, thermophilic x indole is not produced x ends are concave or x gelatin is liquefied square, forms long x Note: Find differences chains, “jointed bamboo” with B. subtilisMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Bacillus : (2) x Anthrax - lesion like x Pulmonary - wool carbuncle, large , sorters disease black, necrotic x Intestinal x death due to x Specimen - blood, mechanical clogging swab w/ pus, of capillaries sputum, feces x Types: x Diagnosis: x Bacteremia - x direct microscopic blood x culture x Cutaneous - skin x animal inoculationMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Clostridium : (1) x C. tetani (tetanus or drumstick bacillus) x Diagnosis: x motile x culture x medium in length x secretion from x terminal spore lesion - BAP, x Thioglycolate broth Thioglycolate x pathogenesis: fever, x Prevention: pain , Lockjaw, x active immunity sardonic smile, with toxoid spasmMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Clostridium: (2) x C. botulinum (Von x Pathogenesis: Ermengen’s bacilli) x food intoxication x motile x food infection x long x food poisoning x subterminal spore x Culture of leftover x Culture: food or stool x Chopped meat x History of patient x BA mediumMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Clostridium: (3)x C. perfringens (C.welchii, x pathogenesis Frankel’s or gas x gas gangrene gangrene)x non-motile x food infectionx short x Diagnosis:x central spore x swab from lesionx Culture media: & culture x microscopic exam x same as C. botulinum x culture of pusMicrobiology HTL
    • Clostridium: (4) x Clostridium difficile: x Diarrhea, to marked x Causes diarrhea to necrosis of pseudomembrane mucosa colitis x Diagnosis x Relatively resistant to x Demonstrate most antibiotics neutralizeable toxin in stool x Produces cytopathic x Detecting enterotoxin toxins and enterotoxin by immunoassayMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Actinomyces israelii x Causes actinomycosis x Vary considerably in length x Maybe branched or un branched x Grows slowly, on agar some strains produce colonies similar to molar teeth x Sometimes confused with corynebacterium x Sensitive to penicillin & erythromycinMicrobiology HTL
    • Propionibacterium acne: x Normal flora of the skin but can cause disease when they infect shunt and appliances x On gram stain, highly pleomorphic x Participates in the genesis of acne x May contaminate blood and CSF once it penetrates the skinMicrobiology HTL
    • Eubacterium, Bifidobacterium & Arachnia: x These 3 genera are made up of anaerobic, pleomorphic, gram positive rods x There are several species x Are found in mixed infections associated with oropharyngeal or bowel floraMicrobiology HTL
    • Gram - Bacilli x Enteric Bacteria x Media: (Enterobacter family) found x Selenite broth in intestines of man & x Tetrathionate broth animals, parasitic & x Peptone saprophytic, mostly x Tryptone pathogenic x causes intestinal diseases & septicemic infections x produce Hydrogen sulfideMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Gram (-) bacilli x Plating media: x Indicators: x Desoxycholate, x Neutral red: Citrate Red/colorless x SSA, EMB, BAP x Phenol red: x McConkey, yellow/red Brilliant green x Andrades: pink/ colorlessMicrobiology HTL
    • Escherichia x Escherichia coli x found in the normal flora of GIT, outside the GIT it causes cystitis, peritonitis x index for food & water pollution x IMViC - ++-- x A.aerogenes - --++Microbiology HTL
    • x Qualitative analysis of water: x Organolytic - physical x Presumptive - lactose broth for gas x Confirmatory - EMB x Completed - RDS, TSI, KIAMicrobiology HTL
    • Salmonella x Salmonella typhosa x circular, small, smooth surface w/ even edge colonies x Indole (-), Citrate (+), no lactose fermentation, ferments glucose, maltoseMicrobiology HTL
    • Antigenic Structure: H-flagellar O-somatic Vi-capsular Widal’s Test: ^titer O - active infection ^titer H - post vaccination ^Vi -carrierMicrobiology HTL
    • Salmonella x Resistance: x killed at 60 degrees for 15 - 20 minutes x can survive whole winter, 7 days in well water x Typhoid & enteric fever- S.typhosa, S. para A, S. para BMicrobiology HTL
    • Salmonella x Characteristics in food x Paratyphoid fever - poisoning: no taste or S. paratyphosa smell, grow rapidly in x Gastroenteritis & meat, toxins resistant food poisoning - S. over 100 degrees, not derby, S. enteritidis destroyed with ordinary x Bacteremia, cooking septicemia- S. x Sources: water, milk & Cholrasuis dairy products, frozen eggs, meatMicrobiology HTL
    • Salmonella Shigella Motility non-motile motile Hydrogen positive negative sulfide Indol negative variable Citrate positive negative Mannitol non fermenter fermenterMicrobiology HTL
    • Microbiology HTL
    • Shigella x Shigella dysenteriae: x small, convex, circular, colorless, glistening colonies x non-lactose fermenter, body temp. , aerobic x ferment glucose, mannitol, citrate (-)Microbiology HTL
    • x Mannitol fermentation x (-) Indole x (-) S. dysenteriae x (+) S. ambigua x (+) Lactose x (-) Indole x (-) S. flexner x (+) S. boydii x (+) Indole x (-) S. sonneiMicrobiology HTL
    • Diagnosis : Stool exam, rectal swab -- culture in McConkey, SSA or EMB Pathogenesis: bacillary dysentery- abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, feverMicrobiology HTL
    • Arizona x Arizona hinshawii x SPACE x Gram (-) , motile, similar to Salmonella x FOR x Slow lactose x RENT!!! fermenter, sucrose & Indole (-) x IMViC - -+-+ x Pathogenesis: causes gastroenteritis or sepsisMicrobiology HTL
    • Klebsiella x Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. oxytoca or Friedlander’s bacilli) x short, Gram (-) , non- motile, posess thick capsule of polysaccharide, facultative anaerobes, killed at 55 degreesMicrobiology HTL
    • x Cultural char.: x large, mucoid colonies, tenaceous colonies, repeated culture loses capsule x Biochemical: x ferment lactose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol & salicin x IMViC - --++Microbiology HTL
    • x Pathogenesis: causes bacterial pneumonia, enteritis, Pharyngitis, sinusitis, septicemia, meningitis, peritonitis, UTI x Antigenic structure: x 72 capsular types x Type 1&2 - respiratory x Type 8,9,10 - UTIMicrobiology HTL
    • x Diagnosis: culture of stool, blood, urine, pus, CSF x other members: x K.ozanae-produce fetid odor & progressive atrophy x K.rhinoscleromatis - granuloma in nose & feverMicrobiology HTL
    • Providencia x Providencia ( morgani, retgerii, vulgaris & mirabilis) x Gram (-), pleomorphic, motile at 25 degrees, weak & non-motile at 31 x Biochem: urea (+), non lactose fermenterMicrobiology HTL
    • x Antigenic structure: x OxK Ag - Weil Felix Test -- (+) Ox2, Ox19 x Pathogenesis: (+) in stool, pneumonia & bacteremia, nosocomial infection x Diagnosis: culture urine, stool, lesion & sputumMicrobiology HTL
    • Vibrio x Vibrio cholera: small curved bacilli, comma- shaped, monotrichous, motile, aerobic, alkaline pH x pinpoint black glistening colonies x Biochem: ferment sugars, Indole (+), Greig’s Test (-)Microbiology HTL
    • x Pathogenesis: Asiatic cholera - incubation 2-5 days x Symptoms: x preliminary diarrhea x intense LBM,dehydrate exhaustion x face & skin shrinks x rice watery stool x comaMicrobiology HTL
    • x Strains of Cholera: x El tor x Diagnosis : x symptoms x Celebes strain x Rice watery stool x Camphylobacter x culture of stool fetus x Agglutination test x Gram stain x Biochemical test - Greig’s TestMicrobiology HTL
    • EDWARDSIELLA x Edwardsiella tarda is the only species in this genus of enteric bacteria which is important to our discussion. x E. tarda is biochemically similar to E. coli with the exception that E. tarda produces hydrogen sulfide. x This bacterium is usually found in aquatic animals and reptiles. However, it has been known to cause gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. xMicrobiology HTL
    • LABORATORY INDICATIONS x Lysine + x Hydrogen sulfide + x -/+ TSI reaction (with gas) x Indole + x Citrate -Microbiology HTL
    • CITROBACTER x Citrobacter is not considered to be an enteric pathogen because it is normal gut flora. x When plated, Citrobacter colonies bare a strong resemblance to E. coli colonies. x C. freundii is suspected to cause diarrhea and possibly extraintestinal infections. C. diversus has been linked to a few cases of meningitis in newbornsMicrobiology HTL
    • LABORATORY INDICATIONS: x Lysine - x Hydrogen sulfide + (C. freundii) x +/+ TSI reaction (with gas) x Citrate + x Slow ureaseMicrobiology HTL
    • SERRATIA x Members of the Serratia genus were once known as harmless organisms that produced a characteristic red pigment. x Today, Serratia marcescens is considered a harmful human pathogen which has been known to cause urinary tract infections, wound infections, and pneumonia.Microbiology HTL
    • x Serratia bacteria also have many antibiotic resistance properties which may become important if the incidence of Serratia infections dramatically increases. x Serratia can be distinguished from other genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae by its production of three special enzymes: DNase, lipase, and gelatinase.Microbiology HTL
    • LABORATORY INDICATIONS: x Lysine + x Citrate + x Indol - x +/+ TSI (No gas) x DNase +Microbiology HTL
    • PROTEUSx Proteus, like almost every other bacterium in this family, can cause urinary tract infections and hospital-acquired infections. Proteus is unique, however, because it is highly motile and does not form regular colonies.Microbiology HTL
    • x Proteus forms what are known as "swarming colonies" when plated on non-inhibitory media. The most important member of this genus is considered to be P.mirabilis, a cause of wound and urinary tract infections. Fortunately, most strains of P. mirabilis are sensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporins.Microbiology HTL
    • x Unlike its relative, P. vulgaris is not sensitive to these antibiotics. However, this organism is isolated less often in the laboratory and usually only targets immunosuppressed individuals. P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris can be differentiated by an indole test for which only P. vulgaris tests positive.Microbiology HTL
    • LABORATORY INDICATIONS: x Lysine - x Hydrogen sulfide + x Motile x UreaseMicrobiology HTL
    • MORGANELLA x Not much exciting going on here. Morganella morganii is the only important species of this genus. It can cause urinary tract and wound infections, as well as diarrhea. Chloramphenicol is a good choice for treating Morganella infections. x Indole + , Ornithine + x Citrate +Microbiology HTL
    • Pleomorphic Small Gram (-) bacilli: x group of short bacilli, Gram (-) , bipolar staining, “safety pin” x Bordatella pertussis (Bordet Gengon bacilli) x Bordatella parapertussis (Whooping cough)Microbiology HTL
    • x small, plump cocco- bacilli, non motile, possess capsule x Cultural char: Potato glycerol agar, acid pH, easily die when exposed to outside factors ( sunlight, drying)Microbiology HTL
    • x Pathogenesis: incubation- 2 weeks, caterrhal stage, explosive cough, lymphocytes (16-30000) x Symptoms: spasmodic cough, bulging eyes, red conjunctiva, emaciated childMicrobiology HTL
    • Hemophilus x Hemophilus influenza (Pfeiffer’s bacilli) x 8-9 species x small aerobic, non- motile, non-spore former x media requires blood & derivatives x seen in pairs or singlyMicrobiology HTL
    • x “satellite phenomenon” in BAP x Pathogenesis: capsulated forms produce suppurative respiratory infections: x sinusitis x laryngitis x epiglotitis x meningitisMicrobiology HTL
    • x H. ducreyi - (chancroid bacilli) x aerobic, 37 degrees, non-motile, seen in chains x no “ satellite phenomenon” x Transmisssion: direct contact w/ lesionMicrobiology HTL
    • x Pathogenesis: x cause chancroid x angry hyperemia x pustule--ulcer-- bubo x Diagnosis: x smear pus from lesion x Dmelco’s test x Ducreyi’s skin testMicrobiology HTL
    • Brucella x Brucella (abortus, melitensis, suis, canis) x non-motile, aerobic , obligate parasites to man, located intracellularly x Biochemical char: ferments CHO, Hydrogen sulfide (+)Microbiology HTL
    • x Resistance: sensitive to heat & acids , killed in milk by pasteurization x Pathogenesis: port of entry -- lymphatic channels -- thoracic duct -- blood streams - parenchymatous organMicrobiology HTL
    • x Diseases: x Brucellosis x Malta fever x Undulent fever x Diagnosis: x specimen - acute x Clinical findings: phase x Incubation period x blood culture - - 1-6 weeks -- TSB onset is incidious w/ fever, aches & x biopsy sweating, x Agglutination Test splenomegaly, x Skin test jaundiceMicrobiology HTL
    • Pasteurella, Yersinia & Francisella x Pasteurella , Yersinia & Francisella ( pestis, tularemia, multocida, enteritis) x short ovoid, plump, non- motile, prolonged incubation, pleomorphic x enrich- blood, tissue fluid, yolk sacMicrobiology HTL
    • x Biochemical char.: ferment CHO, w/out gas, catalase activity x Pathogenesis: rodent- rodent, rodent-man ----fleas x Types of plague: x bubonic, pneumonic x septicemic, cutaneousMicrobiology HTL
    • x Tularemia: x Oculoglandular x ulceroglandular x pneumonic x febrile systemic x Diagnosis: x culture x staining x serological testMicrobiology HTL