What were the four main causes that led to ‘The Great war’? Alliances Imperialism Militarism Nationalism (Bonus) The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Mutual DefenseAlliances Over time, countries throughout Europe made mutual defense agreements that would pull them into battle. Thus, if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1, the following allainces existed: Russia and Serbia Germany and Austria-Hungary France and Russia Britain and France and Belgium Japan and Britain
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia gotinvolved to defend Serbia. Germany seeing Russiamobilizing, declared war on Russia. France was then drawnin against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germanyattacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war.Then Japan entered the war. Later, Italy and the UnitedStates would enter on the side of the allies.
ImperialismImperialism is when a country increases their power andwealth by bringing additional territories under theircontrol. Before World War 1, Africa and parts of Asiawere points of contention amongst the Europeancountries. This was especially true because of the rawmaterials these areas could provide. The increasingcompetition and desire for greater empires led to anincrease in confrontation that helped push the world intoWorld War I.
You could easily say it is the mostimportant cause of WW1, because ithelped to create a build-up of tension inEurope and outside of Europe, andthrough imperialism, the three other causeswere able to affect the beginnings of thewar.
MilitarismAs the world entered the 20th century, an arms racehad begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatestincrease in military buildup. Great Britain andGermany both greatly increased their navies in thistime period. Further, in Germany and Russiaparticularly, the military establishment began to havea greater influence on public policy. This increase inmilitarism helped push the countries involved to war.
Arms RaceA competition between two or more partiesto have the best armed forces.The race was particularly serious between1900 and 1914, as the internationalsituation became much worse than before.
NationalismMuch of the origin of the war was based on the desire ofthe Slavic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to nolonger be part of Austria Hungary but instead be part ofSerbia. In this way, nationalism led directly to the War.But in a more general way, the nationalism of the variouscountries throughout Europe contributed not only to thebeginning but the extension of the war in Europe. Eachcountry tried to prove their dominance and power.
Pan-SlavismWas a movement in the mid-19th century aimed at the unity ofall the Slavic people. This idea was wildly popular with Russia,and to that end, many of Russias actions centered around that.For instance, Russia supported Serbia in WWI because ofpan-slavism; Russia also took control of other Slavic countriesfor this reason. The Soviet Union was basically the ultimateexpression of pan-Slavism.Austria-Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania ,Montenegro, Russia
Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand The immediate cause of World War I that made all the aforementioned items come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to mobilize due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances
The countries of the Allies includedRussia, France, British Empire, Italy,United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia,Belgium, Greece, Portugal andMontenegro
The countries of the Central Powersincluded Germany, Austria-Hungary,Turkey and Bulgaria
Triple EntenteTriple Entente, an informal alliance among Great Britain, France,and Russia in the period before World War I. It opposed the TripleAlliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The TripleEntente was based on three bilateral agreements. The Dual Alliance(1894) between France and Russia was a political and military alliance;each nation promised to support the other in the event of an attack byone or all of the members of the Triple Alliance. The EntenteCordiale (1904) settled a number of disputes between France andGreat Britain, clearing the way for closer Anglo-French cooperation.In 1907 Britain and Russia negotiated a similar agreement. AfterWorld War I broke out, the Entente powers signed a formal militaryalliance. They fought together until 1917, when Russia withdrew fromthe war
Battle of VerdumThe Battle of Verdun in 1916 was the longest singlebattle of World War One. The casualties from Verdunand the impact the battle had on the French Army was aprimary reason for the British starting the Battle of theSomme in July 1916 in an effort to take Germanpressure off of the French at Verdun. The Battle ofVerdun started on February 21st 1916 and ended onDecember 16th in 1916. It was to make General PhilippePetain a hero in France.
Battle of Verdun, 1916, resulted in over amillion casualties in ten months.The French were able to push back theGermans. The Germans and French wereboth left incredibly weakened and it tookthe arrival of the US later in 1917 tochange the tide of the war for the Allies.
Trench warfare - a type of warfare in whichopposing armies face each other inentrenched positionsTrenches were infested with millions ofrats, frogs and lice
LusitaniaLusitania - On May 7, 1915, the ship neared the coast ofIreland. At 2:10 in the afternoon a torpedo fired by theGerman submarine U 20 slammed into her side. Amysterious second explosion ripped the liner apart.Chaos reigned. The ship listed so badly and quickly thatlifeboats crashed into passengers crowded on deck, ordumped their loads into the water. Most passengers neverhad a chance. Within 18 minutes the giant ship slippedbeneath the sea. One thousand one hundred nineteen ofthe 1,924 aboard died. The dead included 128Americans.
The AmericansThe sinking of the Lusitania in 1915 helped bring the US into thewar. Germany’s invitation to help support the Mexican’s fight againstthe Americans also played a big role in the US joining the war.US entered the war on April 6, 1917.The U.S. was in the war in actual combat for only seven and a halfmonths during which time 116,000 were killed and 204,000 werewounded.To increase the size of the U.S. Army during WWI, Congresspassed the Selective Service Act, which was also known as theconscription or draft, in May 1917. By the end of the war, 2.7 millionmen were drafted. Another 1.3 million volunteered.
ArmisticeIn the context of the First World War thearmistice is generally referred to in contextof the agreement between the Germansand the Allies to end the war on November11, 1918.The Treaty of Versailles was the peacesettlement signed after WW1had ended.
WW1 factsWas known as the Great war before WW2 happened asit was supposed to be the war to end all warsMore than 65 million men from 30 countries fought inWWI. Nearly 10 million died. The Allies (The EntentePowers) lost about 6 million soldiers. The CentralPowers lost about 4 million. 21,219,452 were wounded.7,750,919 were made prisoners.Over 200,000 men died in the trenches of WW180,000 British troops suffered from shell-shockFirst Known use of chemical weapons (mustard Gas)
Russia faced more casualties than any other nation inWW1, their total casualties were 9,150,000.Russia mobilized 12 million men during the war; France 8.4million; Britain 8.9 million; Germany 11 million; Austria-Hungary 7.8 million; Italy 5.6 million; and the USA 4.3million.So, the total casualties of World War 1 were 37,508,686which makes 57.6% of the total troops that were mobilized.Hitler fought in ww1 in the German Army.10)Hitler wasn´t happy about the armistice which leftGermany destitute and lead to him gaining power soWW1 leads Into WW2...