What is poverty? The shortage of common things such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water It may also include the lack of access to opportunities such as education and employment It could be lack of choice: “Beggars cannot be choosers.”
What is poverty? It could also mean deprivation "to be poor is to be deprived of those goods and services and pleasures which others around us take for granted.“ It could mean social exclusion: process through w/c individuals or groups are wholly or partially excluded from full participation in the society in w/c they live.
What is poverty? Or if David Korten is to be believed, poverty also involves social disintegration and environmental degradation, which he describes as forming the threefold(line) human crisis in the world today.
Warning: The definition of poverty may differ relative to the norms of each particular society “The poor of different times & places differ between themselves in virtually every aspect of their conditions, just like the societies of w/c they are part. Who is cast in this way depends not on how the poor live, but on the way society as whole lives.” —Bauman 1999
The World Banks "Voices of the Poor," based on research with over 20,000poor people in 23 countries, identifies a range of factors which poor peopleidentify as part of poverty. These include: Precarious livelihoods Lack of security Excluded locations Abuse by those in Physical limitations power Gender relationships Dis-empowering institutions Problems in social relationships Limited capabilities Weak community organizations
What is poverty? Not only income, but also rights Social exclusion Multi-dimensional aspects of poverty
Who are the poor? The poor refers to individuals and families whose incomes fall below the official poverty threshold and/or cannot afford to provide for their minimum basic needs for food, health, education, housing, and other social amenities of life. Republic Act No. 8425 - Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act, passed by Congress in December 1997:
Causes of Poverty: Economic Historical factors—colonialism & neo- colonialism; post-communism (political economy) Economic factors Recession Shock to food prices
Causes of Poverty: Governance Lack of democracy Governance incompetence & corruption Weak rule of law Lack of peace & order
Contributory Factors Overpopulation Educational achievements & employable skills Cultural causes: pre-scientific beliefs Social discrimination: gender, race/ethnicity, age, disability, religious/political beliefs The Matthew Effect
The Matthew Effect It describes the phenomenon that "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer". Those who possess power and economic or social capital can leverage those resources to gain more power or capital. “For to all those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance; but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away.” —Matthew 25:29, New Revised Standard Version.
Effects of povertyEffective marginal rates of tax poverty The effects of poverty may also be causes, thus creating a "poverty cycle" operating across multiple levels, individual, household, local, national and global "set of factors or events by which poverty, once started, is likely to continue unless there is outside intervention." Sometimes called the “Poverty trap”
Relationship of Death Health & Poverty Sickness Spread of disease-causing microbes Weak resistance Homelessness/ UnsanitaryInadequate housing surrounding Malnutrition Illiteracy/Ignorance Poverty Unsustainable Lack of investment Economic inequality Family size
What is food threshold? Also referred to as the subsistence threshold or the food poverty line Refers to the minimum income/expenditure required for a family/individual to meet the basic food needs, which satisfies the nutritional requirements for economically necessary and socially desirable physical activities
What is poverty threshold(line)? Refers to the cost of minimum basic needs: food + non-food Refers to the minimum income/expenditure required for a family/individual to meet the basic food and non-food requirements
Human Development Index (HDI) An index used to rank countries by level of "human development", which usually also implies whether a country is a developed, developing, or underdeveloped country. It is claimed as a standard means of measuring human development—a concept that, according to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), refers to the process of widening the options of persons, giving them greater opportunities for education, health care, income, employment, etc.