Colonialism,Imperialism, and 19th century Africa
What does it all mean?Colonialism - the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial politicalcontrol over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploitingit economically.Imperialism - A policy of extending a countrys power and influencethrough diplomacy or military force.Colonialism can be thought to be a practice and imperialism as the ideadriving the practice.Metropolis - In the past, metropolis was the designation for a city orstate of origin of a colony
Scramble for AfricaWhy was Europe interested in Africa in the first place? gather scientific knowledge about the unknown. Europeans felt that there was a definite need to promote and convert Africans to Christianity. imperialism. a strong desire by European patriots to contribute to their country’s grandeur by laying claim to other countries in distant lands.economic, social, and political reasons
Economical issuesEuropeans believed that Africa was rich in natural resources, and oneof reasons for colonialism was the desire to gain control of Africas richnatural resources.Need for marketsEuropean colonial powers did not want to spend their own money toestablish and maintain their colonies in Africa. Rather, they insistedthat each colony (if at all possible) supply the revenues necessary togovern the colony.Commerce, Christianity, Civilization
Political - Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy,Portugal, and Spain were competing for power withinEuropean power politics. One way to demonstrate nationalpreeminence was through the acquisition of territoriesaround the world, including Africa.
DemographicsDemographic impact of colonialism encourages us to examine migrationpatterns Metropolis to the colonies colonies to the metropolis migration between different colonies within the empire
Hygiene - Formal education and modern medicine were brought topeople who had limited understanding or control of their physicalenvironment.Infrastructure - Apart from their shortage of skills and infrastructure,Africans lacked an appreciation of the total and complex nature of thetransformation from simple agrarian society to modern technologicalcivilization to meet their economic and administrative needs colonial powers built some infrastructure, like railway to carry export commodities, and they educated a few Africans to help them run the colonies.
Education - In most of colonial Africa, schools were staffed and run bymissionaries but subsidized in varying degrees by colonial governments,whose interest in missionary education was simply to ensure thatenough Africans were educated to meet the limited need for semiskilledworkers in colonial bureaucracies. Their primary concern was the conversion of people to Christianity Consequently, with limited government support, most African children did not go to school during the colonial era.
Religion - The missionaries had total control over the religiouscurriculum. Mission schools taught that the European presence inAfrica was to benefit the African people and to uplift them from a stateof barbarism. the little education that they got opened their minds and provided them with practical and intellectual skills they never had before Despite this, colonial education very often alienated young people from their own culture and undermined traditional authority. Gradually, African people began to acquiesce to colonial rule and to surrender the elements of their culture and traditionsEconomic