Power Power is the ability to influence the behavior of others to get what you want. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/51035629850@N01/522131312 On November 27, 2007, Fortune named Steve Jobs the most powerful person in business.
Positive and Negative Consequences of Power Conformity refers to people’s tendencies to behave consistently with social norms.
Milgram This is an illustration of the setup of a Milgram experiment. The experimenter (E) convinces the subject ("Teacher" T) to give what are believed to be painful electric shocks to another subject, who is actually an actor ("Learner" L). Many subjects continued to give shocks despite pleas of mercy from the actors. Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Milgram_Experiment_v2.png
Focal Line A B C Asch This is a sample item from the Asch study. Participants were asked one by one to say which of the lines on the right matched the line on the focal line on the left. While A is an exact match, many participants conformed when others unanimously chose B or C.
24 volunteers participated 18 randomly assigned role of prison guard Remaining 6 were picked up by actual police officers and taken to a prison created in the basement of Stanford psychology building Guards were instructed to keep order but received no training Prisoners began to feel depressed and helpless Guards began to be aggressive and abusive Original experiment was scheduled to last 2 weeks – ended in 6 days Zimbardo
Discussion Thinking about the Milgram and Zimbardo studies, do you think you would behave the same or differently in those situations? Explain.
The Relationship Between Dependency and Power Power
Bases of Power
Legitimate Bases of Power: Barack Obama Reward Power Elected 44th US President Coercive Power Expert Power Cabinet position appointments Information Power Military Commander-in-Chief Referent Power Briefed on national security issues Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_barack_obama This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. Individuals differ on these as he received 52% of the popular vote
OB Toolbox: Self-Assessment – Do You Have the Characteristics of a Powerful Influencer? People who are considered to be skilled influencers share the following attributes: How often do you engage in them? 0 = never 1= sometimes 2 = always _____ present information that can be checked for accuracy _____ provide a consistent message that does not change from situation to situation _____ display authority and enthusiasm (often described as charisma) _____ offer something in return for compliance _____ act likable _____ show empathy through listening _____ show you are aware of circumstances, others, and yourself _____ plan ahead If you scored 0-6: You do not engage in much effective influencing behavior If you scored 7-12: You engage in some influencing behavior If you scored 13-16:You have a great deal of influence potential
Direction of Influence Effective peer influence occurs when individuals are not destructively competitive. Upward influence is the ability to influence those in positions higher than yours. Downward influence is the ability to influence those in positions lower than yours.
Political Skill Political skill refers to a person’s interpersonal style, including their ability to relate well to others, self-monitor, alter their reactions depending on the situation, and inspire confidence and trust.
Organizations using functional structures group jobs based on similarity in functions Marketing Management Finance Accounting Human Resources Information Technology In organizations using divisional structures, departments represent the unique products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving Each unique product or service the company is producing will have its own department
STRENGTH OF CULTURE Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Walt_disney_portrait.jpg Walt Disney created a strong culture which survives today
Creating and Maintaining Organizational Culture Culture Maintenance Culture Creation Attraction-selection-attrition Founder values and preferences New employee onboarding Organizational Culture Early values, goals, assumptions Leadership Industry demands Reward systems
The social activism of Ben
and Jerry’s was instilled in the company because founders strongly believed in these issues
Social activism helped distinguish Ben and Jerry’s from larger corporate brands
The values were retained as part of the corporate culture and taught to new members as the right way to do business
Tradition is important at Mary Kay CosmeticsPink Cadillacs are given to top sales performers at large annual events. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MK_Cadillacs.jpg
Discussion Do you think it is a good idea for companies to emphasize person-organization fit when hiring new employees? What advantages and disadvantages do you see when hiring people who fit with company values?