The Stress Process In Selye’s General Adaptation Stress is the body’s Syndrome (GAS) model, stress reaction to a change that affects an individual in three steps: requires a physical, alarm, resistance and exhaustion. mental, or emotional adjustment or response.Resistance to Stress According to Gallup’s findings, 80% of Americans feel workplace stress at least some of the time. Alarm Resistance Exhaustion
The Stress ProcessAlarm Resistance Exhaustion When an When the body When the body outside begins to release has depleted its stressor jolts cortisol and draws stores of sugars the individual, on fats and sugar and fats, and the insisting that to find a way to prolonged release something adjust to the of cortisol has must be done. demands of stress. caused the stressor to significantly weaken the individual.
Workplace Stressors Role DemandsRole Ambiguity Role Conflict Role Overload• Vagueness in • Facing • Having relation to job contradictory insufficient time responsibilities demands at and resources to work complete one’s job
Workplace Stressors Top 10 Stressful JobsInformation 1. Inner City High SchoolOverload – The Teacherinformation 2. Police Officerprocessing demands 3. Mineron an individual’s 4. Air Traffic Controllertime to perform 5. Medical Interninteractions and 6. Stockbrokerinternal calculations 7. Journalistexceed the supply or 8. Customer Service /capacity of time Complaint Workeravailable for such 9. Secretaryprocessing. 10.Waiter
How Stressed are You?Part of the Holmes-Rache Scale: Life Event Points Life Event PointsDeath of spouse 100 Foreclosure of mortgage or loan 30Divorce 73 Change in responsibilities at work 29 Chance ofMartial separation 65 Son or daughter leaving home 29 StressJail term 63 Trouble with in-laws 29 relatedDeath of close family 63 Outstanding personal achievement 28 Points illnessmemberPersonal injury or illness 53 Begin or end school 26 <150 30%Marriage 50 Change in living 25 location/condition 150 -Fired or laid off at work 47 Trouble with supervisor 23 299 50%Marital reconciliation 45 Change in work hours or 20 conditions 300+ 80%Retirement 45 Change in schools 20Pregnancy 40 Change in social activities 18Change in financial state 38 Change in eating habits 15Death of close friend 37 Vacation 13Change to different line of 36 Minor violations of the law 11work
Work Outcomes Individuals who are able to find the right balance of not too much work challenge which spills into exhaustion and not too littleHigh work challenge which can signal apathy see increases in performance.Low Low High Stress
Individual Differences in Experienced Stress Type BType A • Tend to be calm,• High levels of and tend to think speed/impatience, through situations job involvement, as opposed to and hard-driving reacting emotionally
Individual Approaches to Managing Stress TheCorporate Flow Diet Athlete Create aExercise Social Sleep Support Network Time Management
Flow 10% of 20% of managers managers are High Focus engage in disengaged at purposeful work work 40% of 30% of managers are Low Focus managers are distracted at procrastinators work Low Energy High EnergyA key to flow is engaging at work, yet research shows that mostmanagers do not feel engaged in purposeful work.
Designing Work That Flows Challenge Meaningfulness Competence Choice
Time ManagementTime management is defined as the development of tools ortechniques that help make us more productive when we work.There are online utilities to help us accomplish this. This is anexample of output from a RescueTime user(www.rescuetime.com), which is free to use. Source: Used by permission from RescueTime.
Organizational Approaches to Managing Stress Make Expectations Clear Give Employees Autonomy Create Fair Work Environments Telecommuting Employee Sabbaticals Employee Assistance Programs
Discussion• Whose responsibility do you think it is to deal with employee stress – the employee or the organization? Why?
EmotionsDesired Event Positive Emotions • Joy • Love • Surprise Undesired Event Negative Emotions • Anger • Fear • Sadness
Emotional Contagion Frustration Customer carries to argues next with you customer Customer You argue leaves in a back huff
Emotions Affect Attitudes and Behavior at Work Affective Events Theory (AET) explores how events on the job cause Anger Fear different kinds of people to feel different emotions. Affect driven behaviorSadness Joy occurs when emotions trigger you to respond in a certain way Burnout is ongoing Love Surprise emotional state resulting from dissatisfaction
Emotional Labor Surface Acting Displaying physical signs, such as smiles, that reflect emotions (without actually feeling the emotions). Deep Acting Pretending to experience emotions. Genuine ActingDisplaying emotions that are aligned with emotions that are actually felt.
Emotional LaborWhen it comes to acting, Employeethe closer to the middle of Personalitythe circle that your actionsare, the less emotional Genuinelabor your job demands. ActingThe further away, the moreemotional labor the jobdemands. Deep Acting Surface Acting
Emotions And EthicsJoshua Green’s Experiment: Scenario 1 Scenario 2 A trolley is racing A trolley is racing down a track, down a track, about to kill five about to kill five people. You have people. You can the ability to steer push a large man the trolley onto onto the tracks, another track, which will save where it will only the other five. kill 1 person. Most felt this was OK – the lesser Most felt the sacrifice was of two evils. emotionally wrong.
Lack of Leisure Time andStress around the Globe• 40% of Americans do not plan to take a vacation within the next year.• Americans have 16.5 hours of leisure time per week after their work and household obligations are fulfilled.• Some Japanese employees work an average of 236 hours more per year than their American counterparts and 500 more than employees in France or Germany.• Many Europeans take the month of August off.
Communication is Vital in OrganizationsCommunication is a process bywhich information is exchangedbetween individuals through acommon system of symbols, signs,or behavior50-90% of a manager’s time isspent communicatingSuccess on complicated missions atNASA depends on strong Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Orion_briefing_model.jpgcommunication
Three Main Functions of CommunicationTransmission of InformationCoordination of EffortSharing Emotions andFeelings
The SenderOriginates and Encodes the Message Translates the idea into words The Medium of this encoded Message may be spoken words, written words, or signs The Receiver is the person who receives the Message The Receiver Decodes the Message Assigns meaning to the words
Due to NOISE, the meaning which the Receiver assigns may not be the meaning which the Sender intendedNoise is anything that interferes with ordistorts the Message being transferred
Barriers to Effective Communication Workplace Selective Semantics & Filtering Gossip & Perception Jargon Grapevine GenderInformation Emotional Differences in Differences in Overload Disconnects Communication Meaning Lack of Source Biased Familiarity or Language Credibility
Avoiding Biased Language Avoid Consider Usingblack attorney attorney businessman businessperson chairman chair or chairpersoncleaning lady cleaner or maintenance worker male nurse nurse manpower staff or personnel secretary assistant or associate
Consequences of Poor ListeningLower Employee The Receiver’s ability Productivity to listen effectively is equally vital to Missed Sales effectiveDissatisfied communication. CustomersLowered Morale Listening takesIncreased practice, skill, and concentration. Turnover
Active Listening Listen for message contentParaphrase Listen forand restate feelings Respond to Note all cues feelings
Communication Freezers Communication stoppers: criticizing, blaming, ordering, judging, or shamingThings to avoid saying: Telling the other person what to Giving insincere praise do Psychoanalyzing the other Threatening with “or else” person implied Making light of the other Making suggestions or telling the person’s problems by other person what they ought to generalizing do Asking excessive or Attempting to educate the other inappropriate questions person Making light of the problem Judging the other person by kidding negatively
Verbal Communication and the Power of Storytelling Stories can help clarify key values and help demonstrate how things are done within an organization Story frequency, strength, and tone are related to higher organizational commitment
Crucial ConversationsRequire more planning, reflection, and skille.g., Asking for a raisee.g., Pitching an innovative proposal Stakes are high - Opinions vary - Emotions run strong
Even More Ways to Improve Your Listening Habits SummarizePrepare and Be Don’t What You’ve Receptive Anticipate Heard Seek Empathize with Focus and Clarification By the Sender’sDon’t Multitask Asking Point of View Questions Focus on the Pay AttentionEstablish Eye Goal With an to What is Not Contact Open Mind Said
Written Business Communication The Printed Word Memos Proposals Emails Letters Training manuals Operating policies
Nonverbal Communication It’s what you don’t say…55% of in-person 7% of a communication Receiver’s comes from 38% is based on comprehension nonverbal cues paralanguage or of a Message is like facial the tone, pace, and based on the expressions, volume of speech Sender’s actualbody stance and words tone of voice
Body language Eye contact Facial expression Posture Touch SpaceFactors of Nonverbal Communication
Don’t Use That Tone With Me! Changing your tone can dramatically change your meaning.Placement of the emphasis What it might mean…I did not tell John you were late. Someone else told John you were late.I did not tell John you were late. This did not happen.I did not tell John you were late. I may have implied it.I did not tell John you were late. But maybe I told Sharon and José.I did not tell John you were late. I was talking about someone else.I did not tell John you were late. I told him you still are late.I did not tell John you were late. I told him you were attending another meeting.
Information Channel Information RichnessInformation Richness Face-to-face High conversation Videoconferencing High Telephone conversation High Emails Medium Handheld devices Medium Blogs Medium Written letters and Medium memosSelecting the best Formal written Lowcommunicationmedia is an documentsexecutive skill Spreadsheets Low
Decisions: Verbal or Written Communications? Verbal communications are a better way to convey feelings Written communications do a better job of conveying facts
Guide for When to Use Written versus Verbal Communication Use Written Communication Use Verbal Communication When: When: conveying facts conveying emotion and feelings the message needs to become the message does not need to be part of a permanent file permanent there is little time urgency there is time urgency you do not need immediate you need feedback feedback the ideas are simple or can be the ideas are complicated made simple with explanations
Email and EmotionsEmotionally-laden messages requiremore thought in the choice of channel and how they are communicated Email communication can convey factsquickly yet it is not a recommended choice for sending emotional information
Communication flows in many different directions within an organization
Frequent communicationis related to better jobperformance ratings andorganizationalperformance External Others Superiors 23% 14% Internal Others 17% Who managers spend time communicating with at work Subordinates 46%
Forms of External Communication Press Releases Catalogs Advertisements Customer Web pages Letters
Manage Your Communication WiselyDo you properly useonline communications? Be aware of remarksIs your outgoing that voicemail greeting FREEZE COMMUNICATON professional?Do you scrutinize your social networking Make a conscious effort to reduce Don’t criticize, comments that blame, order, website? stop effective judge or shame communicationHave you Googled yourself lately?
Conflict Intrapersonal Interpersonal Intergroup Conflict within a Conflict between Conflict thatperson. It arises two people. takes placewhen a person is among different uncertain about groups, betweenwhat is expected a union and or wanted, or management, or has a sense of betweenbeing inadequate companies, such to the task. as companies that supply the same customer.
Is Conflict Always Bad? High Performance Low Low High ConflictThe inverted U relationship between performance and conflict.
Causes of Conflict Task Incompatible Interdependence Goals Limited Personality Resources DifferencesOrganizational Communication Conflict Structure Problems
Outcomes of Conflict Negative Positive• Increased stress and anxiety • Consideration of a broader among individuals, which range of ideas, resulting in a decreases productivity and better, stronger idea creativity • Surfacing of assumptions that• Feelings of being defeated may be inaccurate and demeaned, which lowers • Increased participation and individuals’ morale and may creativity increase turnover • Clarification of individual• A climate of mistrust, which views that build learning hinders the teamwork and cooperation necessary to get work done
Is Your Job at Risk for Workplace Violence?Job Characteristic ExampleCaring for others either nursing homeemotionally or physicallyInteracting with frustrated retail salescustomersSupervising others managerDenying requests others customermake of you service
Is Your Job at Risk for Workplace Violence? Job Characteristic Example Dealing with valuables or exchanging banking money Handling weapons law enforcement Working with drugs, alcohol, or those bartending under the influence of them Working nights or weekends gas station attendants
Ways to Manage ConflictChange the Structure Change the Composition of the Team Create a Common Opposing Force Consider Majority Rule Problem Solve
Level of Cooperation Conflict Handling Styles High Accommodation Collaboration Compromise Avoidance Competition Low Low High Level of Competitiveness
Conflict Handling Styles • “I don’t think there’s any problem. I feel fine Avoiding about how things are.” • “If it’s important to you, I can go along withAccommodating it.” Compromise • “Maybe we can both agree to give a little.” • “This is what I want, and I am going to fight Competition for it.” • “Let’s look at the bigger picture and find out Collaboration how we can both get what we want.”
Discussion• Do you deal with conflict differently with friends and family than you do at work? If so, why do you think that is?• Describe a situation in which not having enough conflict can be a problem.
The Five Phases of Negotiation Investigation Determine your BATNA Presentation Bargaining Closure
Determining your BATNAB est “If you don’t know whereA lternative you’re going, you will probablyToa end up somewhere else.” - Lawrence J. PeterN egotiatedA greement
Negotiation StrategiesDistributive Integrative ApproachApproach • An approach to• The traditional fixed- negotiation in which pie approach in which both parties look for negotiators see the ways to integrate their situation as a pie that goals under a large they have to divide umbrella. between them.
Avoiding Common Mistakes in Negotiations Failing to Letting your egonegotiate/accepting get in the way the first offerHaving unrealistic Getting overly expectations emotional Letting past negative outcomes affect the present ones
Tips for Negotiation Success Focus on agreement first Be patient Whose reality? Deadlines Be comfortable with silence
When All Else Fails: Third Party NegotiationsThird party Mediation Arbitrationnegotiationsare intended tohelp avoid aformal trial orhearing. Other Resolution Methods
When All Else Fails: Third Party Negotiations Mediation Arbitration Arbitration-Mediation• An outside third • A process that • An arbitrator party (the involves bringing in makes a decision mediator) enters a third party, the and places it in a the situation with arbitrator, who has sealed envelope. the goal of the authority to act Both parties then assisting the as a judge and work through parties to reach an make a binding mediation. If they agreement. decision to which cannot reach an both parties must agreement, the adhere. arbitrator’s decision becomes binding.
When All Else Fails: Third Party NegotiationsAs a last resort, judges resolve conflicts. The Supreme Court of the USA isthe highest court in America and consists of nine justices: Chief JusticeRoberts (bottom center) and the 8 associate justices (left to right) Alito,Kennedy, Scalia, Thomas, Sotomayor, Stevens, Ginsburg, and Breyer.
You Know It’s Time for a Mediator When… Personal The parties differences The parties Obtaining a are unable to are standing have stopped quickfind a solution in the way of talking with resolution is themselves a successful one another important solution
Ethics and Negotiations Be honest Keep your promises Follow the Platinum Rule. Most people know the Golden Rule…the Platinum Rule takes it one step further by, “Treating others the way they want to be treated.”
Negotiations Around the GlobeCountries have different thresholds for conflict. Low Threshold (prefer Higher Threshold harmony) (conflict is acceptable) Japan America Korea Germany