The Virtual Cathedral and the Virtual BazaarPresentation Transcript
The Virtual Cathedral and the Virtual Bazaar By Reina Y. Arakji and Karl R. Lang at City University of New York COM548 Fall 2009 Pei-chieh Chen
The Cathedral and the Bazaar by Eric Steven Raymond Cathedral market-based production of closed source systems Bazaar loosely open source systems
Open and Closed Innovation Models In the Virtual World Users’ participation high-quality game environment Non-predictable Predictable users behavior Open source Closed source Second Life World of Warcraft
Formulating Innovation Strategies for Building Virtual Worlds
“ Choosing the proper level of openness when integrating peer production and social sharing into the business model is crucial for designing effective innovation strategies. ” - Arakji and Lang
Impact on current institutions “ Collective action in turn challenges existing institutions, by eroding the institutional monopoly on large-scale coordination.” – Clay Shirky Challenges: (1)The old limits on sharing information were the first thing to change. (2)Rapid and simple group formation. (3)Removing obstacles to collective action. For example, geography has been a core factor for forming groups, now it is not.
Failure For Free While many projects are proposed and started in the open source system, only a few ever get completed. “ Open source doesn’t reduce the likehood of failure; it reduces the cost of failure.” – Clay Shirky
Arakji and Lang- best strategy is to combine open and closed
approaches to innovating, developing, and managing virtual world
Clay Shirky- Communal interest tuned out to be a better predictor
of longevity than commercial structure.
Questions (1)Are there any features or strength in a closed source model what can't be found in a open source model? (2)Does "failure for free" allow people to be failed more than motivate people to succeed? References: Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2007). The Virtual Cathedral and the Virtual Bazaar. The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems : a Quarterly Publication of SIGBIT. 38 (4), 32-39. Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Press.