The Clean Water Act
    by Paula K. Worden
for Education 6305 Summer 2010
What is the Clean Water Act (CWA)?
The CWA is
the primary
 federal law
  governing
water quality
  in the US
Goal of the CWA is to eliminate
the release of highly toxic substances
      into America's waterways
= Eliminating Water Pollution
So What Does the CWA Cover?
All waters with a
   "significant
      nexus"
  to "navigable
     waters"
What does that mean?
Case Law Says




waters of the United States,
including the territorial seas
What does that mean?
Intermittent Streams



            a stream that
            only flows
            for part of the
            year
Playa

 a desert basin
 with no outlet
     which
periodically fills
 with water to
     form a
temporary lake
Lakes
Prairie Potholes

                      a small
                   wetland that
                      can be
             ...
Sloughs




A slough is a low-lying area of land that
channels water through the Everglades
Wetlands




A wetland is an area of land in which soil is saturated
   with moisture either permanently or seasonally
Streams & Rivers
Oceans
So the CWA covers just about
        anything with water.
What kind of pollution does it regulate?
Point Sources


Pollution that
can be traced
to a definitive
source
Like What?
Industries & Manufacturing
Mining




         Acid Mine Drainage
Oil & Gas Extraction
Agricultural Runoff
The CWA Also Covers
        Nonpoint Sources

Nonpoint sources of pollution are toxic
 substances and the origin is almost...
Like What?

             Stormwater
             Runoff
Municipal Wastewater
How does the CWA
protect against pollution?
Through permits
& water quality standards
What are Water Quality Standards?

 Rules set by states (approved by EPA)
that determine the levels of pollution that
    ...
How do states determine how much
pollution a body of water can take?
Each stream has a designated usage

Like
Recreation
Water Supply
Aquatic Life
Agriculture
What happens if a body of water
        does not meet
  Water Quality Standards?
What happens if a body of water
        does not meet
  Water Quality Standards?



      Placed on the 303(d) list
What happens if a body of water
        does not meet
  Water Quality Standards?



      Placed on the 303(d) list



   ...
303(d) List
the section of law covering bodies of water that do
         not meet Water Quality Standards
What is a TMDL?

= Total Maximum Daily Load
The equation that says how much
pollution can go into a stream everyday
So Why does the US have a
    Clean Water Act?
=A series of
environmental
disasters in the
   late 60’s
and early 70’s
In 1969, bacteria levels in the Hudson
 River were at 170 times the safe limit
The FDA
    reported in
 February 1971
 that 87 percent
   of swordfish
  samples had
    mercury at
levels that were
unfi...
Cuyahoga River Catches Fire




Near Cleveland, OH, a floating oil slick burst into flames
1969 Lake Thonotosassa Fish Kill




    26 million killed in Lake Thonotosassa, FL,
 due to discharges from four food pro...
By 1972 two-thirds of the country's lakes, rivers and
  coastal waters had become unsafe for fishing or
           swimmin...
Does the Clean Water Act Work?
Even after 30 years of
regulation, water
pollution is still a big
problem in the U.S.
Today...
Clean Water Successes?


   In 1997, (The 25th Anniversary of the CWA) more
  than 60 percent of the nation's waters now s...
But we still have a long way to go!
References:
1. How Did the Clean Water Act Get Started http://drake.marin.k12.ca.
us/stuwork/rockwater/The%20Clean%20Water...
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Pworden Cleanwater Act[1]

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An overview of the Clean Water Act. Overview statutes and regulations as well as history.

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Pworden Cleanwater Act[1]

  1. 1. The Clean Water Act by Paula K. Worden for Education 6305 Summer 2010
  2. 2. What is the Clean Water Act (CWA)?
  3. 3. The CWA is the primary federal law governing water quality in the US
  4. 4. Goal of the CWA is to eliminate the release of highly toxic substances into America's waterways
  5. 5. = Eliminating Water Pollution
  6. 6. So What Does the CWA Cover?
  7. 7. All waters with a "significant nexus" to "navigable waters"
  8. 8. What does that mean?
  9. 9. Case Law Says waters of the United States, including the territorial seas
  10. 10. What does that mean?
  11. 11. Intermittent Streams a stream that only flows for part of the year
  12. 12. Playa a desert basin with no outlet which periodically fills with water to form a temporary lake
  13. 13. Lakes
  14. 14. Prairie Potholes a small wetland that can be found in the grasslands of central North America
  15. 15. Sloughs A slough is a low-lying area of land that channels water through the Everglades
  16. 16. Wetlands A wetland is an area of land in which soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally
  17. 17. Streams & Rivers
  18. 18. Oceans
  19. 19. So the CWA covers just about anything with water. What kind of pollution does it regulate?
  20. 20. Point Sources Pollution that can be traced to a definitive source
  21. 21. Like What? Industries & Manufacturing
  22. 22. Mining Acid Mine Drainage
  23. 23. Oil & Gas Extraction
  24. 24. Agricultural Runoff
  25. 25. The CWA Also Covers Nonpoint Sources Nonpoint sources of pollution are toxic substances and the origin is almost impossible to trace
  26. 26. Like What? Stormwater Runoff
  27. 27. Municipal Wastewater
  28. 28. How does the CWA protect against pollution?
  29. 29. Through permits & water quality standards
  30. 30. What are Water Quality Standards? Rules set by states (approved by EPA) that determine the levels of pollution that go into bodies of water (sewage, stormwater, etc.)
  31. 31. How do states determine how much pollution a body of water can take?
  32. 32. Each stream has a designated usage Like Recreation
  33. 33. Water Supply
  34. 34. Aquatic Life
  35. 35. Agriculture
  36. 36. What happens if a body of water does not meet Water Quality Standards?
  37. 37. What happens if a body of water does not meet Water Quality Standards? Placed on the 303(d) list
  38. 38. What happens if a body of water does not meet Water Quality Standards? Placed on the 303(d) list TMD L
  39. 39. 303(d) List the section of law covering bodies of water that do not meet Water Quality Standards
  40. 40. What is a TMDL? = Total Maximum Daily Load The equation that says how much pollution can go into a stream everyday
  41. 41. So Why does the US have a Clean Water Act?
  42. 42. =A series of environmental disasters in the late 60’s and early 70’s
  43. 43. In 1969, bacteria levels in the Hudson River were at 170 times the safe limit
  44. 44. The FDA reported in February 1971 that 87 percent of swordfish samples had mercury at levels that were unfit for human consumption.
  45. 45. Cuyahoga River Catches Fire Near Cleveland, OH, a floating oil slick burst into flames
  46. 46. 1969 Lake Thonotosassa Fish Kill 26 million killed in Lake Thonotosassa, FL, due to discharges from four food processing plants
  47. 47. By 1972 two-thirds of the country's lakes, rivers and coastal waters had become unsafe for fishing or swimming. Untreated sewage was being dumped into open water.
  48. 48. Does the Clean Water Act Work? Even after 30 years of regulation, water pollution is still a big problem in the U.S. Today, 39% of the rivers, 45% of the lakes, and 51% of the estuaries monitored are contaminated
  49. 49. Clean Water Successes? In 1997, (The 25th Anniversary of the CWA) more than 60 percent of the nation's waters now support fishing and other uses, and while the U.S. population grew considerably since 1972, modern wastewater treatment facilities helped pollutant levels in the nation's waters fall 36 percent.
  50. 50. But we still have a long way to go!
  51. 51. References: 1. How Did the Clean Water Act Get Started http://drake.marin.k12.ca. us/stuwork/rockwater/The%20Clean%20Water%20Act/History%20and%20stories.html 2. Wikipedia. The Clean Water Act. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Water_Act 3. NOW with Bill Moyers. A Brief History of the Clean Water Act. http://www.pbs.org/now/science/cleanwater.html 4. Wikipedia. Mountain Top Removal. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Mountaintop_removal_mining 5. Wikipedia. Intermittent Stream. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stream 6. Wikipedia. Playa. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Playa 7. US Forest Service. Wetlands Non-Tidal Marshes: Prairie Pothole http://www.fws.gov/r5mnwr/lotw/wl-pothole.html 8. Wikiapedia. Wetlands. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wetland
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