Chapter 7 sp11

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Chapter 7 sp11

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Deriving Energy From Food
  2. 3. <ul><ul><li>Both plants and animals perform cellular respiration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The waste products of cellular respiration, CO 2 and H 2 O, are used in photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Storing and Releasing Energy Where Does The Energy Come From? Figure 7.1
  4. 5. Redox Reactions – pg. 125 <ul><li>Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons pass from one molecule to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The molecule that loses an electron is oxidized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The molecule that gains an electron is reduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both take place at same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One molecule accepts the electron given up by the other </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  6. 7. Cellular Respiration – pg. 127 <ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration is the process by which cells acquire energy by breaking down nutrient molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is an aerobic process (pg. 127) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Cellular Respiration Overview <ul><li>Stages of Cellular Respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis (“sugar splitting”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Stage 1: Glycolysis <ul><ul><li>Glycolysis means “splitting of sugar” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A molecule of glucose (C 6 ) is split into two molecules of pyruvate (pyruvic acid C 3 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP produced per glucose </li></ul></ul></ul>six-carbon glucose Three-carbon pyruvic acid
  9. 10. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  10. 11. Stage 2: Krebs Cycle <ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria – aerobic process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turns twice per glucose molecule (one for each pyruvate) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms coenzymes NADH and FADH 2 which serve as electron carriers = 2 ATP (one per acetic acid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as the Citric Acid Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  12. 13. Stage 3: Electric Transport Chain (ETC) <ul><ul><ul><li>Electron transport releases the energy your cells need to make most of their ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a H + gradient = As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins through the chain, energy is released in the form of ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of electrons = 32 – 34 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  14. 15. Cellular Respiration Overview <ul><li>Stages of Cellular Respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose to 2 pyruvate = 2 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzymes NADH and FADH 2 = 2 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain (ETC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of electrons = 32 – 34 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. ATP from Cellular Respiration
  16. 18. Overall Energy Yield <ul><li>Net yield per glucose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From glycolysis – 2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From citric acid cycle – 2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From electron transport chain – 32 or 34 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy yield (36 ATP) 263 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency is 39% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rest of the energy from glucose is lost as heat </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Fermentation: Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>If O 2 is not available to the cell, fermentation , an anaerobic process , occurs in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During fermentation, glucose is incompletely metabolized to lactate, or to CO 2 and alcohol (depending on the organism). – pg. 130 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yields 2 ATP </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. FERMENTATION <ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens in muscle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Fermentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens in some bacteria and YEAST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>brewing, wine making, and baking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ethyl alcohol & CO2 </li></ul></ul></ul>http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/34874-howstuffworks-show-episode-5-fermentation-video.htm
  19. 22. Metabolic Pool <ul><li>Foods are sources of energy rich molecules such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Degradative reactions ( catabolism ) break down molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be exergonic (release energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthetic reactions ( anabolism ) build molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be endergonic (consume energy) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 24. Comparing Aerobic & Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Pathways **NOTICE – Aerobic respiration is more efficient!! 2 36 Net ATP production: Ethanol + CO 2 or lactic acid 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O 1 glucose makes: Mostly yeast and bacteria Most organisms Occurs in: Anaerobic Aerobic
  21. 25. Comparing Photosynthesis & Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Equation CO 2 and H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 and O 2 Products C 6 H 12 O 6 and O 2 CO 2 and H 2 O Reactants Mitochondria Chloroplasts Location Energy Release Energy Storage Function Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis

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