Introduction: The Everglades Originally, covered approximately 4000 mi2 In 1947, the area was drained with 1400 mi of canals to make room for agricultural and urban developmentOnly 50% remains Decline in water quality due to loss of wetlands that act as filter for polluted waters Problems: decreased bird populations, hypersalinity and water level drops
Comprehensive EvergladesRestoration Project Focus on aqueous phosphorous removal and creating new wetlands Ground-level ozone is most important plant-toxic air pollutant Plants in wetland climate are at greater risk to adverse ozone concentrations Environmental degradation will lead to decreased tourism and fishing, causing an adverse impact on the local economy In the US, O3 is responsible for an estimated $500 million in reduced crop production each year
Ozone Formation Ozone not emitted, but formed Tropospheric ozone formation occurs when precursors, like nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere photochemically Where do the precursors come from? Motor vehicle and fossil fuel combustion Industrial emissions Chemical Solvents Biogenic VOCs
Formation… Precursors often originate in urban areas, but winds can carry them hundreds of kilometers, causing ozone formation to occur in less populated regions as well. OH + CO → H + CO2 H + O2 → HO2 HO2 + NO → OH + NO2 NO2 + hν → NO + O O + O2 → O3
Importance Ozone is powerful oxidizer… It ATTACKS!!! Ozone Damaging materials, human health and plants, especially the Everglades and its sensitive species
Monitoring Objectives of NPS Provide data to help scientists Collect air quality data Identify air quality trends Assist modeling efforts, regional pollution and transportation studies, State Implementation Plan development and national air quality control strategies NPS Monitoring Sites Provide timely NPS air quality information to the public and researchers.
Monitoring Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (GPMP) Jointly operated with the EPA through CASTNet Ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring studies in national parks have been ongoing since the early 1980s Most NPS ozone monitoring locations are operated by the NPS in parks identified as mandatory Class I areas. Related NPS ozone monitoring includes special studies programs using passive samplers, portable O3 monitors and enhances multi-pollutant analyzers
How is Ozone Monitored? Within the National Parks System: Air Atlas GIS database of air quality estimates for 270 parks that are part of the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program. These estimates can be used when on-site monitoring data is not available. Ozone Monitoring Ozone has been continuously monitored at Everglades NP since 1986. Portable Ambient Ozone Monitor
Monitoring Procedure UV–absorption analyzer, a transfer standard, a weather station including wind speed, wind direction, temperature at two heights, solar radiation, relative humidity, and a wetness sensor. Additionally stacked filter-pack Park staff operate the stations Contractor maintains and calibrates the network equipment Data are transmitted nightly, validated, and archived. Hourly data files are transferred to the EPA Air Quality Systems database and are available on the web.
Data Type Details Access DataMetadata what, where, and when monitors have operated in national parks Monitoring History Database ozone and sulfur dioxide (for a limited number of parks) hourly Interactive Data QueryNPS Gaseous Pollutant & Meteorology concentrations; wind speed and direction, temperature, relative – includes summary tables and humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, and wetness at NPS sites plots ozone hourly concentrations, meteorology, and filter-pack data atCASTNET data CASTNet website all CASTNet sites current on-line scenic views, ozone, PM2.5, and/orReal-time Scenic and Air Quality Conditions Web Cameras meteorological data current 1-hour average ozone concentration, wind speed and Current Ozone & WeatherCurrent Ozone & Weather Data direction, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and Data rainfall for NPS sites (available May - September only) current health advisories, available May - September Health AdvisoriesHealth Advisories Ozone Health Advisory ozone health advisory summaries Summaries park list of ozone standard exceedances by month and yearOzone Standard Exceedances Ozone Standard Exceedances (2000 - present) map of current ozone data at NPS sites (available May - EPA AIRNow - Air QualityCurrent Map of Ozone Data September only) IndexCriteria Pollutants & Meteorology ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead, EPA Annual Summary Tables PM10, PM2.5, and meteorology annual summaries
Environmental Effects: OzoneEffects on Plants Symptoms: tissue collapse, interveinal necrosis, markings on the upper surface of leaves Concentration of tropospheric ozone in rural areas is higher compared to urban areas, posing a phytotoxic risk to crop Healthy and natural vegetation Uptake of ozone is coupled with the gas exchange of a plant Readily transpiring plants grown under moist soil conditions are more susceptible to ozone than plants grown Chlorotic Mottling under a slight drought stress
Environmental Effects: GrowthResponsesPlant growth is often stunted, flowering and bud formation is depressedOzone has been shown to reduce growth and development of some coniferous tree species.Plants showed premature senescencePremature senescence causes shortening the vegetative phase and reducing the general vitality of the plantOzone usually attacks nearly mature leaves first; progressing to younger and older leavesThere is a diverse reaction pattern of wet grassland species to ozone
Environmental Effects:Everglades Example It has been observed that needles from native slash pine trees at Everglade National Park show chlorotic mottle, similar to that exhibited by many conifers, and that such injury was generally related to a higher percentage of cell necrosis compared with needles without symptoms Ozone experiments on slash pine seedlings concluded that exposure to chronic levels of ozone resulted in growth reductions (measured in such parameters as stem diameter, height, and biomass)
New EPA Regulations In January, EPA proposed to reduce the primary standard to between 0.060 and 0.070 ppm Also, to establish a seasonal “secondary” standard (7-15 ppm-hour) to protect sensitive vegetation and ecosystems Once non-attainment designations take effect, the state government has three years to develop implementation plans outlining how areas will attain and maintain the standards by reducing air pollutant emissions contributing to O3 concentrations. Primary Standards Level Averaging Times0.075 ppm (2008) 8-hour 0.08 ppm (1997) 8-hour 0.12 ppm 1-hour
Florida State Implementation Plan Clean Air Act goes into effect prior to the submission of the state plan in December 2013. Requires new source review and transportation conformity in non-attainment areas Current state regulations to reduce precursor pollutant emissions Clean Air Interstate Rule will greatly reduce Non-attainment counties nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants. EPA emission control rules for new automobiles will reduce Nox emissions over the next several years Control of gasoline vapor emissions, like VOCs, from gas stations beginning in 2010.
Biogenic EmissionsDerived from natural sourcesMust be accounted for in photochemical grid models, as most are widespread and ubiquitous contributors to background air chemistryTypically computed using a model whichutilizes spatial information on vegetations,land use, environmental conditions,temperature and solar radiationNOx Control Currently, being installed at all major coal- fired power plants in the state and is will be operating in spring of 2010. NOx Control Device
VOC Abatement ApproachSystem design and the choice of control technologies require consideration of many factors: Regulatory agency preferences and biases Physical and operational constraints of the plant Comparative capital and operating costs of the abatement system Generation of secondary pollutants during the process of controlling the VOCs Ease of operation and maintenance Capabilities and responsiveness of the vendor
VOC Control DevicesAdsorption using carbon or other materialsBiofiltrationCondensationThermal oxidationUltraviolet light oxidationWet scrubbing Example of VOC control devicesVarious combinations of the above, including concentrators
Summary The Everglades is a rich, biodiverse and historic ecosystem that is unique to the world and is extremely important to Florida Due to over development and pollution, the Everglades is in peril Recently, legislation has been pushed to restore the Everglades, but its focus is on water resources Tropospheric ozone is very harmful to natural and agricultural plants The extent of the damage is not well understood Monitoring and control techniques exist Current regulations are beginning to force the implementation O3 control
Future WorkMost research has been conducted on plant and tree species of commercial valuesLittle is known about the impacts of ozone on biodiversity and ecosystemsIn rapidly developing areas, O3 concentrations are expected to increase
ConclusionsThe Comprensive Everglades Restoration Plan, a nearly $10 billioncollection of projects, focuses exclusively on water resourcesNew research has shown that tropospheric ozone has very harmfuleffects on plantsThe rich biodiversity and location of the Everglades makes it verysusceptible air pollutionApart from the environmental effects, the damage will haveadverse effects on the local economy, due to decreased commercialfishing, agricultural production and tourism
Practice Quiz Questions1) List three VOC control devices. Go Gators!!! Biofiltration Condensation Thermal oxidation Ultraviolet light oxidation Wet scrubbing2) List three effects of tropospheric ozone on plants. Tissue collapse, Interveinal necrosis, Markings on upper surface of leaves Reduced growth and development Depressed flowering and bud formation Premature senescence
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