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Cloud2Bubble: Enhancing Quality of Experience in Mobile Cloud Computing Settings
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Cloud2Bubble: Enhancing Quality of Experience in Mobile Cloud Computing Settings


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In recent years the mass adoption of mobile devices and increasingly ubiquitous connectivity have contributed to a radical change in the way people interact with computer systems. Moreover cloud …

In recent years the mass adoption of mobile devices and increasingly ubiquitous connectivity have contributed to a radical change in the way people interact with computer systems. Moreover cloud computing infrastructures have paved the way for the development of smart systems in such settings, whose goal is to provide a service to enhance user experience based on environment and user sensed data. In this context, there is a clear disconnection between the two streams that flow continuously between user and cloud-based systems. On the one hand, user- and environment-generated data is being, for the most part, disregarded by service providers. On the other hand, services offered do not address users’ specific needs and preferences. In addition, service discovery is a cognitive demanding process and it may have detrimental consequences in user experience. In this paper we propose a user-centric framework that addresses the disconnection between these two streams: Cloud2Bubble. The framework facilitates the design and development of smart systems. It aims at leveraging existing technology, such as environment sensors and personal devices, to aggregate localised user-related data - defined as a bubble - into the cloud. This aggregation later supports the delivery of personalised services, contextually relevant to users. The delivery of services with such characteristics has the potential to enhance quality of experience and influence user behaviour. A first iteration of the platform was developed and an evaluation in a simulated environment was performed with encouraging results. Thus, the platform will be further expanded for instantiation and evaluation in the context of urban public transports. We intend to investigate the effects of relevant service delivery in terms of enhancement of quality of experience and influencing user behaviour. The delivery of a service with these characteristics presents benefits for both users and service providers.

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  • 1. Cloud2Bubble:Enhancing Quality of Experience inMobile Cloud Computing SettingsPedro Maurício Costa Mobile Cloud Computing & ServicesIntelligent Systems and Networks Lake District, 25 June 2012
  • 2. IntroductionCloud2Bubble Framework • Smart Environment • Cloud2Bubble interaction loopDomain of Application • Application on Urban Public Transport • ScenarioPlatform Architecture • Domain Management • Rule Engine • ReasonerExperiment in Public TransportConclusion
  • 3. IntroductionPervasive Computing• miniaturisation of devices• modern communication networks• Internet of ThingsHuman Computer Interaction• shift in paradigm: from PCs to multiple portal-like devices• increases the opportunities to interact with users• Affective Computing, making systems empathicSmart Environments• making human interaction with the system a pleasant experience• enhance Quality of Experience
  • 4. IntroductionMain Data Streams • user & environment generated • service offering, excessive at times • excessive choice may be detrimental to UX and frustrating Collection of Data Service Offering
  • 5. Cloud2Bubble Cloud 2 Bubbleabstract computing infrastructure user-centric, local *-as-a-Service composed of devices and services aggregates data streams collects user and environment data generates individual profiles delivers relevant services action generation and selection
  • 6. Cloud2Bubble FrameworkContinuous loop of interaction between user and system • leverages existing technology and context • integrates emotional contextDelivery of personalised services • enhancing Quality of Experience • influence user behaviourCriteria for service offering • environment conditions • user preferences • system goal
  • 7. Cloud2Bubble: Smart SystemSmart System• collects user and environment data• assesses its current state• generates and selects actions• acts on the environment accordinglyWorld Modelling Decision Making• high-level events• environment model• user profiling World ModellingDecision Making Hardware• imprecise and incomplete data Environment Action• fuzzy reasoning Perception Execution
  • 8. Cloud2Bubble: Interaction Loop user data collection stream Aggregation Environment User State Profile Disaggregation personalised service delivery stream
  • 9. Domain of ApplicationUrban Public Transport • need for Intelligent Traveller Information Systems • equipped modern networks (sensors, info) • large user base with idle time • potential to enhance Quality of Experience • benefits for both users and providersScenario • Maria: daily commuter • has reported noisy journeys • actual journey noise levels recorded • noise levels decrease journey QoE • journey alternatives ranked accordingly • notification of a better alternative
  • 10. Platform Architecture Decision Making Fuzzy Reasoner Rule Engine World Modelling Domain Manager Hardware Environment Action Perception Execution
  • 11. Domain ManagerManages devices and low-level environment state • simple Event-Condition-Action rules • policy-based behaviour specification • propagation of events to the next layerPonder2 • software framework for ubiquitous systems • facilitates heterogeneous component management • adapts to users’ activity or environmentPublic Transport • integrates existing the information system • manages sensors and other environment devices • integrates Maria’s smartphone
  • 12. Rule EngineSupport for complex rule definition • adds complex event and temporal reasoning • generates actions to take based on system goals, environment conditions and user profilesJBoss Drools • shares the world model on a high-level with Domain Manager • hybrid chaining rule engine, Rete-based • builds a network based on the rules, fast-processingPublic Transport • environment update: selects travellers to notify • generates actions to take
  • 13. Fuzzy ReasonerDeals with imprecise and fuzzy data • validates actions to be delivered • improves the decision making processFuzzy Inference System • deals with approximate reasoning • inference over imprecise or incomplete datePublic Transport • validates actions generated for each user • adapts user profiles given new user updates Environment User Profile User QoE Fuzzy Rules State (inputs) (Fuzzy Set) Evaluation Fuzzification Defuzzification
  • 14. Cloud2Bubble in Public TransportPublic Transport • world model based on sensors and other environment devices • contributes to build a user profile in relation to environment • allows for the identification of (un)comfortable journeysTravellers’ interactions • user reports identify (un)comfortable journeys subjectively • is notified accordingly to her preferencesBenefits for both travellers and service providers
  • 15. Policy-based Behaviour SpecificationPolicy-based action generation • User profile • Environment conditions • System goalsIdea of approaching system goals and individual behaviourPolicy example: lowering carbon-emissions • high-level goals transformed into low-level behaviour • persuade users to change habits » reduction of CO2 emissions » tailored user influencing
  • 16. Experiment in Public TransportCollection of environment and user data • sensor data from smartphone • feedback from user • relationship between environment and user • integration of emotion into the loopExperiment in Porto, Portugal • 2 week (beginning of June) • 10 travellers • 135 journeys • 30h of sensed dataEarly findings • Found the concept very interesting • Would use in return for this valuable service • Users don’t feel the app intrusive
  • 17. ConclusionCloud2Bubble • generic smart platform • user-centric • systemic • applied to Public TransportOffer services for enhancing Quality of Experience • focus on interaction with user • emotion dimensionPolicy-based computing • bringing together high- and low-level dimensionsNext steps • continue the development of Cloud2Bubble • establish the relationship between emotion and QoE
  • 18. Thank youPedro Maurício Systems and Networks