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# Geometric design Taxiways

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### Geometric design Taxiways

1. 1. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! 1 1 Dr. Antonio A. Trani Professor of Civil Engineering Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University February 25, 2009 Blacksburg, Virginia ! CEE 4674 Airport Planning and Design Geometric Design I Addendum 1
2. 2. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Organization of this Presentation •  Geometric design standards for runway exits •  Examples •  Design rationale for taxiways and taxilanes 2
3. 3. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Geometric design Standards for Runway Exits •  Sources: •  FAA AC 5300-13 (Chapter 3) •  ICAO Aerodrome Manual Volumes 1 and 2 •  Design principle: •  Provide ample space for aircraft to maneuver out of the runway •  Make the runway exits easily identifyable 3
4. 4. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Right-Angle Exits •  Baseline centerline radius is 250 feet •  Pavement edge radius varies according to runway width 4
5. 5. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Sample Implementation (ATL) 5 R = 250 feet! Runway! (150 feet wide)! Parallel Taxiway! 90 degree! Runway Exit! Source: Google Earth!
6. 6. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! 45 Degree Angle Runway Exit •  Nominal 800 feet centerline radius •  600 feet pavement edge radius •  Old design – FAA has dropped diagram from AC 5300-13 6
7. 7. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Issues with 45 Degree Runway Exits •  Narrow width at tangency point (only 40 feet) •  Only useful for busy general aviation airports •  Since the FAA has dropped discussion of this design in the latest releases of the AC 5300-13 the geometry should be use with caution •  The 30 degree standard design seems to be favored in case peak operations exceed 30 per hour 7
8. 8. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Acute Angle or High-Speed Runway Exit 30 Degree (Old Standard) •  Nominal 1800 feet centerline radius •  1600 feet pavement edge radius 8
9. 9. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Acute Angle or High-Speed Runway Exit 30 Degree (New Design) •  Nominal 1400 feet centerline spiral •  Can use the FAA computer program AD42.exe application for design (companion computer program to AC 5300-13) •  See example on page 48-1 in Chapter 4 of AC 5300-13 9
10. 10. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Specification of a High-Speed Runway Exit •  x-y coordinates of centerline •  Left and right offset distances from the centerline 10
11. 11. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Specification of High-Speed Runway Exit 11
12. 12. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Example in AC 5300-13 (see page 48-1 in FAA AC 5300-13) 12
13. 13. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Example Problem in AC 5300-13 13
14. 14. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Example Problem in AC 5300-13 14
15. 15. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Explanation •  The intersection angle is negative (-30 degrees) so this turn is to the left •  The offsets (both right and left) decrease as a function of station length to make the transition the runway exit width from 150 to 75 feet •  The centerline angle increases from zero at the start of the runway exit point to 30 degrees as required by the geometry •  The steering angle provides a measure of how much effort is required by the nose gear to keep with the centerline geometry 15
16. 16. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Example Implementation (ATL) 30 Degree Angle Runway Exit 16 Source: Google Earth! 1400 foot spiral! Runway! (150 feet wide)! Parallel Taxiway! 250 feet radius ! reverse geometry! 800 feet radius!
17. 17. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Issues with 30 Degree Runway Exits •  The FAA recommends a minimum runway-taxiway separation of 600 feet for High-Speed runway exits •  Some airport have used 30 degree runway exits with down to 400 feet (avoid!) •  The result is low exits speeds and possible issues with busting hold lines •  Be careful and try to provide the minimum 600 foot recommended distance •  Limited pilot visibility while crossing active runways 17
18. 18. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Sample Limited Visibility on High-Speed Runway Exit 18 Final turning angle at hold line = 30 degrees!
19. 19. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Example of Limited Visibility due to Short Runway-Taxiway Distance 19
20. 20. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Airbus A340-600 Visibility from Cockpit 20 Source: Airbus!
21. 21. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Example of Limited Visibility Driven by Hold Line Location 21 •  Before the aircraft nose reaches the hold line, the aircraft wingtip violates the hold line distance!
22. 22. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Taxiway-Taxiway Junctions •  For dimensions consult FAA 150/5300-13 Table 4-2 22
23. 23. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Table 4-2 in AC 5300-13 Taxiway Fillet Dimensions 23
24. 24. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Taxiway-Taxiway Junctions 24 •  Sample solution shown for ADG VI •  For other groups consult FAA 150/5300-13 Table 4-2
25. 25. CEE 4674 – Airport Planning and Design (copyright A. Trani)! Sample Junction 25