Brazil's Copyright Reform

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Slides of my talk at UCLA, Feb. 18, 2011

http://orgs.law.ucla.edu/JILFA/SYMPOSIUM/Pages/Default.aspx

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Brazil's Copyright Reform

  1. 1. Intl. IP Law & the 21st Century: Willthe Developing World Lead or Follow? Brazils Copyright Reform: Lost Chance? Pedro Paranaguá Duke University www.PedroParanagua.net @PedroParanagua UCLA, Feb. 18, 2011
  2. 2. table1. TRIPs flexibilities (no WCT/WPPT)2. Brazils Copyright Act 1998: TRIPs-plus3. why?4. Brazils copyright reform
  3. 3. after lunch !?
  4. 4. i hope that . . .
  5. 5. which are the TRIPs standards ?
  6. 6. TRIPs-pluslife + 50
  7. 7. TRIPs-pluslife + 50life + 70
  8. 8. TRIPs-plus33
  9. 9. TRIPs-plus33 -- 83
  10. 10. TRIPs-plus33 -- 83 = 50 years
  11. 11. TRIPs-plus33 -- 83 = 50 years + 70 years
  12. 12. TRIPs-plus33 -- 83 = 50 years + 70 years = 120 years
  13. 13. TRIPs-pluspromote whos creativity ?
  14. 14. TRIPs-pluspromote whos creativity ?
  15. 15. TRIPs-pluspromote whos creativity ?
  16. 16. TRIPs-plus 1904 – 1989
  17. 17. TRIPs-plus 1940 – 1993
  18. 18. TRIPs-plus publisher ? author or record label ?whos the owner ?
  19. 19. TRIPs-plus$15 bi. surplus
  20. 20. TRIPs-plusfor the same reason
  21. 21. TRIPs-pluslife + 50
  22. 22. TRIPs-plus $27,204 Brazils Central Bank (2008)copyright royalties flow (in $1,000)
  23. 23. TRIPs-plus $27,204 $2,359,143 Brazils Central Bank (2008)copyright royalties flow (in $1,000)
  24. 24. TRIPs-plusreproduction for archival purposes
  25. 25. TRIPs-plusreproduction for archival purposes
  26. 26. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)
  27. 27. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)no archival / preservation
  28. 28. restritividade da lei brasileira
  29. 29. restritividade da lei brasileira
  30. 30. restritividade da lei brasileira
  31. 31. TRIPs-plusshifting from one format to another
  32. 32. TRIPs-plusshifting from one format to another
  33. 33. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)
  34. 34. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)format shifting
  35. 35. restritividade da lei brasileira out of print
  36. 36. TRIPs-plusreproduction of out-of-print works
  37. 37. TRIPs-plusreproduction of out-of-print works
  38. 38. TRIPs-plus 2 years out of printauthorized full reproduction (Art. 53(2)4(b))
  39. 39. TRIPs-plusUSP – Social Science 30% out of printFGV – Business School 45% out of print P. Ortellado & J. Machado, “Direitos autorais e o acesso às publicacões científicas”, Revista Adusp 37, ago. 2006
  40. 40. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)
  41. 41. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)out-of-print works
  42. 42. TRIPs-plusreproduction for educational purposes
  43. 43. TRIPs-plusreproduction for educational purposes
  44. 44. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)
  45. 45. TRIPs-plusL&E (Art. 13 TRIPs)educational purposes
  46. 46. TRIPs-plusArt. 46. It shall not violate copyright:II – the reproduction not for profit, of small excerpts, in a sole copy, for the private use of the person making the copy, provided it is made by her/himself
  47. 47. TRIPs-plus
  48. 48. what do publishers say ?
  49. 49. there is (mis)information
  50. 50. TRIPs-plus ABDRAssociação Brasileira de Direitos Reprográficos
  51. 51. TRIPs-plusno anti-circumvention
  52. 52. TRIPs-plusno anti-circumventionDRM (TPM)
  53. 53. onlyMicrosoft Windows (WMA/DRM) Apple (“fair”play/DRM)
  54. 54. TRIPs-plusidea–expression dichotomy
  55. 55. not TRIPs-plusidea–expression dichotomyidea–expression dichotomy
  56. 56. why ?
  57. 57. Brazils Copyright Act 1998
  58. 58. Brazils Copyright Act 1998 drafting 1988
  59. 59. 1980sdeficit US trade balance
  60. 60. 1980sdeficit US trade balance IP
  61. 61. 1980sdeficit US trade balance$43-61 bi. illegal copies 1980-87: $27 bi. surplus $138 bi. deficit
  62. 62. 1986-94 Uruguay Round GATT – WTO IP + trade (?)
  63. 63. US happy ?
  64. 64. + + + +
  65. 65. bilaterals . . .
  66. 66. unilateral . . .
  67. 67. royalties flow Brazil US 1994: $161 mi. + 645% 2004: $1.04 bi.
  68. 68. special 301any interested person
  69. 69. special 301 1988: $39 mi. tariff penalties against BRAconcerned BRA + India lead block against TRIPs
  70. 70. special 301BRA filed complain against US; which withdrew the measure in 1990BRA “faced a long battle searching for justice in a trade system which was more about power than about playing by the rules” (Drahos with Braithwaite 2003)
  71. 71. special 301 1989: report from MPAA + IIPA BRA, India, Mexico, China, Egypt, Korea, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan + Thailand
  72. 72. special 301 2001-2006 BRA“priority watch list”
  73. 73. special 301IIPA report Feb. 11, 2008
  74. 74. special 301relatório da IIPA de 11.02.2008
  75. 75. special 301 Nacional Copyright Forum (Dez. 2007) Ivana Crivelli: lawyer, 1st VP ASPI, member Copyright Committee OAB/SP Vanisa Santiago: VP Inter-American Institute of Copyright (IIDA) Ícaro Martins: Pres. Association of Film Makers (Apaci) César Costa Filho: composer & lawyer, founder Student Artistic Movement (MAU), Pres. Copyright Defense Association (ADDAF) & ex-pres. Brazilian Union of Writers (UBC)
  76. 76. special 301relatório do USTR de 2006
  77. 77. IIPA
  78. 78. special 301relatório da IIPA de 12.02.2007
  79. 79. special 301 IIPA report Feb. 18, 2010 only 25%what about US fair use ?
  80. 80. GNU/Linux
  81. 81. IIPA prefers “piracy”
  82. 82. “piracy”problem or market strategy ?
  83. 83. Microsoft Windows US BRAMS Windows Vista MS Windows Vista Business Full Business Full + + MS Office MS Office Professional 2007 Professional 2007 = = $634.98 BRL$2,298.00 www.amazon.com 27.11.2007 www.submarino.com.br 27.11.2007
  84. 84. Microsoft Windows US BRAMS Windows Vista + Office MS Windows Vista + Office = = $634.98 BRL$2,298.00 $634.98 $1,255.73 (BRL$1.83 = $1)
  85. 85. Microsoft WindowsPedro de Paranaguá Moniz: “Software Livre como Alternativa de Desenvolvimento e de Negócio: em busca da soberanianacional”,Juruá, in “PI: estudos em homenagem à Prof. Maristela Basso”, sob coord. Patrícia Carvalho, ago. 2005
  86. 86. Microsoft WindowsBaseado em “First Annual BSA and IDC Global Software Piracy Study”, de 2004. Cf. http://www.bsa.org/globalstudy/
  87. 87. network effect
  88. 88. special 301 IIPA report Feb. 18, 2010totally ignores MJs initiative
  89. 89. Lawrence Lessig “With the confirmation of the [copyright] reform, youll have the most progressive copyright law in the world”http://bcufrgs.blogspot.com/2010/02/lessig-reforma-autoral-dara-ao-brasil.html
  90. 90. then . . .
  91. 91. who else ? ? ?
  92. 92. MinC
  93. 93. to worsen
  94. 94. lost chance ?
  95. 95. balance between authors +owners / industry + society
  96. 96. investment <> A2K1. economic reason for IP: innovation, creativity & social welfare;2. if rigid or ill formulated: stifle innovation, creativity & access Joseph Stiglitz, IP rights and wrongs, 16 ago. 2005
  97. 97. obrigado / thank you ! Pedro Paranaguá pedro.paranagua@duke.edu

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