Effect of nucleophile on rate ofsubstitutionThe electron density of the nucleophile affects the rate ofsubstitution.- Anions are more reactive than neutral molecules.Reactivity depends on how easily the nucleophile candonate electrons- N is less electronegative than O Rate of Reaction CN- > OH- > NH3 > H2O
Effect of R-X on rate of substitutionRate of substitution is fastest when the leaving halide ionis iodine and slowest when the leaving halide ion isfluorine. WHY?
Effect of R-X on rate of substitutionRate of substitution depends on whether thehalogenoalkane is primary, secondary or tertiary. 1o Rate of SN2 Rate of SN1 Reaction 2o Reaction Increases Increases 3o
Effect of nucleophile on rate ofsubstitutionThe concentration of the nucleophile affects the rate ofSN2 substitution but not SN1.