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Bringing Nature Home

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Doug Tallamy's presentation from PEC's November 2012 Invasive Plant Symposium.

Doug Tallamy's presentation from PEC's November 2012 Invasive Plant Symposium.


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  • Pest control services
  • 5 times more species
  • 22 times fewer caterpillars in the invaded habitats. That is the carrying capacity of these hedgerows is 22 times les than in the uninvaded habitats.
  • Sumac flea beetle
  • And a family of chickadees in my backyard is a good example.
  • All day long they bring caterpillars back to their nest
  • Both male and female forage
  • And bring food back about every three minutes
  • All were taken from the trees in our yard
  • Sometimes they bring two caterpillars at a time
  • Sometimes more than two
  • And they do that from 6:00 AM till 8 pm
  • Some were brown
  • Some were green
  • All are collected from trees within 50 m of the nest
  • 570 for 16 days is over 9000 caterpillars
  • Now most of the trees on our property are young maybe 15’ tall
  • Let’s assume there are 25 caterpillars on this tree. (when I search I found about 5).
  • A carolina chickadee weighs 0.35 oz
  • Standard ErrorLawn = +/- 0.012 These landscapes have 98.9% less tree biomass than the mature woodlots that used to be in that space.Alien Species = +/- 0.015Alien Plants = +/- 0.016Invasive = +/- 0.012
  • But think of your non-native plants as statues. How many statues do you want in your yard?
  • Yellow shouldeedr slug
  • Wavy-lined heterocampa
  • Lunate Zale
  • Long wing daggermoth
  • Interrupted dagger moth
  • Hickory tussock moth
  • Spiny oak caterpillar
  • Banded hairstreak
  • Yellow-necked caterpillar
  • The bride
  • This is the ultimate celebration of mulch; not of plants
  • We could save those leaves, rake them into our flowerbeds.
  • Blinded sphinx
  • Hummingbird sphinx
  • Snowberry clearwing
  • Spice bush swallowtail requires 3 leaves to reach maturity
  • What do humans need to exist? A place to live and something to eat. What do animals need?
  • The earth produces a finite amount of resourses
  • The more resources humans use, the fewer are left for the rest of life
  • Every time we add a human to th earth, we need more ecosystem services, not fewer
  • So this
  • And this …are not an option
  • Transcript

    • 1. Bringing Nature Home Doug Tallamy
    • 2. Top 10 Voter ConcernsEconomy 80%Health Care 66%Gov’t Corruption 66%Taxes 58%Energy Policy 52%Education 61%Social Security 60%Immigration 45%National Security 52%Afghanistan 35%
    • 3. Biodiversity losses are a clear signalthat humanity’s life support systems are failing.
    • 4. What isbiodiversity? What is biodiversity ?
    • 5. Everyspeciesonearth
    • 6. Each species has a specificfunction in its ecosystem, and there is much redundancy in healthy ecosystems.Several species do the same job.
    • 7. Whydo we needbiodiversity?
    • 8. Biodiversity is essential to ecosystems because it: Increases stability Increases productivity Decreases susceptibility to biotic invasions David Tilman, Peter Price, Don Strong
    • 9. Plants and animals are the rivetsholding the ecosystems that sustain us together.
    • 10. Biodiversity =ecosystemservices
    • 11. We also needbiodiversityfor our ownmental health
    • 12. Our kids have nature deficit disorderbecause we have a deficit of nature!
    • 13. Where does animaldiversity come from?
    • 14. 950 million acresKershner & Leverett 2004
    • 15. Sunlight Food PhotosynthesisCO2 drawingWater O2
    • 16. Plants alsoprovide shelter
    • 17. Plants are literally a matter of life anddeath
    • 18. Carrying CapacityThe number of individuals of aparticular species that can be supported sustainablywithout degrading the resource base
    • 19. Carrying CapacityPopulation Size Carrying Capacity Time
    • 20. Population Size Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity Time
    • 21. What have we doneto the carrying capacityof the U.S. ? Sanderson 2009
    • 22. We haven’tdone thisonly onManhattan!
    • 23. We have turned950 million acreof virgin forestsinto tiny patcheof secondarygrowth woodlot
    • 24. We have paved 4 million miles of roads in the U.S. (Hayden 2004) This is equivalent to 37,879 sq miles, or nearly five times the size of New Jersey
    • 25. We have converted 62,500 sq miles to suburban lawnin the U.S. This is over 8 times the size of New Jersey dedicated to a non-native plant
    • 26. The U.S. is a human- dominatedecosystem
    • 27. 41%agriculture
    • 28. 54 % citiesand suburbs
    • 29. We have converted ournatural world into cities andsuburbs.
    • 30. This is not abouthumansdisappearingfrom the earth;it’s about humanssharing the earth.
    • 31. 127 spp ofneotropicalmigrantsaredeclining.
    • 32. Even thoughbiodiversityis an essential,non-renewablenatural resource,we are forcing itto extinction.
    • 33. Why can’tbiodiversity survive in our parks and preserves?
    • 34. When we shrink ahabitat, we lose niche space. Consequences: 1) Only tiny populations can exist in tiny habitats. 2) Tiny populations are vulnerable to extinction. Pimm et al. 1988
    • 35. Population Size few manyTime
    • 36. Our naturalareas are notlarge enoughto sustain nature
    • 37. Today, our yards support very little biodiversity. Our challenge is to raise the carrying capacity of our neighborhoodsso that they can be healthy, functioning ecosystems.
    • 38. Justaddplants?
    • 39. All plantsdo notsupportwildlifeequally
    • 40. Autumn BlackOlive Cherry
    • 41. Non-nativeNon-native plants plantssupport supportfewer insects. fewer insects
    • 42. Number of Species4540353025201510 5 0 Uninvaded Invaded
    • 43. Abundance500450400350300250200150100 50 0 Uninvaded Invaded
    • 44. Why can’t insects eat aliens?Why can’t insects eat aliens?
    • 45. Foliage is defended by distasteful chemicals
    • 46. Most insects can develop and reproduce onlyon the plants with which they share an evolutionary history. (Ehrlich & Raven, 1964)
    • 47. Insects that specialize on one plantInsects that specializeare no longer able to eat other plants. on one plant
    • 48. 90% of all phytophagous insect speciescan eat plants in only 3 or fewer families. Most can tolerate only a few closely related species. (Bernays & Graham, 1988)
    • 49. Who cares if our plants makeinsects?
    • 50. Animals that eat insects care! Bill Duyck
    • 51. Birds that eat insects Icteridae (blackbirds & orioles)Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers) Fringillidae (finches)Laniidae (shrikes) Ploceidae (weaver finches)Vireonidae (vireos) Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)Corvidae (crows & jays) Podicipedidae (grebes)Alaudidae (larks) Ardeidae (herons)Hirundinidae (swallows) Threskiornithidae (ibises &Paridae (titmice) spoonbills)Remizidae (verdins) Anatidae (ducks, geese & swans)Aegithalidae (bushtit) Accipitridae (hawks, kites & eagles)Sittidae (nuthatches) Falconidae (falcons)Certhiidae (creepers) Phasianidae (turkeys & grouse)Troglodytidae (wrens) Odontophoridae (new world quail)Pycnonotidae (bulbul) Rallidae (rails, gallinules & coots)Regulidae (kinglets) Aramidae (limpkins)Sylviidae (Old World warblers) Gruidae (cranes)Muscicapidae (old world flycatchers) Charadriidae (plovers)Timaliidae (babblers) Recurvirostridae (avocets & stilts)Turdidae (thrushes) Jacanidae (Jacana)Mimidae (mockingbirds & thrashers) Scolopacidae (sandpipers &Sturnidae (starlings) introduced phalaropes)Prunellidae (accentors) Laridae (gulls & terns)Motacillidae (pipits & wagtails) Columbidae (pigeons & doves)Bombycillidae (waxwings) Cuculidae (cuckoos & roadrunners)Ptilogonatidae (silky-flycatcher) Tytonidae (barn owls)Peucedramidae (olive warbler) Strigidae (owls)Parulidae (wood warblers) Caprimulgidae (goatsuckers)Coerebidae (bananaquits) Apodidae (swifts)Thraupidae (tanagers) Trochilidae (hummingbirds)Emberizidae (sparrows& buntings) Trogonidae (trogons)Cardinalidae (cardinals & grosbeaks) Alcedinidae (kingfishers) Picidae (woodpeckers)
    • 52. How muchfood dowe needto make inour yards?
    • 53. Lots ! ! L
    • 54. Carolinachickadee feedsits young almostexclusivelycaterpillars
    • 55. Both themale andfemaleforage forcaterpillars
    • 56. A pair candeliverfood aboutevery 3min
    • 57. 30caterpillars in 27min
    • 58. Parents foragefrom 6 am til 8 pm
    • 59. A chickadee pair brings at least 300(390-570) caterpillars to the nest per day ( Brewer 1961); Chickadees feed their young for 16 days before they fledge.So to rear one clutch they must catch at least 4800 caterpillars!
    • 60. 25 caterpillars pertree
    • 61. At 25 caterpillars per tree, it will take 192trees to produce one clutch of chickadees. If each tree occupies 225 sq ft (15 x15’),it will take 43,200 sq ft, or about 1 acre of trees,to provide enough food for one chickadee nest.
    • 62. 0.35 oz
    • 63. How close areour yards to making this much food?
    • 64. 1 0.92 0.9 0.79 0.8 0.74 0.7 0.6Percent 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.09 0.1 0 Landscapable Alien Species Alien Plants Invasive Plants Area that is Lawn
    • 65. Biomass of trees in suburbiaBiomass of treesin woodlots
    • 66. Problems with Plant Introductions  Chestnut blight58 high-impact  Sudden oak deathinsects and  White pine blister rustdiseases have  Dogwood anthracnosebeen brought to  Greening diseasethe U.S. on  Hemlock wooly adelgidornamental stock  Chestnut gall wasp (Liebold et al.  Japanese beetle2012)  Light brown apple moth  Citrus long-horned beetle
    • 67. 85% of our invasive woody plantshave escaped from the ornamental industry Reichard & White 2001
    • 68. Invasives from the Ornamental Industry Japanese honeysuckle Japanese barberryMelaleuca BuckthornOriental bittersweet KudzuMile-a-minute Purple loosestrifeAutumn olive Yellow IrisBrazilian peppertree Norway mapleCallery pear English ivyPrivet PorcelainberryBurning bush MiscanthusJapanese hop vine CarrotwoodLaurel fig Day lilyMultiflora rose PaulowniaCork tree Butterfly bushAmur honeysuckle JetbeadPeriwinkle AkebiaOriental Wisteria Virgin’s bowerOld man’s beard White poplarWintercreeper Mimosa
    • 69. It’s not just the types of plants in ourlandscapes that are starving ourbirds, it is the amount of plants weuse in suburbia. house To restore the ecological integrity of urban ecosystems we must not only use more plants, but use more productive plants as well.
    • 70. Does your yard have to 100% natives?
    • 71. Is the solutionto simply plantnative plants?
    • 72. Quercus (534) Thuja (50) Euonymus (11) Sideroxylon (4) Dirca (1)Prunus (456) Diospyros (46) Frangula (11) Cedrus (3) Leiophyllum (1)Salix (455) Gleditsia (46) Lindera (11) Cissus (3) Menispermum (1)Betula (411) Ceanothus (45) Lyonia (11) Cotoneaster (3) Nemophila (1)Populus (367) Platanus (45) Caragana (10) Hedera (3) Osmanthus (1)Malus (308) Gaylussacia (44) Clethra (10) Lagerstroemia (3) Stewartia (1)Acer (297) Celtis (43) Rhamnus (10) Myrtus (3) Metasequoia (0)Vaccinium (294) Juniperus (42) Pyracantha (9) Tamarix (3) Vitex (0)Alnus (255) Sambucus (42) Morus (9) Deutzia (2) Ceratonia (0)Carya (235) Physocarpus (41) Elaeagnus (9) Lavandula (2) Cercidiphyllum (0)Ulmus (215) Syringa (40) Chaenomeles (8) Lycium (2) Exochorda (0)Pinus (201) Ilex (39) Cytisus (8) Melia (2) Firmiana (0)Crataegus (168) Sassafras (38) Ficus (8) Paulownia (2) Grewia (0)Rubus (163) Lonicera (37) Catalpa (8) Phoenix (2) Kalopanax (0)Picea (150) Liquidambar (35) Chamaecyparis (8) Sophora (2) Kerria (0)Fraxinus (149) Kalmia (33) Chionanthus (8) Sorbaria (2) Kolkwitzia (0)Tilia (149) Aesculus (33) Maclura (8) Weigela (2) Nandina (0)Pyrus (138) Parthenocissus (32) Taxus (8) Calycanthus (2) Phellodendron (0)Rosa (135) Photinia (29) Cupressus (7) Gaultheria (2) Pseudosasa (0)Corylus (131) Nyssa (26) Andromeda (7) Litsea (2) Rhodotypos (0)Juglans (129) Symphoricarpos (25) Campsis (7) Menziesia (2) Stephanandra (0)Castanea (127) Cydonia (24) Celastrus (7) Pieris (2) Styphnolobium (0)Fagus (127) Ligustrum (24) Halesia (7) Staphylea (2) Tetradium (0)Amelanchier (124) Shepherdia (22) Ledum (7) Abelia (1) Toona (0)Larix (121) Liriodendron (21) Ailanthus (6) Bambusa (1) Zelkova (0)Cornus (118) Magnolia (21) Clematis (6) Broussonetia (1) Adlumia (0)Abies (117) Cephalanthus (19) Ptelea (6) Buddleja (1) Arceuthobium (0)Myrica (108) Cercis (19) Zanthoxylum (6) Buxus (1) Berchemia (0)Viburnum (104) Smilax (19) Albizia (5) Calluna (1) Borrichia (0)Ribes (99) Wisteria (19) Ginkgo (5) Camellia (1) Cladrastis (0)Ostrya (94) Persea (18) Decodon (5) Clerodendrum (1) Empetrum (0)Tsuga (92) Arctostaphylos (17) Diervilla (5) Colutea (1) Eubotrys (0)Spiraea (89) Ricinus (16) Gymnocladus (5) Forsythia (1) Itea (0)Vitis (79) Taxodium (16) Hydrangea (5) Koelreuteria (1) Loiseleuria (0)Pseudotsuga (76) Chamaedaphne (15) Cotinus (4) Laburnum (1) Nestronia (0)Robinia (72) Toxicodendron (15) Eremochloa (4) Phyllostachys (1) Styrax (0)Carpinus (68) Oxydendrum (14) Genista (4) Poncirus (1) Xanthorhiza (0)Sorbus (68) Ampelopsis (13) Indigofera (4) Pterostyrax (1) Zenobia (0)Comptonia (64) Arbutus (12) Pueraria (4) Sapium (1)Hamamelis (63) Asimina (12) Leucothoe (4) Thamnocalamus (1)Rhus (58) Berberis (12) Philadelphus (4) Vincetoxicum (1)Rhododendron (51) Acacia (11) Phoradendron (4) Callicarpa (1)
    • 73. EQuercus (534) Thuja (50) Euonymus (11) Sideroxylon (4) Dirca (1)Prunus (456) Diospyros (46) Frangula (11) Cedrus (3) Leiophyllum (1)Salix (455) Gleditsia (46) Lindera (11) Cissus (3) Menispermum (1)Betula (411) Ceanothus (45) Lyonia (11) Cotoneaster (3) Nemophila (1)Populus (367) Platanus (45) Caragana (10) Hedera (3) Osmanthus (1)Malus (308) Gaylussacia (44) Clethra (10) Lagerstroemia (3) Stewartia (1)Acer (297) Celtis (43) Rhamnus (10) Myrtus (3) Metasequoia (0)Vaccinium (294) Juniperus (42) Pyracantha (9) Tamarix (3) Vitex (0)Alnus (255) Sambucus (42) Morus (9) Deutzia (2) Ceratonia (0)Carya (235) Physocarpus (41) Elaeagnus (9) Lavandula (2) Cercidiphyllum (0)Ulmus (215) Syringa (40) Chaenomeles (8) Lycium (2) Exochorda (0)Pinus (201) Ilex (39) Cytisus (8) Melia (2) Firmiana (0)Crataegus (168) Sassafras (38) Ficus (8) Paulownia (2) Grewia (0)Rubus (163) Lonicera (37) Catalpa (8) Phoenix (2) Kalopanax (0)Picea (150) Liquidambar (35) Chamaecyparis (8) Sophora (2) Kerria (0)Fraxinus (149) Kalmia (33) Chionanthus (8) Sorbaria (2) Kolkwitzia (0)Tilia (149) Aesculus (33) Maclura (8) Weigela (2) Nandina (0)Pyrus (138) Parthenocissus (32) Taxus (8) Calycanthus (2) Phellodendron (0)Rosa (135) Photinia (29) Cupressus (7) Gaultheria (2) Pseudosasa (0)Corylus (131) Nyssa (26) Andromeda (7) Litsea (2) Rhodotypos (0)Juglans (129) Symphoricarpos (25) Campsis (7) Menziesia (2) Stephanandra (0)Castanea (127) Cydonia (24) Celastrus (7) Pieris (2) Styphnolobium (0)Fagus (127) Ligustrum (24) Halesia (7) Staphylea (2) Tetradium (0)Amelanchier (124) Shepherdia (22) Ledum (7) Abelia (1) Toona (0)Larix (121) Liriodendron (21) Ailanthus (6) Bambusa (1) Zelkova (0)Cornus (118) Magnolia (21) Clematis (6) Broussonetia (1) Adlumia (0)Abies (117) Cephalanthus (19) Ptelea (6) Buddleja (1) Arceuthobium (0)Myrica (108) Cercis (19) Zanthoxylum (6) Buxus (1) Berchemia (0)Viburnum (104) Smilax (19) Albizia (5) Calluna (1) Borrichia (0)Ribes (99) Wisteria (19) Ginkgo (5) Camellia (1) Cladrastis (0)Ostrya (94) Persea (18) Decodon (5) Clerodendrum (1) Empetrum (0)Tsuga (92) Arctostaphylos (17) Diervilla (5) Colutea (1) Eubotrys (0)Spiraea (89) Ricinus (16) Gymnocladus (5) Forsythia (1) Itea (0)Vitis (79) Taxodium (16) Hydrangea (5) Koelreuteria (1) Loiseleuria (0)Pseudotsuga (76) Chamaedaphne (15) Cotinus (4) Laburnum (1) Nestronia (0)Robinia (72) Toxicodendron (15) Eremochloa (4) Phyllostachys (1) Styrax (0)Carpinus (68) Oxydendrum (14) Genista (4) Poncirus (1) Xanthorhiza (0)Sorbus (68) Ampelopsis (13) Indigofera (4) Pterostyrax (1) Zenobia (0)Comptonia (64) Arbutus (12) Pueraria (4) Sapium (1)Hamamelis (63) Asimina (12) Leucothoe (4) Thamnocalamus (1)Rhus (58) Berberis (12) Philadelphus (4) Vincetoxicum (1)Rhododendron (51) Acacia (11) Phoradendron (4) Callicarpa (1)
    • 74. Quercus (534) Thuja (50) Euonymus (11) Sideroxylon (4) Dirca (1)Prunus (456) Diospyros (46) Frangula (11) Cedrus (3) Leiophyllum (1)Salix (455) Gleditsia (46) Lindera (11) Cissus (3) Menispermum (1)Betula (411) Ceanothus (45) Lyonia (11) Cotoneaster (3) Nemophila (1)Populus (367) Platanus (45) Caragana (10) Hedera (3) Osmanthus (1)Malus (308) Gaylussacia (44) Clethra (10) Lagerstroemia (3) Stewartia (1)Acer (297) Celtis (43) Rhamnus (10) Myrtus (3) Metasequoia (0)Vaccinium (294) Juniperus (42) Pyracantha (9) Tamarix (3) Vitex (0)Alnus (255) Sambucus (42) Morus (9) Deutzia (2) Ceratonia (0)Carya (235) Physocarpus (41) Elaeagnus (9) Lavandula (2) Cercidiphyllum (0)Ulmus (215) Syringa (40) Chaenomeles (8) Lycium (2) Exochorda (0)Pinus (201) Ilex (39) Cytisus (8) Melia (2) Firmiana (0)Crataegus (168) Sassafras (38) Ficus (8) Paulownia (2) Grewia (0)Rubus (163) Lonicera (37) Catalpa (8) Phoenix (2) Kalopanax (0)Picea (150) Liquidambar (35) Chamaecyparis (8) Sophora (2) Kerria (0)Fraxinus (149) Kalmia (33) Chionanthus (8) Sorbaria (2) Kolkwitzia (0)Tilia (149) Aesculus (33) Maclura (8) Weigela (2) Nandina (0)Pyrus (138) Parthenocissus (32) Taxus (8) Calycanthus (2) Phellodendron (0)Rosa (135) Photinia (29) Cupressus (7) Gaultheria (2) Pseudosasa (0)Corylus (131) Nyssa (26) Andromeda (7) Litsea (2) Rhodotypos (0)Juglans (129) Symphoricarpos (25) Campsis (7) Menziesia (2) Stephanandra (0)Castanea (127) Cydonia (24) Celastrus (7) Pieris (2) Styphnolobium (0)Fagus (127) Ligustrum (24) Halesia (7) Staphylea (2) Tetradium (0)Amelanchier (124) Shepherdia (22) Ledum (7) Abelia (1) Toona (0)Larix (121) Liriodendron (21) Ailanthus (6) Bambusa (1) Zelkova (0)Cornus (118) Magnolia (21) Clematis (6) Broussonetia (1) Adlumia (0)Abies (117) Cephalanthus (19) Ptelea (6) Buddleja (1) Arceuthobium (0)Myrica (108) Cercis (19) Zanthoxylum (6) Buxus (1) Berchemia (0)Viburnum (104) Smilax (19) Albizia (5) Calluna (1) Borrichia (0)Ribes (99) Wisteria (19) Ginkgo (5) Camellia (1) Cladrastis (0)Ostrya (94) Persea (18) Decodon (5) Clerodendrum (1) Empetrum (0)Tsuga (92) Arctostaphylos (17) Diervilla (5) Colutea (1) Eubotrys (0)Spiraea (89) Ricinus (16) Gymnocladus (5) Forsythia (1) Itea (0)Vitis (79) Taxodium (16) Hydrangea (5) Koelreuteria (1) Loiseleuria (0)Pseudotsuga (76) Chamaedaphne (15) Cotinus (4) Laburnum (1) Nestronia (0)Robinia (72) Toxicodendron (15) Eremochloa (4) Phyllostachys (1) Styrax (0)Carpinus (68) Oxydendrum (14) Genista (4) Poncirus (1) Xanthorhiza (0)Sorbus (68) Ampelopsis (13) Indigofera (4) Pterostyrax (1) Zenobia (0)Comptonia (64) Arbutus (12) Pueraria (4) Sapium (1)Hamamelis (63) Asimina (12) Leucothoe (4) Thamnocalamus (1)Rhus (58) Berberis (12) Philadelphus (4) Vincetoxicum (1)Rhododendron (51) Acacia (11) Phoradendron (4) Callicarpa (1)
    • 75. Io Moth
    • 76. Saddled Prominent
    • 77. Double-lined Prominent
    • 78. Double-lined Prominent
    • 79. What does abiodiversity-friendly suburb look like?
    • 80. To share suburbia with wildlife, we need to: Create corridors connecting natural areas Reduce the area now in lawn Begin the transition from alien ornamentals to native ornamentals
    • 81. If wereplanthalf ofthe areanow inlawn…..
    • 82. 20 Million AcresAdirondacks +Yellowstone +Yosemite +Grand Tetons +Canyonlands +Mount Ranier +North Cascades +Badlands +Olympic +Sequoia +Grand Canyon +Denali +Great Smoky Mountains
    • 83. It is oftenhardest to see what is most obvious It is often hardest to see what is most
    • 84. Nature is whatyou make it.
    • 85.  We have paved 4 million miles of roads in the U.S. This is equivalent to 37,879 square miles, or nearly five times the size of New Jersey
    • 86. Lepidoptera Abundance 16 14 12Caterpillars/site 10 8 6 4 2 0 Type of Landscaping Lepidoptera Species Richness 9 8 7 species/site 6 5 4 3 Native 2 1 0 Type of Landscaping
    • 87. Bird Abundance 20 15Birds/pt 10 5 0 Type of Landscaping Bird Species Richness 20Species/site 15 10 5 Native 0 Type of Landscaping
    • 88. Species of “Conservation Concern” at the Study SitesFrom “Partners in Flight” list of priority species for the mid-Atlantic piedmont region  Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)  Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)  Veery (Catharus fucescens)  Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)  Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)
    • 89. Build a balancedcommunity
    • 90. Planting nativesis a “grass roots” approachto conservation
    • 91. There is nobetter way toexposechildren tonature than tobring naturehome to thechildren.
    • 92. “Gardening isa way ofshowingthat you believein tomorrow” Unknown
    • 93. BringingNatureHome.n et
    • 94. Tilia 149 Liquidambar 35Fagus 127 Nyssa 26Myrica 108 Liriodendron 21Ostrya 94 Cercis 19Carpinus 68 Lindera 11Hamamelis 63 Morus 9Diospyrus 46 Campsus 7Platanus 45 Celastrus 7Sassafras 38 Itea 0
    • 95. Can a plant become native if it’s been here longenough? Plant Homeland herbivores Novel herbivores Years sinceintroductionPhragmites australis 170 species 5 species 300+Eucalyptus stelloleta 48 species 1 species 100Opuntia ficus-indica 16 species 0 species 250Clematis vitalba 40 species 1 species 100Melaleuca quinquenervia 409 species 8 species 120
    • 96. Compromise With Alien Credits!
    • 97. 250 Time on Non-natives Time on Natives 200Minutes foraging by migrant birds recorded 150 100 50 0