22 times fewer caterpillars in the invaded habitats. That is the carrying capacity of these hedgerows is 22 times les than in the uninvaded habitats.
Sumac flea beetle
And a family of chickadees in my backyard is a good example.
All day long they bring caterpillars back to their nest
Both male and female forage
And bring food back about every three minutes
All were taken from the trees in our yard
Sometimes they bring two caterpillars at a time
Sometimes more than two
And they do that from 6:00 AM till 8 pm
Some were brown
Some were green
All are collected from trees within 50 m of the nest
570 for 16 days is over 9000 caterpillars
Now most of the trees on our property are young maybe 15’ tall
Let’s assume there are 25 caterpillars on this tree. (when I search I found about 5).
A carolina chickadee weighs 0.35 oz
Standard ErrorLawn = +/- 0.012 These landscapes have 98.9% less tree biomass than the mature woodlots that used to be in that space.Alien Species = +/- 0.015Alien Plants = +/- 0.016Invasive = +/- 0.012
But think of your non-native plants as statues. How many statues do you want in your yard?
Yellow shouldeedr slug
Long wing daggermoth
Interrupted dagger moth
Hickory tussock moth
Spiny oak caterpillar
This is the ultimate celebration of mulch; not of plants
We could save those leaves, rake them into our flowerbeds.
Spice bush swallowtail requires 3 leaves to reach maturity
What do humans need to exist? A place to live and something to eat. What do animals need?
The earth produces a finite amount of resourses
The more resources humans use, the fewer are left for the rest of life
Every time we add a human to th earth, we need more ecosystem services, not fewer
And this …are not an option
Bringing Nature Home
Bringing Nature Home Doug Tallamy
Top 10 Voter ConcernsEconomy 80%Health Care 66%Gov’t Corruption 66%Taxes 58%Energy Policy 52%Education 61%Social Security 60%Immigration 45%National Security 52%Afghanistan 35%
Biodiversity losses are a clear signalthat humanity’s life support systems are failing.
A chickadee pair brings at least 300(390-570) caterpillars to the nest per day ( Brewer 1961); Chickadees feed their young for 16 days before they fledge.So to rear one clutch they must catch at least 4800 caterpillars!
At 25 caterpillars per tree, it will take 192trees to produce one clutch of chickadees. If each tree occupies 225 sq ft (15 x15’),it will take 43,200 sq ft, or about 1 acre of trees,to provide enough food for one chickadee nest.
How close areour yards to making this much food?
1 0.92 0.9 0.79 0.8 0.74 0.7 0.6Percent 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.09 0.1 0 Landscapable Alien Species Alien Plants Invasive Plants Area that is Lawn
Biomass of trees in suburbiaBiomass of treesin woodlots
Problems with Plant Introductions Chestnut blight58 high-impact Sudden oak deathinsects and White pine blister rustdiseases have Dogwood anthracnosebeen brought to Greening diseasethe U.S. on Hemlock wooly adelgidornamental stock Chestnut gall wasp (Liebold et al. Japanese beetle2012) Light brown apple moth Citrus long-horned beetle
85% of our invasive woody plantshave escaped from the ornamental industry Reichard & White 2001
Invasives from the Ornamental Industry Japanese honeysuckle Japanese barberryMelaleuca BuckthornOriental bittersweet KudzuMile-a-minute Purple loosestrifeAutumn olive Yellow IrisBrazilian peppertree Norway mapleCallery pear English ivyPrivet PorcelainberryBurning bush MiscanthusJapanese hop vine CarrotwoodLaurel fig Day lilyMultiflora rose PaulowniaCork tree Butterfly bushAmur honeysuckle JetbeadPeriwinkle AkebiaOriental Wisteria Virgin’s bowerOld man’s beard White poplarWintercreeper Mimosa
It’s not just the types of plants in ourlandscapes that are starving ourbirds, it is the amount of plants weuse in suburbia. house To restore the ecological integrity of urban ecosystems we must not only use more plants, but use more productive plants as well.
We have paved 4 million miles of roads in the U.S. This is equivalent to 37,879 square miles, or nearly five times the size of New Jersey
Lepidoptera Abundance 16 14 12Caterpillars/site 10 8 6 4 2 0 Type of Landscaping Lepidoptera Species Richness 9 8 7 species/site 6 5 4 3 Native 2 1 0 Type of Landscaping
Bird Abundance 20 15Birds/pt 10 5 0 Type of Landscaping Bird Species Richness 20Species/site 15 10 5 Native 0 Type of Landscaping
Species of “Conservation Concern” at the Study SitesFrom “Partners in Flight” list of priority species for the mid-Atlantic piedmont region Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) Veery (Catharus fucescens) Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea) Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)
Can a plant become native if it’s been here longenough? Plant Homeland herbivores Novel herbivores Years sinceintroductionPhragmites australis 170 species 5 species 300+Eucalyptus stelloleta 48 species 1 species 100Opuntia ficus-indica 16 species 0 species 250Clematis vitalba 40 species 1 species 100Melaleuca quinquenervia 409 species 8 species 120