King Philip's War in Marlborough Part 1
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King Philip's War in Marlborough Part 1

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Marlborough Plantation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was on the frontier and on the main road. As such it played a pivotal role in the conduct and outcome of King Philip's War. In the summer of ...

Marlborough Plantation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was on the frontier and on the main road. As such it played a pivotal role in the conduct and outcome of King Philip's War. In the summer of 1675, an incident occurred that determined the fate of the local Indian plantation of Okommakemessit and set the tone for Indian / Settler relations in all the Americas.

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King Philip's War in Marlborough Part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The History of Marlborough Is the Story of America
  • 2. The Praying Indian Plantation ofOkommakemesit &The Summer of 1675
  • 3. Background 1600-1659• A survey of the Indians of New England before the arrival of the English• The great plague of 1616-1619 & the Indian settlement of Whipsuppenicke• The submission of the Indians• John Eliot, the Praying Indians & the formation of Okommakemesit
  • 4. King Philip’s War in Marlborough• The Summer of 1675 and the ‘Incident’ at Marlborough• The Story of Sarah Onamog & the Flight of the Wamesit Indians
  • 5. Where Do You Get This Stuff?• Daniel Gookin: Superintendent of Indians• Samuel Drake: 19th Century Historian• George Madison Bodge: 19th Century Historian• Charles Hudson: 19th C, History of Marlborough• Sarah Jacobs: 19th C, Indian Historian• Josiah H. Temple: 19th C, History of Framingham• Ella Bigelow: 20th C, History of Marlborough• John Bigelow: 20th C, Marlboro City Engineer
  • 6. A Survey of the Indiansof New England Before The Arrival of the English
  • 7. Background• There were about ten major tribes in New England prior to the arrival of the English. Most were Algonquian.• The Little Ice Age of that period made the growing period shorter and winters more severe.• This partly explains the failure of the early settlement attempts and the aggression of certain tribes.
  • 8. • There was a tendency of the more northern tribes to extend their influence south as a matter of survival, and a tendency of the more western tribes to extend their influence eastward.• The Terratines to the north and the Mohawks to the west were particularly feared.
  • 9. Land ownership for the Native tribes had more to do with rivers than land.
  • 10. Captain John Smithsurveyed the coast in1614, gave the name‘New England’ to thearea, gave Englishnames to the primarycoastal features, anddrew the first accuratemap of the coast.
  • 11. The Great Native Plague of 1616-1619 &The Indian Settlement of Whipsuppenicke
  • 12. The Experience of Richard Vines• In the winter of 1616-1617 Vines traveled to the mouth of the Saco River and spent the time with the Indians of that area.• The plague was in full force. Although the dead and dying were all about them, they did not contract the disease.
  • 13. Characteristics of the Great Plague• Edward Bascome: “This distemper the Indians described as a spotted putrid fever, with ulcers, and yellowness of the skin and eyes, and bleeding from the mouth and ears.”
  • 14. Characteristics of the Great Plague• Extent was from Narragansett Bay to Penobscot Bay. This marked the area frequented by European fishermen and traders.• The Massachusett tribe marked the epicenter. Some tribal groups lost 90% of their members, further away, there were 30% losses. The English discovered bone fields where there weren’t enough living to bury the dead.• English seemed to be immune.• Depending on the source, the plague is described as occurring between 1612 and 1623. The worst period was probably between 1617 and 1619.
  • 15. Characteristics of the Great Plague• Most of the mature Indians in the years 1640-1680 were survivors of both the plague and other outbreaks of disease in the 1630’s and 1660’s• Most of the Puritans believed that the plague was an act of God, paving the way for the English. Many surviving Indians believed the same.
  • 16. Marlborough Natives Before the Plague: Whipsuppenicke• Before the English came there had been a tribe (by tradition, Wamesit) that inhabited Marlborough.John Bigelow:• The Indian settlement of Whipsuppenicke was at the top of the hill on or near Hosmer St.• The settlement there were mostly destroyed by the Great Plague.• The Indians of the Colonial Period called it ‘Whipsuppenicke’ which could be translated “place abandoned because of disaster or pestilence”• The English called it ‘Whipsuffrage’.
  • 17. The Marlborough Territory After the Plague• Many of the lands were abandoned after the plague as tribes consolidated.• Marlborough was, for the most part, uninhabited, though its Wamesit heritage was honored in the later Praying Indian petition.• At this time, the Nipmuc tribes (less affected by the plague) appeared to have laid claim to some of the land and greatly increased their influence in this area.• After King Philip’s War, the few Indians who lived in this area were undoubtedly Nipmuc.
  • 18. The Marlborough Territory After the Plague• From the period of the plague the land was probably part of that large area controlled by the Nipmuc Wuttawushan of Nashaway (Sterling) a friend of Massasoit.• That land was inherited by his nephew Awassamog whose name appears on numerous deeds both in this area and near the coast.• O. W. Albee, first Principle of Marlborough High School and later a State Representative proposed renaming Lake Williams ‘Lake Ossamog’. (Ella Brigham)
  • 19. The Submission of the Indians 1644
  • 20. The Submission of the Indians• The devastation of the plague and the threat of invasion by the Terratines and the Mohawks put the coastal and interior tribes in an untenable position.• As the English multiplied, the native tribes became first allies, then willing subjects to the dominant population of English.
  • 21. The Submission of the Indians• In 1644, the Massachusett tribes subjected themselves to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Shortly thereafter, the Pennacooks of the Merrimac River valley and other lesser tribes including some inland Nipmucs subjected themselves as well.• From the English point of view, the Indians signed a covenant that acknowledged their willingness to abide by the Ten Commandments.
  • 22. John Eliot, the Praying Indians& the Formation of Okommakemesit
  • 23. Short Bio of John Eliot• Born in Essex County, England 1604.• Educated at Jesus College, Cambridge where he learned Puritan doctrine.• Came to America on the Lyon in 1631, worked as a substitute minister in Boston before becoming permanent pastor in Roxbury in 1632.• He and his wife had 5 sons, 1 daughter.• Began his missionary work among the natives around 1644, probably encouraged by the success experienced among the natives of Cape Cod by Thomas Mayhew.
  • 24. Colonial Seal ofMassachusetts Bay Colony
  • 25. Background of the Praying Indians• Missionary work was a high priority for the Puritans, but the struggle for survival in the early years delayed any serious work among the natives.• Thomas Mayhew was the first of the missionaries, having converted many of the natives of Martha’s Vineyard, and then much of Cape Cod and the other islands.• Conversion of the natives was a difficult task for the Puritans, because they believed it important to ‘civilize’ them according to the English way, and to make them capable of reading the Bible.
  • 26. Difficulties in Missionary Work• The Puritan pastor was bound to his congregation. This made it difficult for the individual pastor to devote much time to missionary activity. John Eliot served among family and friends who supported his missionary work among the natives.• If an Indian sachem converted, he could expect a serious loss of ‘tribute’ from his subjects. If subject Indians converted, their sachems would complain to the English that their subjects were being disloyal.• The Powwows (Medicine Men) as the spiritual leaders were particularly opposed to any missionary work.• Nevertheless, in areas with increasing English populations, large numbers of converts resulted. Many Indians believed that the English God was more powerful in war and in healing.
  • 27. John Eliot & the Praying Indian Towns • Eliot began his missionary work around 1644. • It began with the Indian Waban and culminated in the establishment of the first Praying Indian town of Natick in 1651. • By 1660 there were seven Praying towns, and by 1675 seven more were added in the Nipmuc country (central Massachusetts & northern RI). • In order to teach the Indians, Eliot translated the Bible into Algonquian and engaged a Nipmuc Indian named James Printer to help print it. The first printing, in 1663 was the first book printed in America.
  • 28. The Puritan Missionary Goal• Bring into community, Civilize, Educate, Baptize• The more established towns had more baptized members, but many towns had just a few.• Civilizing meant dressing, acting, living like the English.• Education meant learning how to read, especially the Bible and Catechism.• All Praying Towns had an Indian civil leader and an Indian teacher.• The focus on education was so great that an Indian School was created at Harvard. Six Indians attended, one graduated, all died of diseases contracted at the College. Sassamon attended classes at Harvard before the Indian College was established.
  • 29. Variations of ‘Okommakemesit’John Bigelow:“The Indians had no written language, so the English recorded Indian words as best they could from hearing them spoken, and this resulted in many variations of Indian surnames (and Place names).”Variations include: Ockoocangansett, Agoganquamatiet, Agonganquamaset, Ognonikongquamesit, Ogkoonhquankames
  • 30. Brief Bio of Daniel GookinSuperintendent of Praying Indians• Born in Ireland around 1612, educated in England• Came to Virginia with his father by 1630• Drawn to New England because of his Puritan leanings. Lived in Roxbury and befriended Rev. Eliot• Was a military man, served on the influential Court of Assistants in Mass Bay for close to 35 years• Served as the Superintendent of the Praying Indians during the years leading up to and following King Philip’s War• Wrote two historical works about the Praying Indians: Historical Collections of the Indians in New England and The Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians
  • 31. Gookin’s Description of Okammakemesit: 1674• Okammakemesit, alias Marlborough, is situated about twelve miles north east from Hassanamessit (Grafton), about thirty miles from Boston westerly. This village contains ten families and consequently about fifty souls. The quantity of land appertaining to it is six thousand acres.
  • 32. The Inhabitants of Okommakemesit• Sarah Onamog and her 12 yr old son.• From Temple’s History of Framingham: Josiah Nowell, Benjamin, Peter Nashem’s widow, Old Nashem, Mary a widow cousin of James Speen, David’s widow, Thomas his widow• From the Indian deed of 1677 to Daniel Gookin: Old Robin, Widow of Nakomit, Josiah
  • 33. The Inhabitants of Okommakemesit• The Praying Indians generally were made up of multiple tribes especially in those areas hard hit by the plague.• Because of this area’s ties to the Wamesit tribe we know that some were Wamesit and returned to their primary tribe near Lowell when Okommakemesit was broken up.• We also know from various lists that others went to Natick and wound up at Deer Island.
  • 34. Concerning the First Problem of the Marlborough Settlement• The Sudbury settlers of Marlborough made their first petition for settlement in 1656. John How lived in Marlborough in 1657. Petition was for 8 square miles.• Okommakemesit was established in relatively the same period.• When the Sudbury settlers received permission for a settlement in Marlborough they had to honor the Okommakemesit landholding.
  • 35. Courtesy: the Ripley Family
  • 36. Gookin’s Description of Okommakemesit: 1674• It is much of it good land and yieldeth plenty of corn, being well husbanded. It is sufficiently stored with meadow, and is well wooded and watered. It hath several good orchards upon it, planted by the Indians; and is in itself a very good plantation.
  • 37. Charles Hudson’s Map of Colonial Marlborough
  • 38. Gookin’s Description of Okommakamesit: 1674• This town doth join so near to the English of Marlborough, that it was spoken of David …, Under his shadow ye shall rejoice: but the Indians here do not much rejoice under the English men’s shadow; who do overtop them in their number of people, flocks of cattle, &c. that the Indians do not greatly flourish, or delight in their station at present.
  • 39. Gookin’s Description of Okommakemesit: 1674• Their ruler here was Onomog, who is lately deceased, about two months since; which is a great blow to that place. He was a pious and discreet man, and the very soul, as it were, of that place. Their teacher name is (Solomon?). Here they observe the same decorum for religion and civil order, as is done in other towns. They have a constable and other officers, as the rest have. The Lord sanctify the present affliction they are under by reason of their bereavements’ and raise up others, and give them grace to promote religion and good order among them.
  • 40. Concerning Chief Onamog• Along with Awossamog was one of the original Sachems who appeared on the deed that created Natick in 1651.• Was associated with Okommakemesit from the beginning.• When the people of Marlborough built their Meeting House on Indian land, Onamog graciously allowed them to stay.• He very skillfully but firmly negotiated numerous land disputes and infringements by cattle or pigs on Indian crops.• His death just prior to King Philip’s War was a major blow to Indian / settler relationships in Marlborough.
  • 41. The Proposed Indian School at Marlborough• Puritan law required any town with 50 families to operate a school and pay for a teacher and upkeep.• Marlborough was just a few families short, so did not choose to pay the expense.• Gookin proposed to build and operate a regional Indian School on the planting field, open to all Praying Indian families and local English as well.• He felt confident that the local townspeople would welcome the school.
  • 42. King Philip’s War The Summer of 1675 in Marlborough
  • 43. King Philip• King Philip (Metacom) was son of Massasoit (Sachem of Thanksgiving fame).• Chief of Wampanoag tribe and major seller of Indian land.• In 1670’s began making plans to attack the English.• Sassamon, a Christian Indian, learned of his plans and told the Engish.• This led to the death of Sassamon at the hands of some of Philip’s men and the start of King Philip’s War.
  • 44. Early Summer 1675• In response to an attack on Swansea, the combined colonial armies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth and Connecticut attacked the Wampanoag stronghold at Mt. Hope on June 28.• They were accompanied by a combined force of Praying Indians drafted from each of the original seven Praying Indian towns including Marlborough (Okommakemesit).• Philip escaped to the Nipmuc country (now central Massachusetts). There he convinced the young warriors to join his effort to destroy the English. The Nipmuc sachems eventually followed.
  • 45. Mid Summer 1675• In late July, Capt Edward Hutchinson and Capt Thomas Wheeler were sent to Brookfield ‘with force’ to negotiate with the Nipmucs. They departed from Marlborough.• They had three Praying Indian guides with them who warned the officers that when the Sachems did not show for the meeting on August 2, that danger awaited.• The English from Brookfield who were with them trusted the Nipmucs and the whole group walked into an ambush.
  • 46. The Ambush at Brookfield• Only the heroic actions of the Indian guides allowed the soldiers and some of the townspeople to escape.• Capt Hutchinson was badly wounded and taken to Marlborough where he died on August 19. He was the first person buried in Spring Hill Cemetery.
  • 47. The ‘Incident’ at MarlboroughGookin:“…it was a foundation and beginning of much trouble, that befell both the English and the Indians afterwards.”
  • 48. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough Lancaster Attacked• On Sunday, August 22, 1675, a few days after the death of Capt. Edward Hutchinson in Marlborough, the adjoining town of Lancaster was attacked by Indians.• Seven (or nine) English settlers were killed in the attack.• Bodge: “…the next day the people sent for Capt. Mosely and told him of their suspicions of the Hassanamesit Indians then living under supervision in a sort of fort at Marlborough.”
  • 49. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Refugee Indians from the Nipmuc TerritoryGookin:“At this time (midsummer 1675) the praying Indians at Marlborough were increased to about 40 men, besides women and children; which came to pass by the advice of several Christian Indians that came to them, viz. from Hassanamesit (Grafton), Magunkoag (Ashland), Manchage (Oxford), and Chobonokonomum (Dudley)…”
  • 50. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Refugee Indians from the Nipmuc TerritoryGookin:“…(they) left their places, and came into Marlborough under the English wing, and there built a fort upon their own land, which stood near the centre of the English town, not far from the church or Meeting House; hence they hoped not only to be secured, but to be helpful to the English, and on this pass and frontier to curb the common enemy…”
  • 51. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Seizure of WeaponsGookin:• The day before the ‘Incident’, probably due to the ‘clamor’ of the local people, Lieutenant John Ruddocke demanded the arms and ammunition from all the Indians of Marlborough.• It amounted to 23 guns, ten pounds of powder, 60 pounds of bullets, and their powder horns.• These had been paid for ‘by the Indian stock in the disposal of the …Corporation at London… for their defence against the common enemy.’ (in the beginning of the war)
  • 52. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough Captain Samuel MoselyBrief Bio• In 1674, Mosely became famous for capturing pirates off the coast of Massachusetts.• As a popular folk hero he was able to get a commission as a ‘private’ Captain and to assemble his own army.• This army he drew from those who had served with him at sea, the prison population, and those too young to serve in the regular army.
  • 53. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough Captain Samuel MoselyBrief Bio• Mosely was a great fighter, loved by both his men and the general population.• He was also undisciplined, disliked by the other officers, constantly being reprimanded, and, because of his connections to the Governor, beyond correction.• Worst of all, he hated all Indians, and created numerous problems especially for the Praying Indians in alliance with the English.
  • 54. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The ‘Incident’Gookin:“On the 30th of August, one of the captains of the army (being instigated by some people of those parts, no lovers of the Christian Indians,)”• Gookin is always careful not to identify fully those he thinks are guilty for fear of destroying their reputation.
  • 55. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The ‘Incident’Gookin:“… fifteen of those Indians that lived with others of them upon their own lands, and in their own fort at Okonhomesitt near Marlborough, where they were orderly settled and were under the English conduct…”• Gookin goes on to ennumerate the great good that these Indians had done in the weeks and months preceeding.
  • 56. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Witness: David the IndianGookin:• Had come to the woods near Marlborough with his brother Andrew and were captured by some Indians who were later charged.• His brother Andrew had been killed by the English, accused of having been at Brookfield.• David, himself accused of shooting at a shepherd boy in Marlborough, was placed against a tree and threatened to be shot by Mosely. Fearing for his life, he implicated eleven of the Hassanamesits at Marlborough in the Lancaster deaths, including his captors.
  • 57. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The March to BostonGookin:“…sent down to Boston with a guard of soldiers, pinioned and fastened with lines from neck to neck, fifteen of those Indians…”• They would have been marched down the main colonial road, through Sudbury and Watertown and Cambridge to Boston where decisions were being made that very day as to the future of the Indian settlements.
  • 58. The Council At Boston August 30, 1675• Confinement of Indians to the following plantations: Natick, Punquapog, Nashobah, Wamesit, Hassanamesit• Placement of wigwams together• Prevented Indians from traveling more than one mile from their village unless accompanied by the English• Prevented the entertainment of ‘strange Indians’ or to receive enemy ‘plunder’
  • 59. The Council At Boston August 30, 1675• “The Council do therefore order, that after publication of the provision aforesaid, it shall be lawful for any person, whether English or Indian, that shall find any Indian travelling in any of our towns or woods, contrary to the limits above named, to command them under their guard and examination, or to kill and destroy them as best as they may or can.”
  • 60. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough Was the ‘Incident’ a Cause of the Decisions by the Council at Boston?• At 3 mph (walking speed) it would have taken at least 10 hours (probably closer to 11) to reach Boston. A rider could have arrived in about 6 hours. Conclusion: the arrival of the prisoners was probably not the motivating factor in the calling of the meeting. However, news of the arrest and report of the general accusations and circumstances seem to be related to the decisions made.
  • 61. The Council At Boston August 30, 1675• Confinement of Indians to the following plantations: Natick, Punquapog, Nashobah, Wamesit, Hassanamesit• Marlborough was the only still inhabited Indian town of the seven original Praying Indian towns left off the list of approved ‘reservations’.• Placement of wigwams together• The Marlborough Indians had two separate forts and dispersed wigwams.• Prevented Indians from traveling more than one mile from their village unless accompanied by the English• The Marlborough Indians had been used as scouts and had found Indians wandering in the woods.• Prevented the entertainment of ‘strange Indians’ or to receive enemy ‘plunder’• The Marlborough Indians had entertained the ‘strange’ Indians from Hassanamesit and the Nipmuc country & one of the stories concerned the possession of a ‘war trophy’ from Mt Hope.
  • 62. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Trial• Gookin: “…it was towards the end of September, before these Indians were tried…, all which time they remained in prison, under great sufferings.’• Abram Speen and John Choo of Natick, only coincidentally at Marlboro and not charged, were released the second week of September.• Bodge: When this became known, on September 10, a mob assembled at the home of Captain James Oliver who was a hard line military man with no sympathy for the Indians. At about 9pm the mob proposed that he should lead them to the prison to hang the prisoners. “…boiling with rage at this insult to himself, (he) ‘cudgelled them stoutly’ with his cane from his house”
  • 63. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The TrialDrake:• The 11 accused: Old Jethro and 2 sons, James the Printer, James Acompanet, Daniel Munups, John Cosquaconet, John Asquenet, George Nonsequesewit, Thomas Mumuxonqua, Joseph Watapacoson alias Joseph Spoonant• Also sent: David(the witness), Abram Speen, John Choo• One name of the 15 is unaccounted for.
  • 64. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Trial: Charges vs AccusedGookin:• They were tracked from Lancaster to Marlborough about the time the murder was committed.• One of them had a pair of bandoleers (pocketed belts used for holding ammunition) belonging to one of the persons slain.• Another had on a bloody shirt.
  • 65. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Trial: The DefenseGookin:• Witnesses showed that all the defendants were at Sabbath services at the time of the Lancaster attack.• The bandolier was given to the Indian for safe keeping by noted Indian James Rumneymarsh after the battle of Mt. Hope.• The bloody shirt was the product of a deer kill the week before.
  • 66. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Trial: The DefenseDrake:• Indian David acknowledged that he had made a false accusation.• Two Indians then in prison for other charges testified that Nashaway Sachem Monaco, alias One Eyed John had committed the murders at Lancaster.
  • 67. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Trial: The Acquittal and AftermathGookin:• The trial resulted in acquittal.• For some reason, a second trial was held that found Joseph Spoonant accessory to the murder. He was sold for a slave.• David was convicted of shooting at the shepherd boy in Marlborough and was also sold into slavery.
  • 68. The ‘Incident’ at Marlborough The Trial: The Acquittal and Aftermath• Most of those who were involved in the trial eventually joined with Philip.• The ‘clamor of the people’ begun with the incident at Marlborough, never subsided. The strategy of isolating the Indians to five plantations was defeated by other incidents blamed on, but not committed by the Indian residents. About a month later, at the end of October, 1675, the Indians were sent to Deer Island. Many of the Marlborough Indians were known to have gone there.
  • 69. Deer Island• On October 26, the Praying Indians at Natick and any Indians found thereabout, were assembled and at midnight of October 30 were brought to Deer Island.• At the end of the year, Eliot and Gookin visited them. There were then about 500 Indians, as the Indians of Punkapoag were brought there as well.• Gookin: “they lived chiefly upon clams and shellfish, that they digged out of the sand, at low water; the Island was bleak and cold, their wigwams poor and mean, their clothes few and thin; some little corn they had of their own, which the Council ordered to be fetched from their plantations.”
  • 70. The Tragic Story of Sarah Onamog &The Flight of the Wamesit Indians
  • 71. Sarah Onamog• Daughter of Sagamore John, a Wamesit Sachem• First married and widowed to Sachem John Tohatooner of Nashoba with whom she had a son in 1663. After his death, she married Onamog, Sachem of Marlborough.• In 1685 there is a land sale together with 3 sons: Joshua, Samuel, and Amos. Their father is unknown.• Onamog died in 1674 leaving her twice widowed.• After the ‘Incident’ and abandonment of Okommakemesit, she rejoined her family at Wamesit (Tewksbury and Lowell).
  • 72. Background of Pennacook/Wamesits in King Philip’s War• The Wamesit tribe was centered at present day Lowell and was subject to the Pennacooks whose primary residence was near Concord, NH. Together they controlled the Merrimack River and its tributaries, including the Assabet River. They were led by Wannalancet, son of Passaconaway.• During the war, Wannalancet remained neutral.
  • 73. Background of Pennacook/Wamesits in King Philip’s War• After the Incident at Marlborough, Samuel Mosely went north to try and ‘encourage’ Wannalancet to join with the English.• When Mosely approached their homes, Wannalancet withdrew. Mosely then burnt their homes and destroyed their food supply. For this he was censured but not punished.• Wannalancet withdrew further north and distrusted the English from then on.
  • 74. The Wounding of Sarah and Murder of Her Son• It was a common strategy of Philip’s men to burn barns or haystacks and leave evidence to implicate friendly Indians.• This was done to the barn of Lieutenant Richardson of Chelmsford on November 15, 1675 and the Wamesit Indians were suspected.• Fourteen townsmen approached the village and two men opened fire on the Indians. Five women, including Sarah, and two children were wounded and the 12 year old son of Sarah Onamog was killed.
  • 75. The Aftermath• The two shooters, named Lorgin and Robins, were arrested and tried, but the jury found them innocent for ‘want of evidence’.• The Wamesits left to seek Wannalancet and, despite attempts by English authorities to have them return, they refused.• The English persisted and sent an Indian messenger to ask them to return. Driven by hunger, most of them did come back.• Sarah and seventeen others remained at Pennacook (Concord, NH) until they, too, returned in mid December 1675.
  • 76. The Sad Ending to the Wamesits in America• In early February of 1676, the Wamesits once again feared that the enemy Indians would create an incident and they would once again be blamed. They wrote the Colony and asked for intervention.• When the Colony delayed action, the Wamesits fled north when attacked by some townspeople, but had to leave behind the lame and blind. These were trapped in their wigwams and burnt alive.• The Wamesits returned in August of 1676 after most of the hostilities were over. Their numbers were depleted by sickness and slaughter.• In the years following the war they became targets of the Mohawks, so they once again fled north.• Their great leader Wannalancet returned in his old age so he could die in his homeland. He is buried in what is now Tyngsboro, near the New Hampshire border.