Project management communications mp

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Communication Management

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Project management communications mp

  1. 1. Project Management – Communications Framework Recap on Project management fundamentals Communication management Communication Issues & Project Organizations
  2. 2. PMI Processes Groups KNOWLEDGE AREAS INITIATING PLANNING EXECUTIO N MONITORING & CO NTROL CLO SE O UT INTEGRATION 1 1 2 2 1 SCO PE 4 2 TIME 6 1 CO ST 3 1 Q UALITY 1 1 1 HUMAN RESO URCES 1 3 CO MMUNICATIO N 1 1 1 RISK 5 1 PROCUREMENT 1 1 1 STAKEHO LDERS 1 1 1 1 2 24 9 11 1 PROCESS GRO UP
  3. 3. Projects & Project Management Project:  A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Project Communication  Processes required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, control and monitoring and ultimate disposal of project information  Communication – Information Logistics – Right Information, right time, right place, right people, right method. Management – PDCA – communications “oil in the engine”
  4. 4. Communication Influence on a Project WBS /CBS / RBS /OBS / TBS Organizational Structure to deliver (management teams, contractors, supervision, suppliers) People make projects and need to know…through communication. Communication channels enable information flow so we can manage the project. Need to know / nice to know Risk BaseRisk Base
  5. 5. Communications – the Important Link Internal & ExternalELEMENTS OF PROJECT MANGEMENT (after PMBOK, 1996) INTERNAL CONTROL _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Increasing Risk Decreasing Control RISK HUMAN RESOURCES COMMUNICATIONS PROCUREMENT SCOPE STAKEHOLDERS INTEGRATION
  6. 6. PMI - Scope Process Inputs Tools Outputs Communications Management Plan (Plan) Project Management Plan, stakeholder register, organizational assets Communication requirements, communication technology, meetings, models/methods Plans & Updates. Manage Communications (Do) Project Charter Stakeholder Register Interviews Workshops Observations Experience Requirements documentation, management plan and traceability Control Communications (Check / Action) Project Charter, Requirements documentation, Organizational Assets Expert Judgment, Product analysis, Alternatives, Workshops Scope statement, documentation updates
  7. 7. Communications Interaction and interfacing between Project Team members. Creating a bridge between the Project and its Stakeholders. Overcoming or dealing with:  Organizational / national / cultural differences  Varying levels of expertise  Different perspectives / interests  Internal and external conflict.
  8. 8. Communications Management Plan Communications – developing an appropriate plan based on project need and requirements and organisational assets. (Contracts / records) Manage Communications-collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving and disposing of project information as per plan. (EDMS, Filing / Records) Control Communications – monitoring and controlling communications to ensure information needs are met. Control of ‘misinformation’ – rumours.
  9. 9. Communications Planning What - information is needed Why – is information needed (RACI) When – is information needed (including time zones) How – is information to be transmitted Where – is information available / stored / archived Who – needs and who is authorised
  10. 10. Communications - Types  Internal  Formal  Vertical / Horizontal  Official  Written words / images / drawings  Oral / Verbal  Non verbal (body language)  Unofficial – rumours, media, external views
  11. 11. Communication Model
  12. 12. Communication Reality SENDER (Person / Situation) INITIATOR RECEIVER UNDERSTANDING OR MISUNDERSTANDINGUNDERSTANDING OR MISUNDERSTANDING ANALYSED (Person, Situation) DECODE (Translation/ Language) Filters – Language, Knowledge, ReferenceFilters – Language, Knowledge, Reference FrameFrame Filters – Language, Knowledge, ReferenceFilters – Language, Knowledge, Reference FrameFrame ENCODE (Ideas, Speech, Records) SEND (Verbal / Written) RECEIVES (Hear, See, Read) Lack of Attention, disrupt, interrupt
  13. 13. Transmitting without Receiving
  14. 14. Understanding “I know that you believe that you understood what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant” -- Robert McCloskey, U.S. State Department spokesman, at a press briefing during the Vietnam War
  15. 15. Human Senses –faster than the speed of thought? Sight – 100,000,000 bits /second (40 bits/s) Hearing – 100,000 bits/second (30 bits /s) Speak – 250 words / min Hear – 500 words / min (listening is optional) Think – 750 words / min (understanding is optional) Look – ??? (seeing is optional) We see and think faster than we hear and speak and form opinions faster than analysing the actual communication.
  16. 16. Thinking – Telepathy is not a recognised form ofTelepathy is not a recognised form of CommunicationCommunication
  17. 17. Channels & Confusion (n(n-1)/2) – two people two channels, 10 people equates to 45! Larger projects / meetings can lead to greater confusion The same can be true of long communication chains
  18. 18. Communications - This is a little story about four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, and Nobody. There was an important job to be done and Everybody was sure that Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did it. Somebody got angry about that because it was Everybody's job. Everybody thought that Anybody could do it, but Nobody realized that Everybody wouldn't do it. It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could have done
  19. 19. Result of Poor Communication
  20. 20. Food for Thought Is communication a one way street? Is silence or no response acceptance? Receiving a communication does not mean that it is either understood or accepted. Good communication requires feedback to demonstrate understanding, acceptance etc. Understand the other party’s reference frame
  21. 21. Send reinforcements we’re going to advance Send reinforcements we’re going to our aunts Send these endorsements we’re going to France Send three & fourpence we’re going to a dance!
  22. 22. Historical Quote “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.” George Bernard Shaw (1856 – 1950
  23. 23. Organizational Communication Functional – silos but disciplined by name and by nature Matrix – multiple channels, many sources, many interpretations.
  24. 24. Communication Channels Projectized Organisation CONFLICT OR COOPERATION Specialist Staff Project Team Project Team Project Team Project Manager Project Manager Specialist Staff Specialist Staff Specialist Staff Specialist Staff Specialist Staff Specialist StaffSpecialist Staff Specialist Staff Functional Manager Functional Manager Functional Manager Manager of PMs CHIEF EXECUTIVE Project Manager Working co-operation but priority /Working co-operation but priority / loyalty issuesloyalty issues Working co-operation but priority /Working co-operation but priority / loyalty issuesloyalty issues ComomnGoalComomnGoalComomnGoalComomnGoal ???????????????? Priorities / resource Priorities / resource Priorities / resource Priorities / resource
  25. 25. Conflict Types of Conflict Symptoms Priorities Administration Technical Opinion & Performance Matters Resources Cost Schedules Personalities Harmony – no conlict Minor Disagreement & Misunderstandings Overt Questioning & Challenging – Passive Aggressive Assertive Verbalisation Threats & Ultimatums Physical Attacks Overt Destruction / Sabotage
  26. 26. Conflict Treatment Treatment Effectiveness Withdraw / avoid (ignore) Failure to treat – ‘wounded warriors’, discontent, indecision Smoothing No definitive solution, divides opinions / loyalties. Short term fix. Compromising / collaborating ‘Give and take’ attitude / real issues avoided or not identified. Intermediate term fix. Confronting / Facing Reality Facing conflict and analyzing underlying issues behind problem. Long term fix. Forcing “win – lose” with one party aggrieved. Long term repercussions.
  27. 27. Conclusions Communications are an essential part of project management People rely on communications to be able to function Effective Communications can result in less conflict on projects as no / little ambiguity and clarity Effective organisational structure and defined communication channels are also essential. Communications should be unambiguous so there is no confusion. Communication must be closed so that messages (the data transmitted) are understood
  28. 28. Remember Historical view was: “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.” Today we have the same problem: “I sent an email”… but did anybody read it / act on it?
  29. 29. Questions / Discussion

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