Fundamental QuestionsWHATWHYWHENHOWWHEREWHOI keep six wise serving men.(They taught me all I knew).There names are What & Why & When,and How & Where & Who(Rudyard Kipling 1902)
Project Management, Businessand CustomersBusiness today demands faster projects, decreased deliverytimes.Customers want to know what is happening and are moredemanding as they too are under pressure to deliver faster.This leads to an environment of increased competition.In competitive environments the rewards will go to thoseorganizations which are more flexible, more in tune with theircustomers wants and focused on their main product or service,.In order to do this all aspects of business (product delivery,profit, growth & market share) need to be optimised.
Why do we need ProjectManagement?Project management enables organisations toIdentifying problems with the project and enableissues to be escalated which allowsTasks to be done more efficiently by identifyingissues earlier which results inGetting things done more cost-effectively andDelivering projects on time, in budget and to theright quality.
Which means thatProblems may be managed in a timely manner soproducts are delivered to deadlines.Organisations have an opportunity to mitigatepossible cost overrunsCustomers expectations and requirements are metOrganisations & individuals gain a reputation forsuccessful delivery which often equates toPROFITS & BONUSESGreater Market Share, less competition, increasedcustomer confidence etc
What is a Project?An activity of limited durationThe purpose of which is to create some sort ofoutcome / deliverableThat has generally not been done before in termsof client / team/ contract / environment, andThe achievement of which signals completion ofthe activity.
What is Project ManagementPM is a technique for ensuring that we do the followingsystematically…- scheduling tasks (time management)- defining the work and risks (scope & risk management)- budget specification (cost management)- assigning responsibility for tasks (quality and organisation)Plus recognising, analysing and implementing changes in acontrolled manner
Project vs Technical ManagementManaging the project is similar for all types ofproject,ButManaging the technical aspects can be different foreach project
PM Standards & PracticesInternational Bodies (Association of Project Managers(UK); Project Management Institute (USA)National / Statutory BodiesSocietiesCompanies
Project PhasesInitiatingPlanningExecutionMonitoring & ControlClose Out
Project Components – TripleConstraintTo meet the scope of the project we work within:Time – schedule, delivery datesC0st – cost of material, resource, servicesQuality – standard to be achievedYou can have it cheap, fast or good – choose any two
Change - Trade Off
Why Project Management
Fundamental PM ElementsRequirementsScope – Work / Product Breakdown StructureOrganisation / Individual Responsible for each elementPrice / Cost per elementSchedule – Durations & DependenciesChange ControlReporting / CommunicatingDocumentation
Requirements (FACTS)FEASIBLE – able to be satisfiedAMBIGUITY FREE- not vagueCOMPLETE – all information availableTESTABLE – able to be verifiedSIMPLE – short, conciseIf requirements are not defined the project plan is compromised,work can be abortive, work may need to be repeated, price/costincreases, resources are tied up, delivery is late, expectations notmet.
Scopethe work that must be done in order to deliver a product withthe specified features and functionsA work breakdown structure is a grouping of project deliveryelements that organizes and defines the total scope of theproject: work not in the WBS is outside the scope of theproject.It essential that the scope is defined rigorously or the project willhave gaps from the outset. Scope is categorised into componentparts which can be assessed for their risk, logical sequence, andwho is responsible.
WBS – Marine Fire SystemsRequirements 3rd Party Materials Mechanical System Transport Clash Resolution Component TestsSpecifications Documents COTS Electrical System Insurance Site Attendence FATInterfacing Needs Approval Specialists Control System Storage SATConfiguration System Integration Spares Integrated T& CSystem Level Assembly AcceptanceDetailed Design Packaging ManualsDesign Review ManualsDesign CompleteDesign VerificationPLUS - Project Reports- Invoicing- Mandatory Meetings / Reviews- Other requirements- Defects LiabilityFabrication DeliveryTesting &CommissioniongMarine Fire SystemsInstallation SupportDesign Approval Procurement
WBSProvides the basis for planning, scheduling, costestimating, configuring, monitoring, reporting,directing and controlling the project.Identify risks associated with each element of theWBS so ‘uncertainties’ made visible.Aids communication with vendors/team members /managementEssential to breaking down the project into manageablecomponents and assigning risk, owner, duration, cost.Allows change and impact of change to be analysed.
Organisational AspectsOrganisational Breakdown Structure for delivery/service–indicating responsible person / organisation (& point ofcontact)SuppliersInternal Resource / DepartmentExternal Resources / SuppliersClient – yes the Client - as they need to make decisions/pay andtake time for meetings etc.If a delay/overrun/problem is occurring the responsible party mustbe identifiable and made accountable to provide a workaround toresolve the problem…this includes the Client
CostEstimates for each element – Budgeted costActual Costs incurred –Payment ReceivedValue of Work DoneProportional costs aggregated for overall progressForecastingTracking of costs is essential in the performance of a projectcommercially. Deviation from forecast must be flagged/escalatedso mitigation measures may be instigated in a timely manner.
PM Technique – Earned Value
ScheduleActivities required for project completionDurations of each taskDurations for Approvals / testsLead timeRegular Milestones based on tangible and objectiveevents to demonstrate progress.Essential to ensuring that all work is programmed andsequence is logical. Allows for dependencies to beshown and impacts of change/delays to be analysed.
Basic Project Plan
ChangeClient RequirementsCreeping ScopeCreeping eleganceLack of planningRisks realisedChange is inevitable be it from internal or externalagencies. Change means that the original plan maynot be valid and re-planning is required affectingcost/time/quality.
Scope CreepLack of clarity or detail in the original description ofscope, objectives, or workWillingness to modify a project without formalreview or approvalAllowing participants who do not do the workassociated with any change to decideFeeling that you should never say “NO” to a ClientPersonal pride that makes you believe you canaccommodate anything
Reporting / CommunicatingProgress MeetingsRegular Project Reporting (Weekly)Meaningful Reports addressing:Schedule / TimeCostsResourcesChanges / Risks / IssuesProblems and Actions being taken/neededOverall Status
28% of projects fail due to poorcommunication– A recent research in 2012 conducted by PMI®
Reporting / CommunicatingUse predetermined metrics to measure work doneUse baselines to measure progressStatus reports identifying issues and actions toresolve issuesEscalate issues when they occur rather than ‘ponder’(“Contact-wait out” or interim SITREPs)‘No news’ does not mean ‘good news’ on a projectMeetings to ensure messages are communicated andunderstood…“I sent an email” has never solved any project problem
HidingYES YESNO NOYESNONOYESA risk manifests itselfProblem AvoidedConceal it beforeanybody finds outBury itGet in firstwith yourstorySit tight and hope the riskgoes away.Will it show? Can youhide it?Can you blame somebodyelse, circumstances,client?Could admission damageyour career?
LearningNO YESYESNOA risk manifests itselfTake ownership &assess possibleconsequencesTake correctiveaction & informthose affectedTell somebody inauthorityimmediatelyCooperate fully tocorrect risk andreview proceduresRisk ManagedInvestigate whymistake occurredTry to learn frommistakesShare discovery &improve processCould admissiondamage yourcareer/company?Is it a flaw inthe process /system?
Project DocumentationProject Plan stating the scope (WBS), how work willbe undertaken and by whom, programme andmilestones, quality requirements, risks identified.Baseline ProgrammeBaseline BudgetBaseline ResourcesProgress Reports measuring progress againstbaselinesChange AuthorisationsContract Correspondence
SummaryProject management is a management technique forGetting things done efficiently /fasterGetting things done right, more cost-effectively.Identifying problems with the project and escalatingissuesProject Management allows for the systematic planning,organising and controlling of the Project Componentsof TIME, COST, QUALITY & SCOPE andcommunicating the status of a project to theparticipants.
SummaryScope is established from the Requirements and developed intoa WBSWork is allocated to resources and every element of work hasan owner which carries a cost/budgetWork is planned to be carried out in a logical sequence and aschedule is developedChanges are inevitable and their impact on time, cost andresources can be analysed against the baseline plan.Reporting against the original plan is essential to ensuring thatthe right actions are taken in a timely manner.Routine and escalation reporting gives visibility on a projectDocumentation of the plan and changes ensures that there isvisibility and accountability in the management of the project.
What, why, when, how and whereWHO?Just because there is no ‘project’ in your title does notmean you are not part of a project.Everybody contributes and plays a part
AfterwordsGood Project Management cannot guarantee projectsuccess, but…Bad or Absent Project Management will usually resultin project failure.People make (or break) projects.