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2013 anth social change

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  • 1. How Anthropologists Conduct Their Work
  • 2. Participant Observation• When Anth. live for extended periods with the cultural group they are studying. – This is known as participant – observation.• Believe they will be totally accepted if they live and participate in village life.
  • 3. Ethnography • Anthropological field work - the scientific study of human races and cultures.•Includes: –Taking / compiling detailed field notes. –Conducting field interviews. –Collecting statistics.
  • 4. Ethnocentrism• Try to avoid ethnocentrism – the learned belief that your own culture is superior to others. – judging another culture according to your own cultural values.
  • 5. Kinship is a cultural concept• – a family relationship based on what a culture considers a family to be.• Defined by: – Mating (marriage) – Birth (descent) – Nurturance (adoption)• WHY DOES THIS MATTER?
  • 6. Fictive kinship• The practice of acknowledging as kin people who are not biologically related (ex. godparents).
  • 7. What is Social Change?• Refers to changes in the way society is organized, and in the beliefs / practices of the people who live in it.• Further defined depending on particular focus of the social science disciple.
  • 8. The Anthropological Questions• Regard cultures as constantly changing organisms. – Believe most cultural change is gradual; sudden changes usually only occur if destroyed by another culture.
  • 9. The Majority World- Main focus area ofAnthropologists- 180 nations of theworld are developingcountries (little or noindustry, most peoplesurvive by farming theland).
  • 10. Sources of Cultural Change• Three main sources of cultural change 1. Invention – New products, ideas, and social patterns that affect the way people live. 2. Discovery – Finding something new that was previously unknown to a culture. 3. Diffusion – Spreading of ideas, methods, and tools from one culture to another.
  • 11. Enculturation• Process by which members of a culture learn and internalize shared ideas, values, and beliefs.
  • 12. Classification of CulturesVarious aspectsof culture can beclassified asfollows: 1. Physical Environment. 2. Level of Technology 3. Social Organization 4. Systems of Symbols

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