Participant Observation• When Anth. live for extended periods with the cultural group they are studying. – This is known as participant – observation.• Believe they will be totally accepted if they live and participate in village life.
Ethnography • Anthropological field work - the scientific study of human races and cultures.•Includes: –Taking / compiling detailed field notes. –Conducting field interviews. –Collecting statistics.
Ethnocentrism• Try to avoid ethnocentrism – the learned belief that your own culture is superior to others. – judging another culture according to your own cultural values.
Kinship is a cultural concept• – a family relationship based on what a culture considers a family to be.• Defined by: – Mating (marriage) – Birth (descent) – Nurturance (adoption)• WHY DOES THIS MATTER?
Fictive kinship• The practice of acknowledging as kin people who are not biologically related (ex. godparents).
What is Social Change?• Refers to changes in the way society is organized, and in the beliefs / practices of the people who live in it.• Further defined depending on particular focus of the social science disciple.
The Anthropological Questions• Regard cultures as constantly changing organisms. – Believe most cultural change is gradual; sudden changes usually only occur if destroyed by another culture.
The Majority World- Main focus area ofAnthropologists- 180 nations of theworld are developingcountries (little or noindustry, most peoplesurvive by farming theland).
Sources of Cultural Change• Three main sources of cultural change 1. Invention – New products, ideas, and social patterns that affect the way people live. 2. Discovery – Finding something new that was previously unknown to a culture. 3. Diffusion – Spreading of ideas, methods, and tools from one culture to another.
Enculturation• Process by which members of a culture learn and internalize shared ideas, values, and beliefs.
Classification of CulturesVarious aspectsof culture can beclassified asfollows: 1. Physical Environment. 2. Level of Technology 3. Social Organization 4. Systems of Symbols