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Understanding the teenage brain.

Understanding the teenage brain.

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  • 1. Teenagers: Is anyone in there???? TIRP IV 11/9/13
  • 2. “How Are You Today?” (choose one of these) Passionate Amazing Slightly Irregular Excellent It’s a Long Story Very Blessed Nearly Illegal Awesome Beautiful Feels like June
  • 3. • “(They) carry everything too far; they love to excess, they hate to excess- and so in all else. They think they know everything.” Aristotle
  • 4. The answer to: • “What were you thinking?” • “Why in the world did you think that was an OK thing to do?”
  • 5. “Brain Damage” • Bill Cosby
  • 6. Are today’s kids brains different? • Read the handout- look up when finished. • Find a partner at least 2 rows away and sit. • Discuss and agree on the 5 statements that you think are having the biggest impact in your classrooms.
  • 7. Brains are Vulnerable • We know that brains absorb positives. It quickly learns brand new languages, picks up culture and the family’s experiences. • But this same brain also absorbs negatives. It absorbs toxins, mixed messages, apathy, problems fear, anger, threats or violence.
  • 8. Begin with Prior Knowledge Let’s figure out what we already know about teen behavior.
  • 9. Myths about Teens 1. T F 2. T F 3. T F 4. T F 5. T F Peers influence how kids turn out more than parents Birth order plays a significant role in teen behavior Teens learn how to behave by watching parents Teenagers lying is a direct result of bad morals or lack of ethics. The content of what teens learn is mostly irrelevant outside of school
  • 10. Myths about Teens 6. T F 7. T F 8. T F 9. T F 10. T F Extreme positive parenting may help a very troubled kid succeed The teen brain is like an adult’s, but with much less experience The relationship with their parents influences teen behaviors Terrible parents may turn a normal kid into a delinquent The correlations between behavior at home and behavior outside the home are very large and statistically significant.
  • 11. Quiz Answers 1. T F… Peers influence how kids turn out more than parents-- YES…After age 5 2. T F… Birth order plays a significant role in teen behavior-- Controversial-mixed studies 3. T F… Teens learn how to behave by watching parents -- Most parents do things teens don’t 4. T F… Teenagers lying is a direct result of bad morals/ethics-- Often it’s a typical teen brain. 5. T F… The content of what teens learn is mostly irrelevant outside the school-- Most schooling offers little to teenage lives except voc/ed.
  • 12. Quiz Answers 6. T F… Extreme positive parenting may help a very troubled kid succeed-- Yes, it can and does. 7. T F… The teen brain is like an adult’s, but with much less experience. Different in many ways. 8. T F…The relationship with their parents influences teen behaviors.-- In narrow areas. 9. T F… Terrible parents may turn a normal kid into a delinquent-- Only the bottom 25%. 10. T F… The correlations between behavior at home and behavior outside the home are very large and statistically significant-- No way.
  • 13. Common Conflict areas between teens and teachers Teacher issues Unfinished work Bullying Tardiness/truancy Lying/cheating Attitude/inattention “Why do I need this?” Teen issues vague directions boring lessons failure as a threat inconsistency “they don’t listen to me” “Why do I need this?”
  • 14. Story Time! • Look over the 6 areas of concern (complaint) teens have about their teachers. • What one complaint do you think your students might have about your class that is valid?
  • 15. Story time part 2 • Form groups of 3 or 4 using your number cards. If you are an even number, you must be in a group of other “evens”, odds with odds. • Find a comfortable place to STAND and take turns briefly sharing your teen complaint. Brightest colored shirt goes first. • Listeners will ask a question or offer suggestion. • I will signal “30 Sec” with one whistle and “time to stop” with 2 whistles.
  • 16. Old Paradigm: Little to Big Brains New Paradigm: Predictable Periods of High Vulnerability (0-5 and 12-18)
  • 17. Overview of Teen Brain: 5 Behavior-Related Features • Vulnerability to stress, rewards or risky behavior • Greater sensitivity to rewards but less awareness • Lessened ability to read or manage emotions • Fuzzy brain is sleepy and weak at spontaneous problem-solving skills • Poor at future orientation
  • 18. >Time in School = >Dendrites
  • 19. Teen Brain Issues #1: Vulnerability to stress, rewards or risky behavior
  • 20. Coping Strategies • • • • • • Drugs, alcohol, smoking Antisocial behaviors Eating disorders Depression, suicide, cutting Lying Denial
  • 21. Perry, B. (1997) and Surgeon General Report (1999)
  • 22. What do adolescents worry about? (Stressors) • • • • • Schoolwork and tests Strained relationships with parents and peers Pressure for good college/good job Money Insecurity about appearance and physical development • Global issues • Concern about future
  • 23. Stressors continued • Individual crises – Death of a friend/family member or poor health – Poverty – Discrimination – Family violence – Divorce/separation
  • 24. Vulnerability to Stress, Rewards or Risky Behavior Compared to any other age group, teens have a greater vulnerability to the challenges of: •Stress, pressure and anxiety •Drugs and medications •Reward-type behaviors (gambling, smoking, racing, sex, foods, screen time, etc.)
  • 25. Causes of Teen Vulnerability The most likely cause involves highly unstable levels of brain chemicals (dopamine, serotonin and GABA) and receptor sites that have not had the “exposure” or “experiences” that adults typically have. On the right, the red you see are the dopamine sites.
  • 26. Teens and Drug Abuse: Using Ecstasy as an Example
  • 27. Research Tells Us Drugs Do Long Term Brain Damage Note damage to serotonin neurons years after ecstasy abuse
  • 28. Reality Checks for Teens Shows Real Damage From Drugs Posters for sale at…http://amenclinics.com/store/
  • 29. Examples of Vulnerability If a teen and an adult, age 30, both experienced drugs for the first time, the odds are much greater that a teen would become addicted to them (ecstasy, cigarettes, alcohol or meds). Stressed teens are more likely to become depressed or use drugs. This is a risky time of life!
  • 30. The Results… Teens have the highest risk of any age group for: • Head injuries • Drug usage • Car accidents • Unsafe behavior • Depression
  • 31. Teen: Texting and Driving What does Dr. Phil say?
  • 32. Teens Lead All Age Groups With Cases of Depression
  • 33. Social Status Strongly Influences the Brain
  • 34. Social experiences throughout life influence gene expression, dendritic remodeling, brain chemistry, heart rate and behavior. However, during our early years, these influences have a particularly profound effect. Champagne and Curley (2005) Social Status and the Brain
  • 35. Teachers Strongly Influence Student Social Status How? Through affirmation, drama, teams, recognition, cooperative learning, positive feedback, skillbuilding and giving responsibility and leadership roles
  • 36. The #1 most idiotic thing I ever had a student do.
  • 37. Stop-N-Think • Stop #1 What have you learned so far that you can put to use in your teaching?
  • 38. Teen Brain Issues #2: Greater sensitivity to effects of stress, drugs and rewards but they have much less awareness that it’s happening
  • 39. Sensitivity to Rewards • Greater sensitivity to rewards but less awareness of the effects of any substance. • This means a teenager who smokes dope, uses crack or drinks alcohol needs more to feel the same effect. • But their body is being affected MORE than an adult’s body. • This can create catastrophic risks.
  • 40. Binge Drinking Starts Early; Teens Have Delayed Awareness
  • 41. Teens Seek Novelty (green) before their Built-in “Brakes” (frontal lobes) are Ready
  • 42. Question: Is the teen brain closer to that of an adult or a 3 year old?
  • 43. Teenage Risky Behaviors… “We Won’t Get Caught” • Unauthorized Parties • Sneaking Out Late • At the Wrong Places • Driving Fast • Using Drugs/Alcohol • Accepting “Dares” • • Seeing Forbidden Others
  • 44. Resistance to Peer Pressure Grows with Age…Early Teens Especially Vulnerable
  • 45. Marijuana is #1 Illegal Drug for Teens 13 and Older (alcohol is #1 legal drug)
  • 46. Changing Brains • Gray matter (brain cells) thickens first (between ages 11-13) and later thins (reduces 7 to 10%) between the ages of 13-20. There’s a growth spurt of gray matter in the teen brain. (Paus et al., 1999). • Electrocortical evidence indicates that a wave of synaptic proliferation occurs in the frontal lobes around the age of puberty onset. This may account for the “fog” of the teen brain. (McGivern et al. 2002)
  • 47. This 15-year longitudinal study shows the vast amount of brain changes during the teen (12-19) years.
  • 48. Think Legos, not Legoland Teens are often in a developmental fog • Teen brains often overproduce synapses, causing slow and frustrating decisionmaking • Frontal lobes are still very immature • Certain areas are growing very rapidly but are unconnected
  • 49. Use it Or Lose It • Get into groups of 3 by your number cards (one group is 1,2,3 next group is 4,5,6 etc. Hint: #1,4,7,10,13,16,19, 22, 25, 28, 31 are looking for the next two higher numbers) • The “middle” number in each group will pick up handouts for everyone.
  • 50. Use it or Lose It con’t • There are 3 main paragraph. Assign those paragraphs by number card order. • Everyone in group silently reads article. • For your assigned paragraph create 1 question you would like to ask the others. • Ask questions in order. 1 train whistle means 30 sec. left 2 train whistles, time to stop
  • 51. Inside the Teenage Brain • The Wiring of the Adolescent Brain Video clip
  • 52. Teen Susceptibility to Age-related Risks • Teens are particularly susceptible to the risky extremes of novelty. Novelty juices up their unstable systems with brain chemicals like dopamine and noradrenaline. • They choose short-lasting, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards. Their underdeveloped frontal lobes play a significant role in reckless behaviors.
  • 53. Stop-N-Think • Stop #1 What have you learned so far that you can put to use in your teaching?
  • 54. Teen Brain Issues #3: Lessened ability to read or manage emotions
  • 55. 1 in 12 High School Seniors Faces Serious Distress
  • 56. The Teenage • Emotional “Stew” Emotions are essential to learning, and teens are still learning how to understand and manage emotions. • They are poor at reading emotions, and weak at selecting the right friends. • They often can’t read sarcasm, nuances or hints very well or get their mind outside their own world of feelings.
  • 57. Inside the Teenage Brain • “You Just Don’t Understand” Video clip
  • 58. Emotional Processing Speed Slowest at Ages 13-18
  • 59. When Teens Get Depressed, Affected Brain Areas Hurt Cognition and Memory
  • 60. Teen Report on Their Depression Highlights Magnitude of Stressors
  • 61. Actual Depression Stats May Exceed “Official” Numbers Says Teen Report
  • 62. Depression and Drug Abuse Correlated at Ages 12-17
  • 63. Teens and Suicide Nearly 2 million adolescents in the U.S. each year attempt suicide, and almost 700,000 receive medical attention for their attempt. From ages 10-24, every year the risk increases. (AACAP, 2001).
  • 64. The Emotional Brain In the mature brain, more of our everyday decisions are a result of many integrated areas. In the teen brain, many decisions are made by an instant unfiltered reaction from the amygdala, shown on the right.
  • 65. Hypothalamus driven individuals: – Male (males have larger hypothalamus and, in general, are more driven by it) – Hypothalamus knows 3 words: eat, kill, sex (Robert Sylwester) – Biggest reason for HDI is the way brain functions: thoughts fire neuron pathways. Every firing makes it easier to fire the next time. The more often you think something, the easier it is to think the next time. – Kids reflect the world they grow up in.
  • 66. Time for… Wake up the Brain
  • 67. Directions I’ll read off the numbers listed in black, in sequence. After each number, the letter below tells you what to do: “H” = raise hands, say “Hooray!” “S” = flash a “Hollywood smile” to your neighbor “C” = clap twice
  • 68. 1 2 3 4 5 H C S H S 6 7 8 9 10 C S H S H 11 12 13 14 15 S C H S
  • 69. More Directions I’ll still read off the numbers listed in black, in sequence. Under each number, the letter is now in either CAPS or lower case. If it’s in CAPS, respond while standing up. If in lower case, respond while seated. Remember… “H” = raise hands, say “Hooray!” “S” = flash a “Hollywood smile” to your neighbor “C” = clap twice
  • 70. h c S H s 6 7 8 9 10 c S H s H 11 12 13 14 15 s c H S
  • 71. Even MORE Directions I’ll still read off the numbers. If there’s an underline, do everything the same as in the last slide. BUT, on the next slide, do the opposite of what it would have been. Here’s an example… “H” (by itself) = stand and say “Hooray!” BUT… With a sequence of “s - C - H” … the underscore on the “C” means the next letter, “H” is now a be seated “Hooray!”
  • 72. 1 2 3 4 5 h c S H s 6 7 8 9 10 c S H s H 11 12 13 14 15 s c H S
  • 73. Stop-N-Think • Stop #1 What have you learned so far that you can put to use in your teaching?
  • 74. Teen Brain Issues #4: The Fuzzy Brain: Sleepy and poor at spontaneous problem-solving skills.
  • 75. Bored? Let’s Ask 81,000 Students from 110 High Schools Data was collected and analyzed by the Project director of Center for Evaluation and Education Policy. The study was Indiana University's Annual High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE). The survey was released 2/28/07.
  • 76. How Often They’re Bored in School Source: Yazzie-Mintz (2007) Indiana University's Annual High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE). He’s project director of Center for Evaluation and Education Policy. Survey released 2/28/07.
  • 77. Teens Tell Why They’re Bored Source: Yazzie-Mintz (2007) Indiana University's Annual High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE). He’s project director of Center for Evaluation and Education Policy. Survey released 2/28/07.
  • 78. Data on Adolescent States • Students spend over one in four minutes slumped, sleeping or resting (28% of their time) in a state of apathy (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005) • A monitor recorded the amount of time kids ages 8-15 spend in the upright position. Of the 529 in this study, mean uptime was 5.4 hours (range 1.5 to 10.3 hours) Eldridge, et al. 2003.
  • 79. Effects of “Fuzzy Brain” Teens are more likely to do “stupid” things and to lie about it than those at other ages. They can’t think through… 1) better options 2) how to tell parents/teachers the truth 3) the likelihood of getting caught eventually
  • 80. Teens and “Fuzzy Brains” • Teen brains are in a wild state of metabolic flux, PLUS: • Many teens eat poorly which can impair cognition • Many teens don’t exercise • Many teens do drugs/alcohol • Teens are influenced by “mob” mentality” of their peers
  • 81. Why Do Some Teens Often Appear “Brain-Dead”? • Typically, teens have significant sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness (Carskadon et al. 1998). • The result is typically drowsy teens in class and academic underperformance. (Maquet, 2001) • Less sleep contributes to poor emotional regulation (Dahl, 1999). • Daytime naps are a great idea for teens (Maquet, et al., 2002).
  • 82. Inside the Teenage Brain • “From zzzzz’s to A’s”
  • 83. Girls Take the Lead • The frontal lobes of girls mature faster than those of boys during puberty. (Sowell et al., 1999). • This lets girls “connect the dots” better than boys. While female brains mature between 18 and 25, it takes boys longer (age 20-28) to catch up to girls’ brain development.
  • 84. Teach teens HOW to organize their thoughts. Mind mapping is one of many smart graphic organizers.
  • 85. Stop-N-Think • Stop #1 What have you learned so far that you can put to use in your teaching?
  • 86. Teen Brain Issues #5: Poor at future orientation
  • 87. What Drives Their Brains to More Risky, Crazy Behaviors? • Their brain is experiencing new feelings (fun and pleasure) from brain chemicals that they’ve never had before! • Yes, hormones do play a part in the attraction and risk-taking of sexual nature (mating) • In addition, other forces include: being liked by peers (affiliation), and thinking that they are in charge (autonomy).
  • 88. Risk Perception Skills Weaker in Teens than in Pre-Teen Years
  • 89. Teens often make decisions even a 9year-old would call stupid. “What were you thinking?”
  • 90. Emotional Processing Speed Slowest at Ages 13-18
  • 91. Lack of Planning • Teens have trouble anticipating the consequences of their behavior because they rely on their immature frontal lobes. • They don’t see options very well. They get confused easily under stress and rarely plan more than one move ahead. • One reason they get in trouble is they don’t think ahead of how to solve potential problems for each upcoming adventure.
  • 92. Practical Suggestions Proactive problem-solving is essential. Help them think through potential awkward situations and emergencies to anticipate problems and develop solutions. Discuss pros and cons of various options. On the spot, teens will be unlikely to do this, and that failure could cost them their lives.
  • 93. Teens and Crowd Morality • Most legal infractions, injuries and fatalities occur with peers in the “mob effect.” Teens are highly susceptible to peers—more so than to parents or teachers. • Teenagers spend an average of 28 hours a week digital (video, TV, internet, etc.) and most of it is spent alone. • Teens often seek out peers (even if it’s negative) and are more likely to engage in risky behaviors in peer groups than alone.
  • 94. Stop-N-Think • Stop #1 What have you learned so far that you can put to use in your teaching?
  • 95. Teaching teenagers?