Changing The Paradigm


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General information based on necessary information for CA grade 10 Social Science

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Changing The Paradigm

  1. 1. Changing the Paradigm
  2. 2. This is a box The box represents the way things had always been…
  3. 3. This is you in the box It is safe inside the box…but is it better?
  4. 4. What else is in the box? <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute monarch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Church </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oppression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>These things are what we call “the establishment” ABUSES OF THE RENAISSANCE
  5. 5. A paradigm shift is when you change the way you think (ideology) <ul><li>When you change your paradigm, you step out of the box. </li></ul>
  6. 6. During the Enlightenment people began to think “outside of the box” <ul><li>Applied logic and reason to science & government </li></ul>Natural rights (Locke) Freedom of Speech (Voltaire) Question the establishment Revolution of the mind Limited government Scientific method
  7. 7. This new thinking led to the Age of Revolution <ul><li>ENGLISH REVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICAN REVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>FRENCH REVOLUTION </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment: How these ideas changed European Society and the impact on the growth of science and philosophy in today’s world.
  9. 9. Copernicus <ul><li>The Earth: Is round, rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun (heliocentric theory). </li></ul><ul><li>The sun remains still at the center of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>The Church is not happy! Why? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Johannes Kepler <ul><li>Provided mathematical proof for Copernicus. </li></ul><ul><li>Planets move in ellipses (oval paths) around the sun NOT in circles. </li></ul><ul><li>Planets move faster the closer they get to the sun and slower as they move away. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Built a telescope and confirmed the assertions of Copernicus. </li></ul><ul><li>Found that moons revolve around planets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Church put him on trial, ordering him to recant his theories. He lived under house arrest. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued… </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Galileo helped establish the laws of physics. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Inertia: objects remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Francis Bacon <ul><li>Truth resulted only through investigation of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific truth is not assumed but deduced by a method! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bacon’s Scientific Method <ul><li>1 st Careful observation of facts </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd A “hypothesis” -- to explain observances </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Experiment – test the theory. </li></ul><ul><li>4 th If the experiments prove the hypothesis under all conditions, it becomes a scientific law! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rene Descartes <ul><li>Believed truth is reached through reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented analytic geometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Saw math as a perfect model for clear knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Began research by doubting everything except his experience. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think, therefore I am.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Developed the theory of gravity: the force of objects presents them from falling off the earth: </li></ul><ul><li>What goes up must come down! </li></ul><ul><li>To prove his theory he developed calculus – system of mathematics which calculates changing forces or quantities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Galen <ul><li>Dissected dogs and apes. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered blood within the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Galen goofs: He thought the liver digested food and processed it into blood. </li></ul>Galen’s organ system
  18. 18. Andreas Vesalius <ul><li>Dissected humans illegally! </li></ul>
  19. 19. William Harvey <ul><li>Concluded that blood circulates throughout the body pumped by the heart and returning through the veins. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Robert Hooke <ul><li>Discovered the cell! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Robert Boyle <ul><li>Alchemist - believed that all matter is made up of the 4 elements of earth, fire, water and air. </li></ul><ul><li>However, he said that air is not an element. because it is made up of several gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined an element as something that can not be broken down into simpler parts. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Joseph Priestly <ul><li>Discovered the existence of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>His study of carbon dioxide resulted in his invention of carbonated drinks (1774) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Antoine Lavoisier <ul><li>Discovered that burning materials need oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion results when a flammable material meets oxygen! </li></ul>
  24. 24. Chapter Nine Section One Review Questions <ul><li>Define: hypothesis, ellipses, scientific method and calculus </li></ul><ul><li>Identify: Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Bacon Descartes and Newton </li></ul><ul><li>What was the scientific revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>How did it change the way Europeans viewed the universe and the workings of the human body? </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Advances in science led philosophers to believe that if reason governed laws of nature and the universe, it could govern social, political and economic relationships as well! </li></ul>
  26. 26. Philosophes <ul><li>Thinkers who believed in freedom of speech and natural rights. </li></ul><ul><li>France was the center of the most active ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>People gathered in “salons” to discuss the issues of the day. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>The basic nature of man is bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute monarchy is the best governmental form. </li></ul><ul><li>People form a contract with their government – give up freedom for protection. </li></ul><ul><li>People have the right to rebel against their government. </li></ul>
  28. 28. John Locke <ul><li>Basic nature of man is good. </li></ul><ul><li>Also believed in a “Social Contract.” </li></ul><ul><li>People are born with the “Natural Rights” of life, liberty and property. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Denis Diderot <ul><li>Edited the 1 st Encyclopedia – a 28 volume compilation of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Went to prison for his writings criticizing the Church and praising religious freedom. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Montesquieu <ul><li>Believed government powers should be separated into 3 branches: Legislative, Executive and Judicial. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed the 3 branches should have checks and balances upon each other. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Voltaire <ul><li>Served two prison terms for expressing his opinions about the church and nobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to England to experience freedom of speech and religion. </li></ul>
  32. 32. John Sebastian Bach He wrote the lively baroque style of music.
  33. 33. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart <ul><li>He wrote more than 600 classical works! </li></ul>
  34. 34. Jean-Jacques Rousseau <ul><li>“ Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains” </li></ul><ul><li>Felt that all men were equal. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a citizens duty to overthrow an oppressive government. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority rules. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Chapter 9 Section 2 Review <ul><li>Define: natural law and natural rights </li></ul><ul><li>Identify: Hobbes, Locke and Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Locke’s Social Contract theory – what was its impact? </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast Hobbes view with Locke’s view </li></ul>