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  1. 1. Wounds Courtney Bourke
  2. 2. Wounds <ul><li>Wounds are determined by the type of </li></ul><ul><li>damage that has been caused to the skin </li></ul><ul><li>and tissue beneath the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounds can be either Open or Closed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open Wounds <ul><li>An open wound is a break in the outer layer </li></ul><ul><li>of skin. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be Minor for example a scrape or </li></ul><ul><li>small paper cut or Major for example an </li></ul><ul><li>amputated arm or something penetrating </li></ul><ul><li>deeply in the body. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Minor Wounds <ul><li>Minor wounds include: </li></ul><ul><li>-Abrasions </li></ul><ul><li>-Cuts </li></ul><ul><li>-Lacerations </li></ul><ul><li>-Punctures </li></ul><ul><li>-Tears (Avulsion) </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of minor bleeding are: </li></ul><ul><li>See a break in the skin or blood </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of bleeding: </li></ul><ul><li>Arterial bleeding: bright red blood spurting out with each heart beat </li></ul><ul><li>Venous bleeding: blood oozing out of wound and darker in colour </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary Damage: skin layers scraped off and blood sits on the surface </li></ul>
  5. 5. Abrasions <ul><li>This is caused by the skin being </li></ul><ul><li>scraped or dragged across a hard </li></ul><ul><li>uneven surface causing the outer </li></ul><ul><li>layer of skin and tiny blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>to be exposed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cuts (Incision) <ul><li>A cut is caused by something sharp, piercing the skin injuring skin, soft tissue or muscle. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lacerations <ul><li>Lacerations are skin being torn , </li></ul><ul><li>resulting in skin and tissue </li></ul><ul><li>damage. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Punctures <ul><li>Punctures are caused by a blunt or pointed object/instrument piercing through skin and causing skin and tissue damage and often internal organ damage. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tears (Avulsion) <ul><li>Tears/Avulsions are caused by something sharp or rough tearing skin and other tissues off the body. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Management <ul><li>Basic Treatment for Bleeding (Minor wounds) </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a Primary & Secondary assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Then apply ‘R.E.D’ </li></ul>R - Rest Rest the casualty in a comfortable position to lower their heart rate E - Elevate Elevate the injured site above the level of the heart. This will reduce blood loss from the area. D - Direct Pressure Apply direct pressure over the wound using a sterile dressing. Then apply a firm bandage ontop.
  11. 11. Major Wounds <ul><li>Major wounds include: </li></ul><ul><li>-Embedded objects </li></ul><ul><li>-Amputation </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms of Major bleeding are: </li></ul><ul><li>Faintness or dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Weak, but rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Cold & clammy skin </li></ul><ul><li>Gasping breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Pale </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul>
  12. 12. Embedded Objects <ul><li>Foreign objects such as a knife or a stick </li></ul><ul><li>embedded in the body should never be </li></ul><ul><li>removed because the object is restricting </li></ul><ul><li>bleeding and is removed may result in </li></ul><ul><li>severe bleeding or internal damage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Management <ul><li>For an embedded object you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly complete a Primary & Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply padding around the object shaped like </li></ul><ul><li>a ‘ doughnut’ </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT remove the embedded object </li></ul>
  14. 14. Amputated Parts <ul><li>An amputation is when a limb for example a </li></ul><ul><li>toe, finger, arm or leg is partly or completely </li></ul><ul><li>detached from the body . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Management <ul><li>There are two parts to managing this injury: </li></ul><ul><li>The Casualty </li></ul><ul><li>The Amputated part </li></ul>CASUALTY Firstly DRABC Apply direct pressure to the wound Raise the limb above heart level Apply a sterile dressing and bandage AMPUTATED PART DO NOT wash or soak the part in water or liquid Wrap the part in gauze or cloth and place in something water-tight e.g. plastic bag, container. Place in a sealed container floating in cold water and ice.
  16. 16. Closed Wounds <ul><li>Closed wounds are where the bleeding is </li></ul><ul><li>internal and there is no break in the outer </li></ul><ul><li>layer of skin. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Internal Bleeding <ul><li>Severe bleeding can occur from a blunt </li></ul><ul><li>force or an object penetrating the skin </li></ul><ul><li>and internal structures resulting in </li></ul><ul><li>bleeding occurring inside the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms for internal bleeding are: </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness </li></ul><ul><li>Rigidity of abdominal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing up blood </li></ul><ul><li>Passing urine or faeces red in colour </li></ul>
  18. 18. Management <ul><li>Firstly DRABC </li></ul><ul><li>Make a Primary & Secondary assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Call 000 </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure the casualty, make them comfortable by </li></ul><ul><li>lying them down and elevating their legs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor airway, breathing and circulation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bibliography <ul><li>St John’s Ambulance (1998) Australian First Aid Chapter 4 and 5 pgs 63- 121 </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Health and Safety (2007) First Aid for Life </li></ul>