Pre, During & Post Performance Nutrition

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Pre, During & Post Performance Nutrition

  1. 1. Pre, During + Post Performance Nutrition. By Emilie Taylor
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nutrition plays a critical role in athletic performance, particularly endurance performance. The human body operates best when it is able to draw on a continuous supply of quality fuel. This supply depends on a balanced diet , supported by sufficient fluid intake to ensure cells are able to function properly. </li></ul>The Role of Nutrition.
  3. 3. <ul><li>To have sufficient energy, the athlete needs to consume an adequate amount of fuel prior to the event. If they consume to little food , they will run out of fuel and feel lethargic and weak. </li></ul><ul><li>The following guidelines are suggested for eating before an event: </li></ul><ul><li>Food should be consumed three and four hours before a competition in the case of a large meal, and on to two hours before in the case of a snack. </li></ul><ul><li>Intake should basically consist of complex carbohydrates, as these provide a sustained source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>This is important for an athletic preparation, when a typical day will include periods of rest, moderate activity and intense activity. </li></ul><ul><li>For an athlete more than 70% of carbohydrate intake should be derived from complex sources, which are carbohydrate found in grains, fruits and vegetables. </li></ul>Pre-game meal.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Avoid foods high in fat and protein, as these take longer to digest. For example fatty meats, french fries, cheeseburgers. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain adequate fluid levels in extended events, such as marathons, continuous replacement is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid meals (drink with a high carbohydrate content) are recommended if solid meals are difficult to digest. Correctly prepare, they can be an adequate source of nutrition and energy, and contribute significantly to hydration. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to realise that patterns for pre-game eating need to be established over a period of time and new foods should not be added to a diet without a trial period. </li></ul>Pre-game meal.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Some examples of high carbohydrate Pre-exercise meals include: </li></ul><ul><li>Breakfasts: oatmeal or whole grain cold cereal, skim milk or soy milk, fruits like bananas or berries, fruit juices, yoghurts and pancakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch: turkey, tuna, peanut butter sandwich, whole wheat pasta salad, fruit, yoghurt and fruit juices. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinners: Baked chicken, fish, potato, pasta, rice and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Snacks: Energy bars, fruits, cereals, yoghurt and fruit. </li></ul>Example of Pre-game meal.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Endurance events, particularly in the hot and possibly humid conditions, can have a significant impact on the body’s fuel and fluid supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim is to conserve muscle glycogen and maintain blood glucose levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate supplementation is needed to avoid glycogen depletion. At exercise intensities above 75% of aerobic capacity, liquid carbohydrate feeding (sports drinks) can delay glycogen depletion by up to 30minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen supplementation is not needed for low-intensity/short duration events. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate hydration by regular fluid intake must be maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the sport, some individuals also snack during a break. For example snacking during an event would not be suitable for a marathon runner, compared to Rugby league where an athlete may choose to snack on something simple such as a banana. In some sports is often difficult to eat foods, so these sports may tend to opt for the alternative of sports drinks or liquad meals. </li></ul>During competition meal.
  7. 7. <ul><li>The most important nutritional factor during competition is fluid intake. Dehydration is a concern during any physical activity. Athletes should aim to drink regularly rather than wait until they become thirsty. As a guideline athletes should aim to drink 150-250mls every 15minutes. </li></ul>During competiton. <ul><li>In an event less than 30minutes: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrate well before an event. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid taken during the event will not benefit performance as it does not become available to the body within 30mins. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid taken during the event will alleviate a dry mouth and improve perceived exertion. </li></ul><ul><li>In events of 30-60minutes duration: </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the event well hydrated. </li></ul><ul><li>As a general rule: replace fluid every 15mins by drinking 150-250mls of water. </li></ul><ul><li>A supplementary source of carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to improve performance in events as short as 60mins. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In endurance sports: </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the event well hydrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace fluid regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Consume 30-60g of carbohydrate per hour of exercise, </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid carbohydrates that delay the stomach emptying (e.g. foods that are high in fat or fibre) or cause gastrointestinal problems. </li></ul>During Competition.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Post performance nutrition is concerned with the restoration of muscle and liver glycogen stores and the replacement of the fluid and electrolytes that were lost in sweat. </li></ul><ul><li>A recovery nutritional plan must aim to: </li></ul><ul><li>Replace glycogen stores by eating foods with a high carbohydrate content. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehydrate to replace fluid lost during the event. (water or carbohydrate solutions of 5-8 % are recommended as the best choice fluid) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid alcohol because it contributes to dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of muscle glycogen stores is enhanced by 3 factors; </li></ul><ul><li>The more the glycogen store was depleted, the faster the rate of recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>By eating carbohydrates immediately/shortly after exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>By ingesting adequate amounts of carbohydrates. Nutritionists recommend 1-1.5 carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass immediately after exercise; the 7-10g carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass in the 24hours after exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate foods with a high glycaemic index should be eaten. </li></ul>Post-performance.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Some examples of snacks and recovery foods include: </li></ul><ul><li>Yoghurt with fresh fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit smoothie </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken roll </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta salad </li></ul><ul><li>Rice crackers with peanut butter spread </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit juice </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Whole fruits, vegetables and juices are good examples as they and carbohydrate rich and potassium rich. </li></ul><ul><li>All these examples are high in carbohydrate which is critical in the restoration of glycogen stores, </li></ul>Post exercise meals.

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