PDHPE Preliminary Course 2008 ASSESSMENT TASK 4 NAME: ALEXANDRA KRAPEZ TEACHER: MR ZAKRIS Outcomes to be assessed: P5 plans for and can implement actions that can support the health of others. P12 demonstrates strategies for the assessment, management and prevention of injuries in first aid settings.
“ Definition: Simple emergency medical care procedures intended for lay rescuers to perform before emergency medical professionals are available. May refer to emergency medical providers, such as ambulance and other first responders.”
When you are in a hot environment, the body starts to loose heat, this is done by redirecting blood to the skin and by sweating. When the body starts to sweat profusely, this may lead to an excessive loss of fluids and salts, resulting in heat exhaustion. heat exhaustion isnt seen as severe, and rarely is, but if exposure to the sun continues then heatstroke may occur, this is because the body’s normal cooling mechanisms break down and the body temperature rises. For heatstroke and heat exhaustion to occur the temperature is usually above 40 degrees Celsius. Heat stroke is a life threatening medical emergency. Along with this high humidity levels amplify the risk of heatstroke because sweating is ineffective and heat loss is decreased.
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke occurs in people who are physically active in the sun and elderly people and infants are much more at risk as the cooling mechanisms are less efficient.
Heat Exhaustion & Heatstroke Signs and symptoms:
weak, rapid pulse
Rapid, shallow breathing
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
Flushed or pale skin
dry, red, hot skin
Sweating stops/no sweating
Rapid, strong pulse which may later become slow
Rapid, shallow breathing
confusion and disorientation
If left untreated, heatstroke may progress to coma in minutes, and death may occur due to kidney failure, acute heart failure, or direct heat induced damage to the brain.
Heat Exhaustion & Heatstroke Management of illness:
Seek emergency medical assistance immediately
If casualty is unconscious, place them in the recovery position
Remove most of the casualties clothing and sponge down the body with a cool and wet cloth
Ice packs to the head, neck, armpits, and groin to reduce the casualties temperature.
Provide them with cool water to sip if conscious and able.
remove from warm environment in a cool place and lay them down
provide cool water to sip
cool down body with a wet cloth
monitor casualty, is nothing changes seek medical advice
Hypothermia occurs when the body's temperature falls below 35°C. Hypothermia can occur in any environment, this may include: low temperatures, winds and damp conditions, all this increase heat loss from the body. Hypothermia is often more associated with the water environment, as water suppresses heat from the body much quicker. Simply by laying on a cold surface for a long period of time can be a risk of developing hypothermia. People who are most at risk to hypothermia are: young children, elderly, people under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and people who are seriously injured. It can happen quickly or evolve gradually over time, as it progresses the casualties level of consciousness is reduced, thinking is impaired etc. hypothermia may also be associated with frostbite and, if it is extreme, can be life-threatening. Frostbite occurs when exposure to extreme coldness, the cold can freeze the body tissue and damage them, if not treated, frostbite may result in tissue death and permanent damage. It usually happens when temperature is below 0 degrees Celsius.
Help them into shelter away from wind and cold conditions
Remove all wet, cold clothing and wet boots or gloves that may constrict blood circulation, and re-dress in dry, warm clothes and blankets, a sleeping bag with a warm person inside may also help re-warm the casualty.
Give casualty warm, sweet liquids ro drink, do not give alcohol.
Seek medical help if casualty does not improve rapidly.
Moderate to severe treatment:
DRABCD-check for blood circulation and breathing pulse
Send for medical help
Move person to shelter
Don’t rub or handle the casualty roughly, this could trigger ventricular fibrillation
Remove wet clothing very carefully and replace with warm clothing and blankets.
Monitor the casualties vital signs
If not breathing and no pulse, commence CPR immediately.
Stay with them at all times until help arrives.
call an ambulance immediately
Handle casualty gently and cautiously
Lay casualty down flat on back
Conduct a primary survey
Commence CPR if needed and continue until help arrives
Shield from cold environment
Provide oxygen if able
Warm affected areas(warm water) only as long as there is no possibility of refreezing
Remove affected areas from water when return to normal color
Do not rub frostbite or warm with direct heat (fires)
Place gauze between the frostbite fingers or toes, and bandage the affected areas loosely