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Heat Exhaustion

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Students presentation for PDHPE.

Students presentation for PDHPE.

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  • 1. PDHPE Preliminary Course 2008 ASSESSMENT TASK 4 NAME: ALEXANDRA KRAPEZ TEACHER: MR ZAKRIS Outcomes to be assessed: P5 plans for and can implement actions that can support the health of others. P12 demonstrates strategies for the assessment, management and prevention of injuries in first aid settings.
  • 2. First Aid
    • “ Definition: Simple emergency medical care procedures intended for lay rescuers to perform before emergency medical professionals are available. May refer to emergency medical providers, such as ambulance and other first responders.”
    • -http://firstaid.about.com/od/glossary/g/07_first_aid.htm
  • 3. Heat Exhaustion & Heatstroke
    • When you are in a hot environment, the body starts to loose heat, this is done by redirecting blood to the skin and by sweating. When the body starts to sweat profusely, this may lead to an excessive loss of fluids and salts, resulting in heat exhaustion. heat exhaustion isnt seen as severe, and rarely is, but if exposure to the sun continues then heatstroke may occur, this is because the body’s normal cooling mechanisms break down and the body temperature rises. For heatstroke and heat exhaustion to occur the temperature is usually above 40 degrees Celsius. Heat stroke is a life threatening medical emergency. Along with this high humidity levels amplify the risk of heatstroke because sweating is ineffective and heat loss is decreased.
    • Heat exhaustion and heat stroke occurs in people who are physically active in the sun and elderly people and infants are much more at risk as the cooling mechanisms are less efficient.
  • 4. Heat Exhaustion & Heatstroke Signs and symptoms:
    • Heat Exhaustion:
    • weak, rapid pulse
    • Rapid, shallow breathing
    • Profuse sweating
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
    • Headache, dizziness
    • Muscle cramps
    • Thirst
    • Flushed or pale skin
    • Heatstroke:
    • dry, red, hot skin
    • Sweating stops/no sweating
    • Rapid, strong pulse which may later become slow
    • Rapid, shallow breathing
    • Seizures
    • reduced consciousness/unconsciousness
    • confusion and disorientation
    • If left untreated, heatstroke may progress to coma in minutes, and death may occur due to kidney failure, acute heart failure, or direct heat induced damage to the brain.
  • 5. Heat Exhaustion & Heatstroke Management of illness:
    • Heat Stroke
    • Seek emergency medical assistance immediately
    • DRABCD
    • If casualty is unconscious, place them in the recovery position
    • Remove most of the casualties clothing and sponge down the body with a cool and wet cloth
    • Fan vigorously
    • Ice packs to the head, neck, armpits, and groin to reduce the casualties temperature.
    • Provide them with cool water to sip if conscious and able.
    • Heat Exhaustion:
    • DRABC
    • remove from warm environment in a cool place and lay them down
    • provide cool water to sip
    • cool down body with a wet cloth
    • monitor casualty, is nothing changes seek medical advice
    • If untreated may lead to heatstroke.
  • 6. Hypothermia
    • Hypothermia occurs when the body's temperature falls below 35°C. Hypothermia can occur in any environment, this may include: low temperatures, winds and damp conditions, all this increase heat loss from the body. Hypothermia is often more associated with the water environment, as water suppresses heat from the body much quicker. Simply by laying on a cold surface for a long period of time can be a risk of developing hypothermia. People who are most at risk to hypothermia are: young children, elderly, people under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and people who are seriously injured. It can happen quickly or evolve gradually over time, as it progresses the casualties level of consciousness is reduced, thinking is impaired etc. hypothermia may also be associated with frostbite and, if it is extreme, can be life-threatening. Frostbite occurs when exposure to extreme coldness, the cold can freeze the body tissue and damage them, if not treated, frostbite may result in tissue death and permanent damage. It usually happens when temperature is below 0 degrees Celsius.
  • 7. Hypothermia Signs and symptoms:
    • Mild:
    • Maximum shivering
    • Pale, cool skin
    • Poor coordination
    • Slurred speech
    • Usually conscious, but with laziness and slowed thinking.
    • Moderate:
    • Most shivering ceases
    • Increasing muscle rigidity
    • Consciousness clouded
    • Breathing and pulse becomes slow and hard to locate.
    • Severe
    • Progressive loss of consciousness
    • Heartbeat irregularities may develop
    • Pupils fixed and dilated
    • May appear dead
    • Frostbite:
    • White cold patches of skin appear
    • Tingling
    • Numbness
    • When warmed, affected tissues become red and swollen
    • If severe blistering appears
    • If tissue is dead-may appear black or dark blue.
  • 8. Hypothermia Management:
    • Mild hypothermia treatment:
    • Help them into shelter away from wind and cold conditions
    • Remove all wet, cold clothing and wet boots or gloves that may constrict blood circulation, and re-dress in dry, warm clothes and blankets, a sleeping bag with a warm person inside may also help re-warm the casualty.
    • Give casualty warm, sweet liquids ro drink, do not give alcohol.
    • Seek medical help if casualty does not improve rapidly.
    • Moderate to severe treatment:
    • DRABCD-check for blood circulation and breathing pulse
    • Send for medical help
    • Move person to shelter
    • Don’t rub or handle the casualty roughly, this could trigger ventricular fibrillation
    • Remove wet clothing very carefully and replace with warm clothing and blankets.
    • Monitor the casualties vital signs
    • If not breathing and no pulse, commence CPR immediately.
    • Stay with them at all times until help arrives.
    • Unresponsive:
    • call an ambulance immediately
    • Handle casualty gently and cautiously
    • Lay casualty down flat on back
    • Conduct a primary survey
    • DRABCD
    • Commence CPR if needed and continue until help arrives
    • Shield from cold environment
    • Provide oxygen if able
    • Frostbite treatment:
    • Warm affected areas(warm water) only as long as there is no possibility of refreezing
    • Remove affected areas from water when return to normal color
    • Do not rub frostbite or warm with direct heat (fires)
    • Place gauze between the frostbite fingers or toes, and bandage the affected areas loosely
    • Seek medical help.
  • 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • “ The royal Australian college of general practitioners: complete home medical guide” Medical reviewer: Dr Chris Del Mar Medical editor: Dr Simon Murray
    • “ World book: Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s medical centre. Medical encyclopedia” World book Inc. A Scott fetzer company
    • http://www.disability.vic.gov.au/dsonline/dsarticles.nsf/pages/Hypothermia?OpenDocument
    • First Aid booklet