Dietary Supplementation

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  • 1. Dietary Supplementation
  • 2. Syllabus Content Covered
  • 3. What is Dietary Supplementation? As stated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994;
    • A dietary supplement is a product (other than tobacco) that:
      • is intended to supplement the diet
      • contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins; minerals; herbs or other botanicals; amino acids; and other substances) or their constituents
      • is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid
      • is labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement
  • 4. Vitamins Vitamins do not produce energy, however they act as a catalyst in the metabolic reaction that produces energy from the fuel stores and assist in the production of red blood cells, the repair of tissues and protein synthesis. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate).
  • 5. Minerals Minerals, on the other hand, activate enzymes for energy production through glycolysis and assist in the function of the immune system. Electrolytes found in minerals affect muscle concentration and iron is vital for the formation of haemoglobin, which both can positively affect performance.
  • 6. Carbohydrate Loading In sports, carbohydrate loading is a strategy employed by endurance athletes such as marathon runners to maximize the storage of glycogen in the muscles. The process that is currently recommended involves increasing complex carbohydrate consumption above normal levels in the days leading up to the competition. The athlete is required to taper exercise for 72 hours prior to competition and during this time eat a diet which is extremely high in carbohydrate percentage. By increasing it by a small amount 3-5 days prior to competition, the body will have even more glycogen available than usual.
  • 7. What is in Dietary Supplements?
    • Sports Drinks
    • Glucose
    • Sodium + Electrolytes
    • Carbohydrates
    • Water
    • Protein Powders
    • Protein
    • Amino Acids
    • Sports Bars
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
    • Various Vitamins/Minerals
    • Content varies with product
    • Multivitamins
    • Vitamin a-H
    • Calcium
    • Zinc
    • Potassium etc.
    • *Content Varies with particular types of multi vitamins/minerals
  • 8. The Benefits/Disadvantages of Dietary Supplements Example Benefits Disadvantages Sports Drinks
    • help the offset of fluid loss following exercise.
    • additional glucose helps maintain blood glucose levels in endurance activities.
    • Sodium/ other electrolytes replace those which are lost during activity. Sodium can assist with fluid absorption.
    • Good taste, entices athletes to consume product.
    • Glucose is of no value to the moderate exerciser as it supplies empty kilojoules.
    • Some drinks are too high in sodium.
    Sports Bars
    • convenient
    • Often contain nutrients required by an athlete in training.
    • useful in helping athletes achieve their nutritional goals in a busy day or during and exercise session.
    • impractical to consume directly before or during exercise
    • high cost
    Protein Powders
    • supply the required amino acids to the body.
    • impractical to consume directly before or during exercise
    • high cost
    Multivitamins
    • provides constant release of vitamins and minerals over a prolonged period of time, when the body needs them.
    • usually in a convenient one per day dosage
    • Selenium is toxic in high doses.
    • high cost