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  1. 1. First Aid - Diabetes Hayley Doldissen
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is diabetes? </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin or when the insulin the body makes does not work properly. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two different types of diabetes, type one and type two. Type one diabetes usually occurs in children and adolescents and happens when the pancreas loses the ability to secrete insulin. Insulin treatment is critical for the persons life. Type two diabetes is a lifestyle disease and usually occurs in adults. While their bodies secrete insulin, it does not have the same affect as a non-diabetic and can usually be controlled by diet and a lifestyle change including exercise. Sometimes, tablets or injections are necessary for treatment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What causes </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes? </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of type one diabetes is </li></ul><ul><li>not completely understood. It can </li></ul><ul><li>be said that diabetes is caused </li></ul><ul><li>by a range of factors such as </li></ul><ul><li>genetics and environmental </li></ul><ul><li>factors like viruses. A person </li></ul><ul><li>becomes diabetic when they </li></ul><ul><li>either inherit a gene or the </li></ul><ul><li>environment triggers something in </li></ul><ul><li>that persons body that causes the </li></ul><ul><li>immune system to become </li></ul><ul><li>confused and fight the cells of the </li></ul><ul><li>pancreas (these insulin producing cells are </li></ul><ul><li>called the islets of langerhans), killing them </li></ul><ul><li>and disabling the person from ever </li></ul><ul><li>secreting insulin from their pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>again. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>What are the </li></ul><ul><li>signs and </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms? </li></ul><ul><li>Before a person has been diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>with diabetes and has just developed </li></ul><ul><li>the disease, the signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>will be as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive passing of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>Mood changes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased thirst and drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Development of ketones in blood which can cause abdominal pains, nausea and vomiting. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia: Hyperglycemia is when there is too much sugar in the blood and a blood sugar level of >15 would indicate a dangerous level. Hypoglycemia is when there is too little sugar in the blood and a blood sugar level of <4 is considered dangerous. The target range is 4-8.The above reading of 2.7 is an example of hypoglycemia, it is a dangerous level and first aid would need to be carried out in a situation like this.
  6. 6. Signs and symptoms of Hypoglycemia <ul><li>Weak, dizzy, feeling light headed </li></ul><ul><li>Confused, disoriented </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, pale, moist skin </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced level of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>May appear to others as drunk </li></ul>
  7. 7. Signs and symptoms of Hyperglycemia <ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Breath smells like nail polish remover </li></ul><ul><li>Increased urination </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced level of consciousness </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Management of </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes: </li></ul><ul><li>When a person is diagnosed with </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes, they are taught lifelong </li></ul><ul><li>management of the disease. This </li></ul><ul><li>involves testing the blood sugar level </li></ul><ul><li>multiple times daily, insulin therapy </li></ul><ul><li>(via injection or an insulin pump), a </li></ul><ul><li>healthy food plan, exercise and they are </li></ul><ul><li>educated on the disease so they are able </li></ul><ul><li>to make good decisions in the future </li></ul><ul><li>regarding their diabetes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia <ul><li>Both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia can cause a casualty to require first </li></ul><ul><li>aid. They can both lead to unconsciousness and if not treated and managed </li></ul><ul><li>properly, their condition can worsen. Hypoglycemia is the more common of </li></ul><ul><li>the two. Each condition is different with different signs and symptoms and </li></ul><ul><li>each have different first aid management. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Hypoglycemia: </li></ul><ul><li>If the person is responsive, cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>and able to swallow: </li></ul><ul><li>Give a sweet, sugary drink or food </li></ul><ul><li>Never give diabetic drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Seek medical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>If the person is unresponsive: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a primary survey </li></ul><ul><li>Call an ambulance immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supplemental oxygen if able </li></ul><ul><li>When medical assistance reaches a </li></ul><ul><li>person suffering hypoglycemia, they </li></ul><ul><li>will usually inject them with glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>(a hormone that raises blood sugar </li></ul><ul><li>levels). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hyperglycemia: </li></ul><ul><li>If responsive: </li></ul><ul><li>Seek medical advice </li></ul><ul><li>If unresponsive: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a primary survey </li></ul><ul><li>Call an ambulance urgently </li></ul><ul><li>Provide supplemental oxygen if able </li></ul><ul><li>When medical assistance reaches a person </li></ul><ul><li>suffering hyperglycemia, they will </li></ul><ul><li>usually test the person’s blood sugar level </li></ul><ul><li>and give an insulin injection in order to </li></ul><ul><li>lower the blood sugar levels. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The End! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bibliography <ul><li>Source One: </li></ul><ul><li>Type: Book </li></ul><ul><li>Name: Caring for diabetes in children and adolescents, A parent’s manual, Second edition. </li></ul><ul><li>Author: G Amber, V Barron, C May, E Ambler, F Cameron </li></ul><ul><li>Publication date: 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation :Combined Children’s Diabetes Services of NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Date retrieved : Friday August 22 nd 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Source Two: </li></ul><ul><li>Type: Book </li></ul><ul><li>Name: Royal Life Saving – First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Author: John Lippman & David Natoli </li></ul><ul><li>Publication date: April 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation :The Royal Life Saving Society Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Date retrieved : Friday August 22 nd 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Source Three: </li></ul><ul><li>Type: Website </li></ul><ul><li>Web Address: http://www.diabetescaregroup.info/ </li></ul><ul><li>Author/organisation: Diabetes Care Group </li></ul><ul><li>Date last updated: 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Page title: Diabetes Care Group Information </li></ul><ul><li>Date retrieved: Friday August 22 nd 2008 </li></ul>Source Four: Type: Person Name: Michele Skippen Title: Registered Nurse and Diabetes Educator Date information retrieved: Friday August 22 nd 2008