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  • 1. Laura Ball Bites and Stings
  • 2. Nature of medical condition/injury Bites and stings are directly related to the venom which is injected into the body. The different types of venom of bites and stings varies according to the diverse range of venomous creatures such as snakes, spiders, bees, wasps, scorpions, ants, ticks, jellyfish, molluscs and fish. Since every venomous creature is different the severity of the bites and stings will depend on characteristics such as the type of creature, strength and effect of creature, the amount of venom injected, as well as on characteristics of the casualty such as their size, age and general health. A specific person characteristic of a person is allergies. Although some venoms may be recognised as minor bites/stings if a person has an allergic reaction to the venom they may go into anaphylactic shock which in turn can be fatal, also depending on the severity of the allergic reaction.
  • 3. Spread Of Venom There are two ways that venom can be circulated throughout the body, by the circulatory and/or lymphatic system. The lymphatic system works by muscular action and the only way to slow down the spread of venom via the lymphatic system is to use the Pressure-Immobilisation technique as well as minimising movement of affected limb. Prevention With bites and stings what is better than a treatment is prevention. A person can do this by avoiding or taking special care in areas and seasons prone to venomous creatures (such as long grass for snakes, etc) and by treating the creatures with respect such as sea creatures, etc.
  • 4.
    • Signs & Symptoms:
    • Puncture marks
    • Headache
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
    • Breathing difficulties, breathing stops
    • Limb weakness, paralysis or pain
    • Doubled or blurred vision
    • Abdominal Pain
    • Difficulty in speaking and swallowing
    • Primary Management techniques:
    • Conduct primary Survey
    • Immediately apply pressure immobilisation technique/bandage.
    • Immobilises casualty while reassuring them and continually monitoring their health
    • Arrange for transportation to medical facility, preferably and ambulance.
    • TAKE NOTE:
    • DO NOT wash wound site because venom at this site may help identify breed of snake.
    • DO NOT try to catch the snake to ensure own safety.
    • If you observed DO try to remember appearance of snake to help identify it to medical personal.
    Snakes
  • 5. Spiders There are various types of spiders who all have different types of venom and have different strengths of venom. Signs and symptoms of spiders bites are quite general across the broad yet not all of the signs and symptoms below will apply to all spiders and their bites. However management of some spiders are different.
    • Signs and Symptoms:
    • Sharp pain at bite site
    • Profuse/patchy sweating
    • Nausea, vomiting, headache and abdominal pain
    • Intense local pain which increases and spreads
    • Small hairs stand on end
    • Muscular weakness or spasms
    • Confusion
    • Unconsciousness
    • Breathing difficulty
    • Swollen and tender glands
  • 6. Pressure immobilisation should not be used with spider bites that cause local tissue death because it may add to damage and also pain, so for spiders such as the white tailed spider it is best to manage similar to the redback and seek urgent medical assitance. Other Spider Bites
    • Conduct a primary survey.
    • The venom in redbacks is spreads slowly so no pressure immobilisation is needed.
    • Reassure casualty and continually monitor.
    • Apply a cold ice pack to ease reduce pain.
    • Arrange for transportation to medical facility, preferably and ambulance.
    Redback spider
    • Conduct a primary survey.
    • Immediately apply firm pressure on wound by applying pressure-immobilisation.
    • Immobilise casualty and provide reassurance to casualty.
    • Arrange for transportation to medical facility, preferably and ambulance.
    Funnel Web
  • 7. Bee, Wasps, Scorpion & Ant Stings Although the bee, wasp, scorpion and ant stings aren’t especially toxic, they can cause some people severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) and this can sometime result in death.
    • Signs & Symptoms:
    • Severe pain at affected site
    • Local redness and swelling
    • There are also additional symptoms that people may have with allergies:
    • Itchy rash
    • Puffy eyelids, facial and limb swelling
    • Wheezing and difficulty in breathing
    • Nausea, vommitting and diarrhoea
    • Collapse
    • Primary Management Techniques:
    • Conduct a primary survey
    • Remove the sting by scraping sideways using fingernail or similar object.
    • Place icepack on affected area to reduce pain.
    • If the casualty has a history of allergic reactions and through observation has signs/symptoms of an allergic reaction apply pressure immobilisation and seek urgent medical help.
  • 8. Common Sea Creatures (Jellyfish and fish)
    • Control severe bleeding
    • Remove spine if still present
    • Immerse wound in hot water around 45 ° to reduce pain for around 30-39 minutes. Repeat if need be.
    • Apply ice pack if hot water doesn’t relieve pain.
    • Treat for shock
    • Clean wound by scrubbing with soap
    • Apply local antiseptics
    • Get medical advice.
    • Immediate pain (Severe if venomous)
    • Puncture wound/laceration, bleeding
    • Swelling
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Shock
    • Irrational behavior
    • Reduced level of consciousness
    • Discolouration (blue/green) around puncture site of stone fish.
    Fish Spine (Stonefish, stingray)
    • Primary Management Technique:
    • Conduct primary survey
    • Immobilise and reassure casualty and monitor closely.
    • Do not rub sting area
    • If casualties breathing or conscious is impaired, pain doesn’t go away, other pains develop or if sting area increases, seek urgent medical help.
    • Apply cold pack to reduce pain.
    • Don’t wash sting area with water
    • Pick of tentacles with fingers if able and necessary.
    • - If sting occurs within tropics pour vinegar over sting area.
    • Signs and Symptoms:
    • Stinging sensation, and sever pain at affected site.
    • Red rash, weals
    • Pain in lymph glands
    • Shock
    • Breathing difficulty/stops
    • Unconsciousness
    • Cardiac Arrest
    Jelly Fish
  • 9. Diagram: Lippman J, Natoli D. (2006) First Aid – Royal Life Saving Society of Australia . J.L Publications: Victoria, Australia. Primary Management Techniques for Sea Creatures Overall Venomous Bite or Sting Restrict venom flow/prevent further envemonation Pain reduction Pressure Immobilisation Snake Blue-ringed octopus Cone shell Funnelweb spider Vinegar Tropical jellyfish Cold Packs Jellyfish Redback spider Ant, bee, wasp, scorpion Hot water/heat (45 °) Fish spine kinjury Blue bottle jellyfish
  • 10. Animal Bites
    • Signs & Symptoms:
    • Pain at affected site
    • Swelling
    • Open wound / bleeding
    • Anxiety
    • Primary Management technique:
    • Conduct primary survey
    • Reassure casualty
    • Put on disposable gloves
    • Wash wound with soap and warm water
    • Dry washed area and cover with sterile dressings
    • Control bleeding by applying pressure and elevating affected limb.
    • If severe bite or bleeding seek medical help.
  • 11. Pressure-Immobilisation technique lymphatic system, which works by muscular action. In order to slow down venom circulation for these specific creatures the pressure-immobilisation technique should be used. The venoms of snakes, blue-ringed octopus, cone shell and Funnelweb Spider circulate through the body via the Immediately apply pressure to envenomed area . Apply broad pressure bandage Bandage should be tight and firm but not too mush as to stop circulation. Start from below bite and work you way up. Apply bandage as far up limb as possible. Apply a splint to limb to inhibit movement. Fasten splint to limb using another bandage. Bind splint as firm as possible to restrict all movement. Then seek urgent medical assistance. When the arm is the site of affected area, after applying above steps a sling should also be used to immobilise the limb. Pictures from: AVRU (Australian Venom Research Unit). (December 2006) Pressure Immobilisation Bandaging. (Online) http:// www.avru.org/firstaid/firstaid_pib.html (Retrieved 29-8-08)
  • 12. Bibliography Able Publishing (2007) First Aid . Pearson Education Australia: Melbourne AVRU (Australian Venom Research Unit). (December 2006) Pressure Immobilisation Bandaging. (Online) http:// www.avru.org/firstaid/firstaid_pib.html (Retrieved 29-8-08) Lippman J, Natoli D. (2006) First Aid – Royal Life Saving Society of Australia . J.L Publications: Victoria, Australia. Parasole EMT. (2006) Bites and Stings. (Online) http:// www.parasolemt.com.au/venum.asp (Retrieved 29-8-08) St John Ambulance Australia. (March 2008). Funnel-web & Mouse Spider Bites. (Online) http://www.stjohn.org.au/images/stjohn/information/funnel%20web%20spider%20bite%20june07%20v1.pdf (Retrieved 29-8-08) St John Ambulance Australia. (June 2007). Red-back Spider Bite. (Online) http://www.stjohn.org.au/images/stjohn/information/red-back%20spider%20bite%20v1%20june%2007.pdf (Retrieved 29-8-08) St John Ambulance Australia. (June 2007). Snake Bites. (Online) http://www.stjohn.org.au/images/stjohn/information/snake%20bite%20june07%20v1.pdf (Retrieved 29-8-08) Pictures Sites Only: Creative Arts. (9-11-04). Spider Webs . (Online) http://www.shawnolson.net/a/857/spider-webs.html (Retrieved 29-08-08) Dream Catcher. (October 2007). Dreams – The Spiders . (Online) http://megzaz.wordpress.com/2007/10/20/dreams-the-spiders/ (Retrieved 19-8-08) Diving World (No date). Photo gallery. (Online) http:// divingworld.com/photogallery.html (Retrieved 29-8-08) Move: Do it green (no date). Going organic will spare you time and energy. (Online) http://blogs.move.com/do-it-green/2007/09/20/going-organic-will-spare-you-time-and-energy/ (Retrieved 29-8-08) (2007). Jelly fish curious creatures. (Online) http://www.ratemyscreensaver.com/animals/jellyfish-curious-creatures/ (Retrieved 29-8-08)