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GOOD MORNING
Theory of Cognitive
development by Jean
Piaget
Dr. Parag S. Deshmukh
Ist MDS.
Contents:
 Introduction
 Classification of psychological theories
 Cognitive development
 Stages of cognitive developm...
Introduction
As the saying goes
“body does what mind says, for
all behavioral act of a person
there is a force behind whi...
• Psychology –
 Study of human mind and its functions.
 Psychology is both a field of study and also
a means of improvin...
 For treating a child successfully or to manage
a child in a dental setting, we as dentists
should have thorough knowledg...
Different Theories Of Psychology Which
Have An Application In Dentistry
 Theories on personality Development

• Psychoana...
 Theories on Learning and development of Behavior
• Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov
• Operant conditioning by B.F. ...
IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING
CHILD PSYCHOLOGY IN
DENTISTRY:To understand the child as he comes to dental office &
know his proble...
Biography
 Switzerland, on August 9, 1896

 Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature
with an interest in lo...
 He worked for a year at psychology labs in
Zurich and at Bleuler‟s famous psychiatric clinic

 In 1919, he taught psych...
Cognitive Development of Children

• Cognition refers to the mental processes by
which knowledge is acquired, elaborated,...
Intelligence
 Basics of the processes involved in cognition
i.e. perception, thinking, abstraction etc. is
intelligence.
...
Cognition and Age
 It wasn‟t until about the middle of the last century
that researchers began to systematically study th...
Jean Piaget’s structural-functional
approach –
a model that emphasizes the biological
functions and the environmental infl...
Jean Piaget Research Work
 Conversation &

observation of 3
children and nephew
 Development of
thought process
Piaget’s Basic Ideas Of
Cognition
 Genetic Epistemology, “As the study of acquisition,
modification and abstract ideas an...
• Piaget rejected the idea that learning was
the passive assimilation of the knowledge.

• He proposed that learning is dy...
PIAGET’S VIEW OF COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT

Equilibration
schemes
Adaptation
Organization
Equilibrium
Equilibration
It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to
explain how children shift from one stage of
thought to next
Eve...
Cognitive Schemes: The
structural aspects of intelligence
 Describe the models or mental structures, that we create
to re...



Behavioural schemes
A behavioural scheme is an organized pattern of
behaviour that the child uses to represent and
re...
Organization:
 It is the process by which children
combine existing schemes into new
and more complex intellectual
struct...
Adaptation :
 It is the ability of the person to

adjust to the environment and to
interact with it.

 Assimilation and ...
Assimilation  From the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates
events within the environment into mental categories...
Accommodation:
 Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or
her cognitive structure or mental category to better
r...
Schemata:
 Both the processes i.e. assimilation and
accommodation are used simultaneously
alternately throughout life
 T...
Cognitive development
stages:
Cognitive development
stages:
Sensorimotor Period  Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory

perceptions an...
Age

Birth – 2 months
Simple Reflex
2-4 months
Primary circular
reactions / Habits

Characteristics

Uses inborn motor and...
8 months – 1 year
Coordination of
reactions

Child starts to show clearly intentional actions. Children
begins exploring t...
Preoperational Period:
 Because children above the age of 2 begin to

use language in ways similar to adults, it appears
...
children understand the world in the way
they sense it through five primary senses.
Concepts that can not be seen heard
sm...
Features of thought process:
Egocentrism:
A general feature of the thought process
and language during the preoperational...
Mountain Study
Animism
 giving dental instrument and
equipment lifelike names and
qualities
Handpiece :- “Whistling Willie”
Conservation:

• Piaget found that few children shows any
understanding of conservation prior to age
of five.
 Dental staff should use immediate sensations rather than
abstract reasoning in discussing concepts like prevention
of de...
Period of Concrete
Operations(7 yr – 11 yr)
 An improved ability to reason emerges.
 8 year old could watch the water be...
By seven or 8 years, most children develop the
ability to conserve number, length, and liquid
volume. Conservation refers...


Animism declines

 Children are much more like adults
 “Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to
keep it cle...
Features of concrete
operations:
Logic:
 Children now are fairly good at inductive
logic which involves going from a
spe...
Reversibility:
Here is awareness that actions can
be reverse
Eg.:

child might be able to recognize
that his or her dog ...
Period of Formal Operations
Ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract
reasoning develops by about age 11
Intelle...
• Aware that others think
• Experiencing tremendous biologic changes in
growth and sexual development
• They feel as thoug...
 The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on
young adolescents

 The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces
...
Personal Fable
 “Because I am unique, I am not subject to
the consequences others will experience”.
 Imaginary audience ...
Clinical Application:
Dentistry
 Accept or reject T/t
 To wear or not to wear appliance
 Decalcification of the teeth f...
logic
 Deductive logic becomes important
during formal operational stage.
 It requires ability to use general principle
...
Abstract thought
 The ability to think about abstract
concepts emerges.
 child begin to consider possible
outcomes and c...
Problem solving
Ability to systematically solve a
problem in logical and methodical
way emerges.

Child is able to quick...
 One role of an effective dental professional is to
help teenagers test the reality that actually
surrounds them.
 It is...
Evaluating Piaget’s theory
Contributions:•Psychologists owe him a long list of masterful
concepts of enduring power and fa...
 Piaget's focus on qualitative development

had an important impact on education.
While Piaget did not specifically apply...
Criticism
Problems With Research
Methods
 A major source of inspiration for the theory was
Piaget's observations of his own three c...
Problems With Formal
Operations
 Research has disputed Piaget's argument
that all children will automatically move to
the...
Underestimates Children's
Abilities
Most researchers agree that children
possess many of the abilities at an earlier
age ...
Q. Is Piaget‟s account of cognitive
change clear and accurate?

 Broad transformation in thinking but
exactly what the ch...
 Culture and education

• Culture and education exert a stronger
influence on children‟s development
than Piaget believed...
conclusion
 Dentistry for children can be demanding and
frustrating; at the same time, it can be enriching,
satisfying, a...
1.Profitt- textbook of contemporary orthodontics.
2. textbook of craniofacial growth- Shridhar premkumar.
3.Textbook Of Pe...
"Children
have
never
been good listeners to
their elders, but they
never failed to imitate
them”
~ James Baldwin

thank Yo...
Gean piaget theory
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  • Start: Psychology is an extremely exciting and challenging field of knowledge, which has enormous potential and offers us the hope of understanding and improving our lives, our communities and our planet.
  • Start: Child psychology theories can be broadly classified into 2 groups that are psycho dynamic and theories of learning and development behavior. So psychodynamic theories are: - 1st and 2nd theory.Psychodynamic: dynamic interplay between forces that govern human behavior or the study of this.
  • Start: these are behavior learning theories.
  • Start: So why dentists need to know about the psychology, the reasons are…last point:last but not the least is to plan out effective treatment..
  • -Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896-His father, Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature with an interest in local history.  -His mother, Rebecca Jackson, was intelligent and energetic, but Jean found her a bit neurotic -- an impression that he said led to his interest in psychology.
  • 1. He worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler’s famous psychiatric clinic.During this period, he was introduced to the works of Freud, Jung, and others. 2. In 1919, he taught psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris.3. He died in Geneva, September 16, 1980, one of the most significant psychologists of the twentieth century.
  • After last point:How we attain knowledge in the first place, how that knowledge is stored, how we modify that knowledge are all questions that concern cognitive psychologists. Intelligence is capacity of mind, especially to understand principles, truth, facts or meanings, acquire knowledge and apply it to practice; the ability to learn and comprehend. And it is acquired by cognition
  • SlideStart:- 1. Psychologists recently, and philosophers before them have argued about how our knowledge and cognitive abilities are acquired. It wasn’t until about the middle of the last century that researchers began to systematically study the cognitive processes of newborns and young infants. 2. It was found that they were capable of some learning of imitation. Such as Newborn can recognize the sound of their mother’s voice and some aspects of their mother’s language. Such learning implies a memory capacity.3. By six months of age they also showed some evidence of conceptual knowledgelike an elementary realization that two objects can’t occupy the same place at the same time and an ability to distinguish between sets of small numbers of objects.
  • Start: Jean piagets has given structural-functional approach that is- 1st point
  • This was the statement given by jean piaget that is-
  • Slide1. Swiss cognitive theorist JEAN PIAGETwas havingbackground in epistemology (the branch of philosophy concerned with the origins of knowledge) who developed a strong interest in cognitive development while standardizing intelligence tests.2.When his three children were born, Piaget made detailed notes on their intellectual abilities, carefully observing how they reacted to various objects, events and problems that he presented to them. 3.Many of Piaget’s ideas about intelligence and about intellectual development during infancy are based on these naturalistic observations of his own children.Many of the Piaget’s theoretical insights came from his use of the clinical method, a question-and-answer technique that he devised to measure the ways children attacked various problems and thought about everyday issues.
  • slideStart:- He referred his theory as Genetic Epistemology, which he defined as the study of acquisition, modification and abstract ideas and abilities on the basis of an inherited or biological substrate, an intelligent functioning that makes the abstract thought possible.Point 2nd : Cognitive development, is the the development of intellectual capabilities, also occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages called epigenesis.Point 3rd: From the perspective of Piaget and his followers, the development of intelligence is another example of the widespread phenomenon of biologic adaptation. Every individual is born with the capacity to adjust or adapt to both the physical and socio-cultural environments in which he or she must live.
  • - Cognitive development is the process of learning and knowing that occurs in a predictable manner.- The major processes involved that is, mechanism of cognitive development includes :
  • SlideIt is the basic principle underlying piaget’s theory.1: It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to next.The shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict or disequilibrium, in trying to understand the world. 2: Eventually, they resolve the conflict and reach a balance or equilibrium of thought3: For Piaget the motivation for change is an internal search for equilibrium.
  • start:- Piaget used the term scheme to describe the .......actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
  • Behavioural schemesAfter slide line : For example infant’s reaching, grasping, and throwing responses are behavioural schemes (patterns of action that child uses to “adapt to” or deal with different objects). Symbolic SchemesAfter slide line : they are now capable of representing experiences mentally and use these mental symbols, or symbolic schemes, to satisfy their objectives. Operational Schemesbefore slide line : The thinking of children aged 7 and older is characterized by a third type of scheme, known as the operational structure.
  • SlideOrganization-It is the process by which children combine existing schemes into new and more complex intellectual structures, it takes place internally apart from direct contact with the environment and is both biological and psychological.-Piaget believed that children are constantly organizing their available schemes into higher-order systems or structures. Continual refinement of this organization is the inherent part of development.
  • SlideThe goal of organization is AdaptationAdaptation It is the ability of the person to adjust to the environment and to interact with it.It’s a process that takes place through direct interaction with the environment. Adaptation occurs as a result of two complementary processes, Assimilation and Accommodation.
  • slideFrom the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates events within the environment into mental categories called cognitive structures. In assimilation child take new experiences through their own system of knowledge, a process comparable to eating and digesting food, which then becomes part of life. Assimilate: to in corporate or absorbe knowledge into the mind.2. A cognitive structure in this sense is a classification of sensations and perceptions.For example, a child who has just learned the word “bird” will tend to assimilate all flying objects into his idea of bird. When he sees a bee, he will probably say, “Look, bird!” However, for intelligence to develop, the child must also have the complementary process of accommodation.-It describes the ability of child to deal with new situation and problems within his his age specific skills.
  • Slide1.Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or her cognitive structure or mental category to better represent the environmentIn accommodation, child adjust their system of knowledge to reality demands of the environment. In the previous example, the child will be corrected by an adult or older child and will soon learn to distinguish between birds and bees. In other words, the child will accommodate to the event of seeing a bee, by creating a separate category of flying objects for bees. 2.Intelligence develops as interplay between assimilation and accommodation. Each time the child in our example sees a flying object he or she will try to assimilate it into existing cognitive categories. If these categories do not work, he or she will try to accommodate by creating new ones.3. However, the child’s ability to adapt is limited by the current level of development. 4. The notion that the child’s ability to adapt is age related is a crucial concept in Piaget’s theory of development
  • By carefully questioning a large number of children from several age groups, Piaget was able to identify four methods of reasoning that are age related and, in his opinion, represent different “stages” of intellectual growth.1. The sensorimotor period, extending from birth to 2 years of age;2. The preoperational period, from 2 to 7 years; a) Preconceptual Stage (Two to Four yrs)b) Intuitive Stage (Ages four to Seven yrs)3. The concrete operational period from about age 7 to puberty;4. The period of formal operations, this runs from adolescence through adulthood. Like the other developmental stages, it is important to realize that the time frame is variable, especially for the later ones.The sequence of the stages however is fixed. Some adults never reach the last stage
  • SlideStartFor us to communicate successfully with a child, it is necessary to understand his or her intellectual level and the way in which thought processes work at the various stages. 1.Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities.2. During the first 2 years of life, a child develops from a newborn infant who is almost totally dependent on reflex activities to an individual who can develop new behavior to cope with new situations. 3rd and 4th : Simple modes of thought that are the foundation of language develop during this time, but communication between a child at this stage and an adult is extremely limited because of the child’s simple concepts and lack of language capabilities. 5th. At this stage, a child has little ability to interpret sensory data and a limited ability to project forward or backward in time.
  • So during the sensorimotor phase child shows different characteristics with time that are-Birth to 2 months: child understand the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.2-5 months e.g. child may suck his or her thumb unintentionally but after sometime he tends to feel this action pleasurable and start intentionally sucking thumb.4-8 months e.g. child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.
  • 8 months to 1 year eg child might realize that rattle will make sound when shaken.1 year to 18 months: eg- child may cry out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.18 months to 2 years:Object permanence- objects continue to exist even when they are not seen by the child.Causality- objects have uses and events have causes.Symbolic play- one object can represent another.
  • After Ist line:Because young children use words to symbolize the external appearance or characteristics of an object, however, they often fail to consider important aspect such as function and thus may understand some words quite different from adults.For ex:To an adult, the word “coat” refers to a whole family of external garments that may be long or short, heavy or light, and so on. To a preoperational child, however, the word “coat” is initially associated with only the one he or she wears, and the garment that daddy wears would require another word.
  • SlideStart:- A particularly prominent feature of thought processes of children at this age is the concrete nature of the process and hence, the concrete or literal nature of their language. In this sense, the concrete is the opposite of abstract. 1.Here children understand the world in the way they sense it through five primary senses. 2.Concepts that can not be seen heard smelt, tasted or felt –for example Time and health are difficult for these children to grasp. 3.At this stage, children use and understand language in a literal sense and thus understand words only as they have learned them.
  • Start:-1. A general feature of the thought process and language during the preoperational period is egocentrism, meaning that the child is incapable of assuming another persons point of view..2. Children do not yet understands concrete logic. Can not mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people.
  • In order to understand egocentrism, Piaget did a study to investigate this phenomenon called the mountains study.  He would put children in front of a simple plaster mountain range and seat himself to the side, then ask them to pick from four pictures the view that he, Piaget, would see. Younger children would pick the picture of the view they themselves saw; older kids picked correctly
  • 2. Another characteristic of thought processes at this stage is animism, investing inanimate objects with life. Essentially everything is being seen as alive by a young childExample:Hand piece can be called whistling Willie, who is happy while he works at polishing the child’s teeth
  • Start: Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance.At this stage, capabilities for logical reasoning are limited and the child’s thought processes are dominated by the immediate sensory impressions. This characteristic can be illustrated by asking the child to solve a liquid conservation problemFig A Two beakers are filled to the same level with water. The subject sees that they are equal. Fib B The liquid of one container is poured into a tall tube (or a flat dish). The subject is asked whether each contains the same amount. -The child is first shown two equal size glasses with water in them.-The child agrees that both contain the same amount of water. -Then the contents of one glass are poured into a taller, narrower glass while the child watches. -Now when asked which container has more water, the child will usually say that the tall one does. His/ Her impressions are dominated by the greater height of the water in the tall glass.
  • Start:- For this reason, the dental staff should… 3rd point: A preoperational child will have trouble understanding a chain of reasoning like, “Brushing and flossing remove food particles, which in turn prevents bacteria from forming acids, which cause tooth decay”. 4th point: He or she is much more likely to understand- “Brushing makes your teeth feel clean and smooth”, and “tooth paste makes your mouth taste good”, because these statements rely on things the child can taste or feel immediately
  • 1. As a child moves into this stage, typically after a year or so of preschool and first grade activity, an improved ability to reason emerges. He or she can use a limited number of logical processes, especially those involving objects that can be handled and manipulated (i.e concrete objects).after 2nd point: If a child in this stage is given a similar problem, however, staged only in words with no concrete objects to illustrate it, the child may fail to solve it.
  • Start: The stage begins with progressive decentering.    After point 1:If you show a child four marbles in a row, then spread them out, the preoperational child will focus on the spread, and tend to believe that there are now more marbles than before.The concrete operations child, on the other hand, will know that there are still four marbles,If you pour the mild from the short, fat glass into the tall, skinny glass, he will tell you that there is the same amount of water as before, despite the dramatic increase in mild-level
  • slideBy eight or nine years old, children develop conservation of substance:  If I take a ball of clay and roll it into a long thin rod, or even split it into ten little pieces, the child knows that there is still the same amount of clay.  And he will know that, if you rolled it all back into a single ball, it would look quite the same as it did -- a feature known as reversibility.By nine or ten, the last of the conservation tests is mastered:  conservation of area.  If you take four one-inch square pieces of felt, and lay them on a six-by-six cloth together in the center, the child who conserves will know that they take up just as much room as the same squares spread out in the corners, or, for that matter, anywhere at all.
  • SlideStart: By this stage, the ability to see another point of view develops, while animism declines. 1. Children in this period are much more like adults in the way they view the world but they are still cognitively different from adults. -Presenting ideas as abstract concepts rather than illustrating them with concrete objects can be a major barrier to communication. beforepoint 2 -Instructions must be illustrated with concrete objects. “Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to keep it clean”, is too abstract. Before Point 3: More concrete directions would be:After point 3rd: This illustrated example with more concrete direction could be easily understood by the child and they can follow them easily.
  • Inductive logic example: specific experience this raven is a black bird toGeneral experiance is all ravens are black birds.Deductive logic: from general proposition i.e. all ravens are black bird to specific proposition this bird is raven therefore it is black.
  • slide1. For most children, the ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract reasoning develops by about age 11. -At this stage, the child’s thought process has become similar to that of an adult, and the child is capable of understanding concepts like health, disease, and preventive treatment. 2. At this stage, intellectually the child can and should be treated as an adult. 3. Successful communication, in other words, requires a feel for the child’s stage of intellectual development.
  • slide1.They are now aware that others think, but usually, in new expressions of egocentrism, presume that they and others are thinking about the same thing. 2. Because young adolescents are experiencing tremendous biologic changes in growth and sexual development, they are preoccupied with these events. 3. Adolescents assume that others are as concerned with their bodies, actions, and feeling as they themselves are. They feel as though they are constantly “on stage”, being observed and criticized by those around them4. These phenomenon have been called the Imaginary Audiences by Elkind
  •  slide1. The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on young adolescents, making them quite self-conscious and particularly susceptible to upper influence. They are very worried about what people will think about their appearance and actions, not realizing that others are too busy with themselves to be paying attention to other. 2nd point The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces on the teeth, of course, is an important consideration to a teenage patient. 3rd point: The notion that “others really care about my appearance and feelings as much as I do” leads adolescents to think they are quite unique, special individuals. If this were not so, why would others be so interested in them? As a result of this thought, a second phenomenon emerges, which Elkind called the “personal fable
  • 1st point: This concept holds that “because I am unique, I am not subject to the consequences others will experience”. before 2nd point: The personal fable is a powerful motivator that allows us to cope in a dangerous world. It permits us to do things such as travel on airplanes while knowing that “occasionally they crash, but the one I’m on will arrive safely
  • slidePhenomenon of imaginary audiences and personal fable have a significant influence on orthodontic treatment.1st point: The imaginary audiences depending upon what the adolescent believes, may influence him to accept or to reject a treatment.3rd point: The personal fable may make a patient ignore threats to health, such as decalcification of teeth from poor oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment.After 4th point: The challenge for the dentist is not to try to impose change on reality as percieved by adolescents, but rather to help them more clearly see the actual reality that surrounds themLook goofy:- in this situation, telling the patient that he should not be concerned becoz many of his peers also are wearing this appliance does little to encourage him to wear it.A more useful approach, would be to agree with him that he may be right in what others will think, but ask him to give it a try for a specified time.
  • Slide1. The ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during formal operational stage.2.Instead of relying solely on previous experiences, child begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. 3. This type of thinking is Important in long term planning.Nwptknwsdat more forwardly placed anteriorly teeth will going to cause problems in future and so pt wont hesitate to get the orthodontic treatment done as teenager does.
  • Slide1.In earlier stages, child used trial and error to solve problems. During formal operational stage, Ability to systematically solve a problem in logical and methodical way emerges.2. Child at formal operational stage of cognitive development is able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving problem
  • 3rd point: Different folks, applies strongly to children, whose variation in intellectual and psychological development affect the way they recieve orthodontic treatment, just as their differing stages of physical development do…
  • Piaget also was a genius when it came to observing children. His careful observations demonstrated inventive ways to discover how children act on and adapt to the world.
  • slidetitle: Much of the criticism of Piaget's work is in regards to his research methods. 1-A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children.2-In addition to this, the other children in Piaget's small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socioeconomic status. 3-Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population.
  • Recent theory of mind research has found that 4- and 5-year-old children have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people.
  • As the American actor James Baldwin said, "Children have never been good listeners to their elders, but they never failed to imitate them:
  • Transcript of "Gean piaget theory"

    1. 1. GOOD MORNING
    2. 2. Theory of Cognitive development by Jean Piaget Dr. Parag S. Deshmukh Ist MDS.
    3. 3. Contents:  Introduction  Classification of psychological theories  Cognitive development  Stages of cognitive development  Contributions of piaget cognitive theory  Criticism  conclusion  References
    4. 4. Introduction As the saying goes “body does what mind says, for all behavioral act of a person there is a force behind which is known as mind or psyche. So it is essential on our part to study psychology.”
    5. 5. • Psychology –  Study of human mind and its functions.  Psychology is both a field of study and also a means of improving the quality of life ~Kimble 1984  It can be defined as „Science dealing with human nature, function and phenomenon of his soul in the main‟.
    6. 6.  For treating a child successfully or to manage a child in a dental setting, we as dentists should have thorough knowledge on personality development of the child. “Child Psychology” “Is the science that deals with the study of child‟s mind and how it functions, it also deals with the mental power or an interaction between the conscious and subconscious element in a child”
    7. 7. Different Theories Of Psychology Which Have An Application In Dentistry  Theories on personality Development • Psychoanalytic theory or psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud • Psychosocial theory or Erikson‟s model of Personality development  Theory on Cognitive Development • Cognitive development theory by Jean Piaget
    8. 8.  Theories on Learning and development of Behavior • Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov • Operant conditioning by B.F. Skinner • Social or Observational learning by Albert Bandura • Theory of Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow  Other relevant theories • Separation-Individuation theory by Margaret S Mahler • Attachment theory – John Bowlby. • Theory of moral development – Kohlberg L. • Childrenese – Haim Ginott.
    9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING CHILD PSYCHOLOGY IN DENTISTRY:To understand the child as he comes to dental office & know his problem in the way he explains. Only after understanding the child and the parent, we can deliver treatment effectively. To establish effective communication with child and parents, the basic skill is required. Child and most importantly parents should develop confidence on our treatment and dentistry. To teach and motivate them about importance of primary and preventive care and the importance of oral health. To plan out effective treatment.
    10. 10. Biography  Switzerland, on August 9, 1896  Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature with an interest in local history.  Rebecca Jackson, his mother, was intelligent and energetic, but Jean found her a bit neurotic  1918, Piaget received his Doctorate in Science from the University of Neuchâtel
    11. 11.  He worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler‟s famous psychiatric clinic  In 1919, he taught psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris.  He died in Geneva, September 16, 1980, one of the most significant twentieth century. psychologists of the
    12. 12. Cognitive Development of Children • Cognition refers to the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, elaborated, stored, retrieved, and used to solve problems • Cognitive psychologists are also concerned with why one individual differs from another in many of these cognitive processes. • Cognition includes processes like perception, thinking, concept formation, abstraction and problem solving.
    13. 13. Intelligence  Basics of the processes involved in cognition i.e. perception, thinking, abstraction etc. is intelligence.  Intelligence is a score derived from an intelligence test.  This indicates how the individual‟s mental ability compares with that of others of the same development age.
    14. 14. Cognition and Age  It wasn‟t until about the middle of the last century that researchers began to systematically study the cognitive processes of newborns and young infants  Newborn can recognize the sound of their mother‟s voice and some aspects of their mother‟s language.  By six months of age they also showed some evidence of conceptual knowledge
    15. 15. Jean Piaget’s structural-functional approach – a model that emphasizes the biological functions and the environmental influences that promote developmental changes in the “organization” or “structure”, of intellect. He created a broad theoretical system for the development of cognitive abilities; in this sense, his work was similar to that of Sigmund Freud, but Piaget emphasized the ways that children think and acquire knowledge.
    16. 16. Jean Piaget Research Work  Conversation & observation of 3 children and nephew  Development of thought process
    17. 17. Piaget’s Basic Ideas Of Cognition  Genetic Epistemology, “As the study of acquisition, modification and abstract ideas and abilities on the basis of an inherited or biological substrate, an intelligent functioning that makes the abstract thought possible”  Epigenesis  Every individual is born with the capacity to adjust or adapt to both the physical and socio-cultural environments in which he or she must live.
    18. 18. • Piaget rejected the idea that learning was the passive assimilation of the knowledge. • He proposed that learning is dynamic process comprising successive stages of adaptation to reality. • Piaget theory has two main strands: a. Mechanism by which cognitive development takes place . b. 4 main stages through which child pass.
    19. 19. PIAGET’S VIEW OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Equilibration schemes Adaptation Organization Equilibrium
    20. 20. Equilibration It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to next Eventually, they resolve the conflict and reach a balance or equilibrium of thought For Piaget the motivation for change is an internal search for equilibrium
    21. 21. Cognitive Schemes: The structural aspects of intelligence  Describe the models or mental structures, that we create to represent, organize, and interpret our experience  A Scheme is a pattern of thought or action that is similar in some respects to what the lay person calls a strategy or a concept.  Three kinds of intellectual structures are: • Behavioural (Sensorimotor) schemes • Symbolic schemes • Operational schemes
    22. 22.   Behavioural schemes A behavioural scheme is an organized pattern of behaviour that the child uses to represent and respond to an object or experience.  Symbolic Schemes  During second year, children reach a point at which they can solve problems and truly “think” about objects and events without having acted on them.  Operational Schemes  A cognitive operation is the internal mental activity that a person performs on his or her objects of thought to reach a logical conclusion
    23. 23. Organization:  It is the process by which children combine existing schemes into new and more complex intellectual structures, it takes place internally apart from direct contact with the environment and is both biological and psychological
    24. 24. Adaptation :  It is the ability of the person to adjust to the environment and to interact with it.  Assimilation and Accommodation.
    25. 25. Assimilation  From the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates events within the environment into mental categories called cognitive structures.  A cognitive structure in this sense is a classification of sensations and perceptions.  For ex  Bird:- Flying Object  Bees:- Look Bird
    26. 26. Accommodation:  Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or her cognitive structure or mental category to better represent the environment  Intelligence develops as interplay between assimilation and accommodation  However, the child‟s ability to adapt is limited by the current level of development.  The notion that the child‟s ability to adapt is age related is a crucial concept in Piaget‟s theory of development
    27. 27. Schemata:  Both the processes i.e. assimilation and accommodation are used simultaneously alternately throughout life  Through this continuous dual process child is instantly building various hierarchies of related behavior known as schemata.  It represents dynamic process of differentiation and organization of knowledge with the resultant evolution of behavior and cognitive functioning appropriate for the age of child.
    28. 28. Cognitive development stages:
    29. 29. Cognitive development stages: Sensorimotor Period  Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities.  During the first 2 years of life, a child develops from a newborn infant  Simple modes of thought that are the foundation of language develop during this time,  Communication is limited because of the child‟s simple concepts and lack of language capabilities
    30. 30. Age Birth – 2 months Simple Reflex 2-4 months Primary circular reactions / Habits Characteristics Uses inborn motor and sensory reflexes (sucking, grasping, looking) to interact and accommodate to the external world. Children co-ordinates sensation and new schemas. 4-8 months Child becomes more focused on the world and Secondary circular begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to reactions trigger a response in the environment.
    31. 31. 8 months – 1 year Coordination of reactions Child starts to show clearly intentional actions. Children begins exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behaviors of the others. understanding of objects begins. Also begins to recognize certain objects have specific work. 1 year – 18 months Tertiary Period of trial and error experimentation. circulation reaction 18 months – 2 years Early representational thought Children begins to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world. Begins to move towards understanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions. child knowledge develops by: Object permanence, causality and symbolic play.
    32. 32. Preoperational Period:  Because children above the age of 2 begin to use language in ways similar to adults, it appears that their thought processes are more like those of adults.  During the preoperational stage, the capacity develops to form mental symbols representing things and events not present, and children learn to use words to symbolize these absent objects.
    33. 33. children understand the world in the way they sense it through five primary senses. Concepts that can not be seen heard smelt, tasted or felt for example time and health. Children use and understand language in a literal sense.
    34. 34. Features of thought process: Egocentrism: A general feature of the thought process and language during the preoperational period is egocentrism Defined as inability to assume another persons point of view. At this stage his own perspective is all that he can manage
    35. 35. Mountain Study
    36. 36. Animism  giving dental instrument and equipment lifelike names and qualities Handpiece :- “Whistling Willie”
    37. 37. Conservation: • Piaget found that few children shows any understanding of conservation prior to age of five.
    38. 38.  Dental staff should use immediate sensations rather than abstract reasoning in discussing concepts like prevention of dental problems with a child at this stage.  Excellent oral hygiene is very important when an orthodontic appliance is present  “Brushing and flossing remove food particles, which in turn prevents bacteria from forming acids, which cause tooth decay”.  “Brushing makes your teeth feel clean and smooth”, and “tooth paste makes your mouth taste good”,
    39. 39. Period of Concrete Operations(7 yr – 11 yr)  An improved ability to reason emerges.  8 year old could watch the water being poured from one glass to another, imagine the reverse of that process, and conclude that the amount of water remains the same no matter what size the container is  The child‟s thinking is still strongly tied to concrete situations, and the ability to reason on an abstract level is limited.
    40. 40. By seven or 8 years, most children develop the ability to conserve number, length, and liquid volume. Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance.
    41. 41.  Animism declines  Children are much more like adults  “Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to keep it clean”,  “This is your retainer. Put it in your mouth like this, and take it out like that. Put it in every evening right after dinner before you go to bed, and take it out before breakfast every morning. Brush it like this with an old tooth brush to keep it clean”
    42. 42. Features of concrete operations: Logic:  Children now are fairly good at inductive logic which involves going from a specific experience to a general principal.  There is difficulty in using deductive logic which involves using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event
    43. 43. Reversibility: Here is awareness that actions can be reverse Eg.: child might be able to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador,that a Labrador is a dog.and that a dog is an animal
    44. 44. Period of Formal Operations Ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract reasoning develops by about age 11 Intellectually the child can and should be treated as an adult Successful communication, in other words, requires a feel for the child‟s stage of intellectual development.
    45. 45. • Aware that others think • Experiencing tremendous biologic changes in growth and sexual development • They feel as though they are constantly “on stage”, being observed and criticized by those around them • “Imaginary Audiences” by Elkind
    46. 46.  The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on young adolescents  The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces on the teeth, of course, is an important consideration to a teenage patient  “Others really care about my appearance and feelings as much as I do”  “Personal fable
    47. 47. Personal Fable  “Because I am unique, I am not subject to the consequences others will experience”.  Imaginary audience and the personal fable have useful functions in helping us develop social awareness and allowing us to cope in a dangerous environment
    48. 48. Clinical Application: Dentistry  Accept or reject T/t  To wear or not to wear appliance  Decalcification of the teeth from poor oral hygiene  A teenage patient may protest to his orthodontist that he does not want to wear a particular appliance because others will think it makes him “look Goofy”
    49. 49. logic  Deductive logic becomes important during formal operational stage.  It requires ability to use general principle to determine specific outcome.  This type of thinking is helpful in science and mathematics.
    50. 50. Abstract thought  The ability to think about abstract concepts emerges.  child begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions.  Important in long term planning.
    51. 51. Problem solving Ability to systematically solve a problem in logical and methodical way emerges. Child is able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving problem.
    52. 52.  One role of an effective dental professional is to help teenagers test the reality that actually surrounds them.  It is the job of the dentist to carefully evaluate the development of the child, and to adapt his or her language  Adage “different strokes for different folks”
    53. 53. Evaluating Piaget’s theory Contributions:•Psychologists owe him a long list of masterful concepts of enduring power and fascination, assimilation, accommodation, object permanence, egocentrism, conservation and others •Psychologists also owe him the current vision of children as active, constructive thinkers and they have a debt to him for creating a theory that generated a huge volume of research on children‟s cognitive development
    54. 54.  Piaget's focus on qualitative development had an important impact on education. While Piaget did not specifically apply his theory in this way, many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared.
    55. 55. Criticism
    56. 56. Problems With Research Methods  A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children  Well-educated professionals of high socioeconomic status.  Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population.
    57. 57. Problems With Formal Operations  Research has disputed Piaget's argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature.  Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.
    58. 58. Underestimates Children's Abilities Most researchers agree that children possess many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.
    59. 59. Q. Is Piaget‟s account of cognitive change clear and accurate?  Broad transformation in thinking but exactly what the child does to equilibrate is vague  On a variety of tasks infants and young children appear more competent than adolescents and adults who appear less competent, than Piaget assumed.
    60. 60.  Culture and education • Culture and education exert a stronger influence on children‟s development than Piaget believed.
    61. 61. conclusion  Dentistry for children can be demanding and frustrating; at the same time, it can be enriching, satisfying, and memorable  Child patient management was a concern 30 years ago as well as today  Multidisciplinary research that results from combining the wealth of knowledge of both dentistry and psychology significantly helps in modifying behavior management and child development
    62. 62. 1.Profitt- textbook of contemporary orthodontics. 2. textbook of craniofacial growth- Shridhar premkumar. 3.Textbook Of Pedodontics Shobha Tendon. 4. Library dissertation on theories of psychology. (department of pedodontics, SPDC) 5.Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
    63. 63. "Children have never been good listeners to their elders, but they never failed to imitate them” ~ James Baldwin thank You wishing you all happy and
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