Start: Psychology is an extremely exciting and challenging field of knowledge, which has enormous potential and offers us the hope of understanding and improving our lives, our communities and our planet.
Start: Child psychology theories can be broadly classified into 2 groups that are psycho dynamic and theories of learning and development behavior. So psychodynamic theories are: - 1st and 2nd theory.Psychodynamic: dynamic interplay between forces that govern human behavior or the study of this.
Start: these are behavior learning theories.
Start: So why dentists need to know about the psychology, the reasons are…last point:last but not the least is to plan out effective treatment..
-Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896-His father, Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature with an interest in local history. -His mother, Rebecca Jackson, was intelligent and energetic, but Jean found her a bit neurotic -- an impression that he said led to his interest in psychology.
1. He worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler’s famous psychiatric clinic.During this period, he was introduced to the works of Freud, Jung, and others. 2. In 1919, he taught psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris.3. He died in Geneva, September 16, 1980, one of the most significant psychologists of the twentieth century.
After last point:How we attain knowledge in the first place, how that knowledge is stored, how we modify that knowledge are all questions that concern cognitive psychologists. Intelligence is capacity of mind, especially to understand principles, truth, facts or meanings, acquire knowledge and apply it to practice; the ability to learn and comprehend. And it is acquired by cognition
SlideStart:- 1. Psychologists recently, and philosophers before them have argued about how our knowledge and cognitive abilities are acquired. It wasn’t until about the middle of the last century that researchers began to systematically study the cognitive processes of newborns and young infants. 2. It was found that they were capable of some learning of imitation. Such as Newborn can recognize the sound of their mother’s voice and some aspects of their mother’s language. Such learning implies a memory capacity.3. By six months of age they also showed some evidence of conceptual knowledgelike an elementary realization that two objects can’t occupy the same place at the same time and an ability to distinguish between sets of small numbers of objects.
Start: Jean piagets has given structural-functional approach that is- 1st point
This was the statement given by jean piaget that is-
Slide1. Swiss cognitive theorist JEAN PIAGETwas havingbackground in epistemology (the branch of philosophy concerned with the origins of knowledge) who developed a strong interest in cognitive development while standardizing intelligence tests.2.When his three children were born, Piaget made detailed notes on their intellectual abilities, carefully observing how they reacted to various objects, events and problems that he presented to them. 3.Many of Piaget’s ideas about intelligence and about intellectual development during infancy are based on these naturalistic observations of his own children.Many of the Piaget’s theoretical insights came from his use of the clinical method, a question-and-answer technique that he devised to measure the ways children attacked various problems and thought about everyday issues.
slideStart:- He referred his theory as Genetic Epistemology, which he defined as the study of acquisition, modification and abstract ideas and abilities on the basis of an inherited or biological substrate, an intelligent functioning that makes the abstract thought possible.Point 2nd : Cognitive development, is the the development of intellectual capabilities, also occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages called epigenesis.Point 3rd: From the perspective of Piaget and his followers, the development of intelligence is another example of the widespread phenomenon of biologic adaptation. Every individual is born with the capacity to adjust or adapt to both the physical and socio-cultural environments in which he or she must live.
- Cognitive development is the process of learning and knowing that occurs in a predictable manner.- The major processes involved that is, mechanism of cognitive development includes :
SlideIt is the basic principle underlying piaget’s theory.1: It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to next.The shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict or disequilibrium, in trying to understand the world. 2: Eventually, they resolve the conflict and reach a balance or equilibrium of thought3: For Piaget the motivation for change is an internal search for equilibrium.
start:- Piaget used the term scheme to describe the .......actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
Behavioural schemesAfter slide line : For example infant’s reaching, grasping, and throwing responses are behavioural schemes (patterns of action that child uses to “adapt to” or deal with different objects). Symbolic SchemesAfter slide line : they are now capable of representing experiences mentally and use these mental symbols, or symbolic schemes, to satisfy their objectives. Operational Schemesbefore slide line : The thinking of children aged 7 and older is characterized by a third type of scheme, known as the operational structure.
SlideOrganization-It is the process by which children combine existing schemes into new and more complex intellectual structures, it takes place internally apart from direct contact with the environment and is both biological and psychological.-Piaget believed that children are constantly organizing their available schemes into higher-order systems or structures. Continual refinement of this organization is the inherent part of development.
SlideThe goal of organization is AdaptationAdaptation It is the ability of the person to adjust to the environment and to interact with it.It’s a process that takes place through direct interaction with the environment. Adaptation occurs as a result of two complementary processes, Assimilation and Accommodation.
slideFrom the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates events within the environment into mental categories called cognitive structures. In assimilation child take new experiences through their own system of knowledge, a process comparable to eating and digesting food, which then becomes part of life. Assimilate: to in corporate or absorbe knowledge into the mind.2. A cognitive structure in this sense is a classification of sensations and perceptions.For example, a child who has just learned the word “bird” will tend to assimilate all flying objects into his idea of bird. When he sees a bee, he will probably say, “Look, bird!” However, for intelligence to develop, the child must also have the complementary process of accommodation.-It describes the ability of child to deal with new situation and problems within his his age specific skills.
Slide1.Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or her cognitive structure or mental category to better represent the environmentIn accommodation, child adjust their system of knowledge to reality demands of the environment. In the previous example, the child will be corrected by an adult or older child and will soon learn to distinguish between birds and bees. In other words, the child will accommodate to the event of seeing a bee, by creating a separate category of flying objects for bees. 2.Intelligence develops as interplay between assimilation and accommodation. Each time the child in our example sees a flying object he or she will try to assimilate it into existing cognitive categories. If these categories do not work, he or she will try to accommodate by creating new ones.3. However, the child’s ability to adapt is limited by the current level of development. 4. The notion that the child’s ability to adapt is age related is a crucial concept in Piaget’s theory of development
By carefully questioning a large number of children from several age groups, Piaget was able to identify four methods of reasoning that are age related and, in his opinion, represent different “stages” of intellectual growth.1. The sensorimotor period, extending from birth to 2 years of age;2. The preoperational period, from 2 to 7 years; a) Preconceptual Stage (Two to Four yrs)b) Intuitive Stage (Ages four to Seven yrs)3. The concrete operational period from about age 7 to puberty;4. The period of formal operations, this runs from adolescence through adulthood. Like the other developmental stages, it is important to realize that the time frame is variable, especially for the later ones.The sequence of the stages however is fixed. Some adults never reach the last stage
SlideStartFor us to communicate successfully with a child, it is necessary to understand his or her intellectual level and the way in which thought processes work at the various stages. 1.Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory perceptions and motor activities.2. During the first 2 years of life, a child develops from a newborn infant who is almost totally dependent on reflex activities to an individual who can develop new behavior to cope with new situations. 3rd and 4th : Simple modes of thought that are the foundation of language develop during this time, but communication between a child at this stage and an adult is extremely limited because of the child’s simple concepts and lack of language capabilities. 5th. At this stage, a child has little ability to interpret sensory data and a limited ability to project forward or backward in time.
So during the sensorimotor phase child shows different characteristics with time that are-Birth to 2 months: child understand the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.2-5 months e.g. child may suck his or her thumb unintentionally but after sometime he tends to feel this action pleasurable and start intentionally sucking thumb.4-8 months e.g. child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.
8 months to 1 year eg child might realize that rattle will make sound when shaken.1 year to 18 months: eg- child may cry out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.18 months to 2 years:Object permanence- objects continue to exist even when they are not seen by the child.Causality- objects have uses and events have causes.Symbolic play- one object can represent another.
After Ist line:Because young children use words to symbolize the external appearance or characteristics of an object, however, they often fail to consider important aspect such as function and thus may understand some words quite different from adults.For ex:To an adult, the word “coat” refers to a whole family of external garments that may be long or short, heavy or light, and so on. To a preoperational child, however, the word “coat” is initially associated with only the one he or she wears, and the garment that daddy wears would require another word.
SlideStart:- A particularly prominent feature of thought processes of children at this age is the concrete nature of the process and hence, the concrete or literal nature of their language. In this sense, the concrete is the opposite of abstract. 1.Here children understand the world in the way they sense it through five primary senses. 2.Concepts that can not be seen heard smelt, tasted or felt –for example Time and health are difficult for these children to grasp. 3.At this stage, children use and understand language in a literal sense and thus understand words only as they have learned them.
Start:-1. A general feature of the thought process and language during the preoperational period is egocentrism, meaning that the child is incapable of assuming another persons point of view..2. Children do not yet understands concrete logic. Can not mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people.
In order to understand egocentrism, Piaget did a study to investigate this phenomenon called the mountains study. He would put children in front of a simple plaster mountain range and seat himself to the side, then ask them to pick from four pictures the view that he, Piaget, would see. Younger children would pick the picture of the view they themselves saw; older kids picked correctly
2. Another characteristic of thought processes at this stage is animism, investing inanimate objects with life. Essentially everything is being seen as alive by a young childExample:Hand piece can be called whistling Willie, who is happy while he works at polishing the child’s teeth
Start: Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance.At this stage, capabilities for logical reasoning are limited and the child’s thought processes are dominated by the immediate sensory impressions. This characteristic can be illustrated by asking the child to solve a liquid conservation problemFig A Two beakers are filled to the same level with water. The subject sees that they are equal. Fib B The liquid of one container is poured into a tall tube (or a flat dish). The subject is asked whether each contains the same amount. -The child is first shown two equal size glasses with water in them.-The child agrees that both contain the same amount of water. -Then the contents of one glass are poured into a taller, narrower glass while the child watches. -Now when asked which container has more water, the child will usually say that the tall one does. His/ Her impressions are dominated by the greater height of the water in the tall glass.
Start:- For this reason, the dental staff should… 3rd point: A preoperational child will have trouble understanding a chain of reasoning like, “Brushing and flossing remove food particles, which in turn prevents bacteria from forming acids, which cause tooth decay”. 4th point: He or she is much more likely to understand- “Brushing makes your teeth feel clean and smooth”, and “tooth paste makes your mouth taste good”, because these statements rely on things the child can taste or feel immediately
1. As a child moves into this stage, typically after a year or so of preschool and first grade activity, an improved ability to reason emerges. He or she can use a limited number of logical processes, especially those involving objects that can be handled and manipulated (i.e concrete objects).after 2nd point: If a child in this stage is given a similar problem, however, staged only in words with no concrete objects to illustrate it, the child may fail to solve it.
Start: The stage begins with progressive decentering. After point 1:If you show a child four marbles in a row, then spread them out, the preoperational child will focus on the spread, and tend to believe that there are now more marbles than before.The concrete operations child, on the other hand, will know that there are still four marbles,If you pour the mild from the short, fat glass into the tall, skinny glass, he will tell you that there is the same amount of water as before, despite the dramatic increase in mild-level
slideBy eight or nine years old, children develop conservation of substance: If I take a ball of clay and roll it into a long thin rod, or even split it into ten little pieces, the child knows that there is still the same amount of clay. And he will know that, if you rolled it all back into a single ball, it would look quite the same as it did -- a feature known as reversibility.By nine or ten, the last of the conservation tests is mastered: conservation of area. If you take four one-inch square pieces of felt, and lay them on a six-by-six cloth together in the center, the child who conserves will know that they take up just as much room as the same squares spread out in the corners, or, for that matter, anywhere at all.
SlideStart: By this stage, the ability to see another point of view develops, while animism declines. 1. Children in this period are much more like adults in the way they view the world but they are still cognitively different from adults. -Presenting ideas as abstract concepts rather than illustrating them with concrete objects can be a major barrier to communication. beforepoint 2 -Instructions must be illustrated with concrete objects. “Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to keep it clean”, is too abstract. Before Point 3: More concrete directions would be:After point 3rd: This illustrated example with more concrete direction could be easily understood by the child and they can follow them easily.
Inductive logic example: specific experience this raven is a black bird toGeneral experiance is all ravens are black birds.Deductive logic: from general proposition i.e. all ravens are black bird to specific proposition this bird is raven therefore it is black.
slide1. For most children, the ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract reasoning develops by about age 11. -At this stage, the child’s thought process has become similar to that of an adult, and the child is capable of understanding concepts like health, disease, and preventive treatment. 2. At this stage, intellectually the child can and should be treated as an adult. 3. Successful communication, in other words, requires a feel for the child’s stage of intellectual development.
slide1.They are now aware that others think, but usually, in new expressions of egocentrism, presume that they and others are thinking about the same thing. 2. Because young adolescents are experiencing tremendous biologic changes in growth and sexual development, they are preoccupied with these events. 3. Adolescents assume that others are as concerned with their bodies, actions, and feeling as they themselves are. They feel as though they are constantly “on stage”, being observed and criticized by those around them4. These phenomenon have been called the Imaginary Audiences by Elkind
slide1. The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on young adolescents, making them quite self-conscious and particularly susceptible to upper influence. They are very worried about what people will think about their appearance and actions, not realizing that others are too busy with themselves to be paying attention to other. 2nd point The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces on the teeth, of course, is an important consideration to a teenage patient. 3rd point: The notion that “others really care about my appearance and feelings as much as I do” leads adolescents to think they are quite unique, special individuals. If this were not so, why would others be so interested in them? As a result of this thought, a second phenomenon emerges, which Elkind called the “personal fable
1st point: This concept holds that “because I am unique, I am not subject to the consequences others will experience”. before 2nd point: The personal fable is a powerful motivator that allows us to cope in a dangerous world. It permits us to do things such as travel on airplanes while knowing that “occasionally they crash, but the one I’m on will arrive safely
slidePhenomenon of imaginary audiences and personal fable have a significant influence on orthodontic treatment.1st point: The imaginary audiences depending upon what the adolescent believes, may influence him to accept or to reject a treatment.3rd point: The personal fable may make a patient ignore threats to health, such as decalcification of teeth from poor oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment.After 4th point: The challenge for the dentist is not to try to impose change on reality as percieved by adolescents, but rather to help them more clearly see the actual reality that surrounds themLook goofy:- in this situation, telling the patient that he should not be concerned becoz many of his peers also are wearing this appliance does little to encourage him to wear it.A more useful approach, would be to agree with him that he may be right in what others will think, but ask him to give it a try for a specified time.
Slide1. The ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during formal operational stage.2.Instead of relying solely on previous experiences, child begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions. 3. This type of thinking is Important in long term planning.Nwptknwsdat more forwardly placed anteriorly teeth will going to cause problems in future and so pt wont hesitate to get the orthodontic treatment done as teenager does.
Slide1.In earlier stages, child used trial and error to solve problems. During formal operational stage, Ability to systematically solve a problem in logical and methodical way emerges.2. Child at formal operational stage of cognitive development is able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving problem
3rd point: Different folks, applies strongly to children, whose variation in intellectual and psychological development affect the way they recieve orthodontic treatment, just as their differing stages of physical development do…
Piaget also was a genius when it came to observing children. His careful observations demonstrated inventive ways to discover how children act on and adapt to the world.
slidetitle: Much of the criticism of Piaget's work is in regards to his research methods. 1-A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children.2-In addition to this, the other children in Piaget's small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socioeconomic status. 3-Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population.
Recent theory of mind research has found that 4- and 5-year-old children have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people.
As the American actor James Baldwin said, "Children have never been good listeners to their elders, but they never failed to imitate them:
Gean piaget theory
Theory of Cognitive
development by Jean
Dr. Parag S. Deshmukh
Classification of psychological theories
Stages of cognitive development
Contributions of piaget cognitive theory
As the saying goes
“body does what mind says, for
all behavioral act of a person
there is a force behind which is
known as mind or psyche. So it is
essential on our part to study
• Psychology –
Study of human mind and its functions.
Psychology is both a field of study and also
a means of improving the quality of life
It can be defined as „Science dealing with
human nature, function and phenomenon
of his soul in the main‟.
For treating a child successfully or to manage
a child in a dental setting, we as dentists
should have thorough knowledge on
personality development of the child.
“Is the science that deals with the study
of child‟s mind and how it functions, it
also deals with the mental power or an
interaction between the conscious and
subconscious element in a child”
Different Theories Of Psychology Which
Have An Application In Dentistry
Theories on personality Development
• Psychoanalytic theory or psychosexual theory by
• Psychosocial theory or Erikson‟s model of
Theory on Cognitive Development
Cognitive development theory by Jean Piaget
Theories on Learning and development of Behavior
• Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov
• Operant conditioning by B.F. Skinner
• Social or Observational learning by Albert Bandura
Theory of Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Maslow
Other relevant theories
• Separation-Individuation theory by Margaret S Mahler
Attachment theory – John Bowlby.
Theory of moral development – Kohlberg L.
• Childrenese – Haim Ginott.
IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING
CHILD PSYCHOLOGY IN
DENTISTRY:To understand the child as he comes to dental office &
know his problem in the way he explains.
Only after understanding the child and the parent, we can
deliver treatment effectively.
To establish effective communication with child and
parents, the basic skill is required.
Child and most importantly parents should develop
confidence on our treatment and dentistry.
To teach and motivate them about importance of primary
and preventive care and the importance of oral health.
To plan out effective treatment.
Switzerland, on August 9, 1896
Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature
with an interest in local history.
Rebecca Jackson, his mother, was intelligent and
energetic, but Jean found her a bit neurotic
1918, Piaget received his Doctorate in Science from
the University of Neuchâtel
He worked for a year at psychology labs in
Zurich and at Bleuler‟s famous psychiatric clinic
In 1919, he taught psychology and philosophy at
the Sorbonne in Paris.
He died in Geneva, September 16, 1980, one of
Cognitive Development of Children
• Cognition refers to the mental processes by
which knowledge is acquired, elaborated,
stored, retrieved, and used to solve
• Cognitive psychologists are also concerned
with why one individual differs from another
in many of these cognitive processes.
• Cognition includes processes like
perception, thinking, concept formation,
abstraction and problem solving.
Basics of the processes involved in cognition
i.e. perception, thinking, abstraction etc. is
Intelligence is a score derived from an
This indicates how the individual‟s mental ability
compares with that of others of the same
Cognition and Age
It wasn‟t until about the middle of the last century
that researchers began to systematically study the
cognitive processes of newborns and young infants
Newborn can recognize the sound of their mother‟s
By six months of age they also showed some
evidence of conceptual knowledge
Jean Piaget’s structural-functional
a model that emphasizes the biological
functions and the environmental influences
that promote developmental changes in the
“organization” or “structure”, of intellect.
He created a broad theoretical system for the
development of cognitive abilities; in this
sense, his work was similar to that of Sigmund
Freud, but Piaget emphasized the ways that
children think and acquire knowledge.
Jean Piaget Research Work
observation of 3
children and nephew
Piaget’s Basic Ideas Of
Genetic Epistemology, “As the study of acquisition,
modification and abstract ideas and abilities on the
basis of an inherited or biological substrate, an
Every individual is born with the capacity to adjust or
adapt to both the physical and socio-cultural
environments in which he or she must live.
• Piaget rejected the idea that learning was
the passive assimilation of the knowledge.
• He proposed that learning is dynamic
process comprising successive stages of
adaptation to reality.
• Piaget theory has two main strands:
a. Mechanism by which cognitive development
takes place .
b. 4 main stages through which child pass.
PIAGET’S VIEW OF COGNITIVE
It is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to
explain how children shift from one stage of
thought to next
Eventually, they resolve the conflict and
reach a balance or equilibrium of thought
For Piaget the motivation for change is an
internal search for equilibrium
Cognitive Schemes: The
structural aspects of intelligence
Describe the models or mental structures, that we create
to represent, organize, and interpret our experience
A Scheme is a pattern of thought or action that is similar
in some respects to what the lay person calls a strategy
or a concept.
Three kinds of intellectual structures are:
• Behavioural (Sensorimotor) schemes
• Symbolic schemes
• Operational schemes
A behavioural scheme is an organized pattern of
behaviour that the child uses to represent and
respond to an object or experience.
During second year, children reach a point at
which they can solve problems and truly “think”
about objects and events without having acted on
A cognitive operation is the internal mental activity
that a person performs on his or her objects of
thought to reach a logical conclusion
It is the process by which children
combine existing schemes into new
and more complex intellectual
structures, it takes place internally
apart from direct contact with the
environment and is both biological
It is the ability of the person to
adjust to the environment and to
interact with it.
Assimilation and Accommodation.
Assimilation From the beginning a child incorporates or assimilates
events within the environment into mental categories
called cognitive structures.
A cognitive structure in this sense is a classification of
sensations and perceptions.
Bird:- Flying Object
Bees:- Look Bird
Accommodation occurs when the child changes his or
her cognitive structure or mental category to better
represent the environment
Intelligence develops as interplay between assimilation
However, the child‟s ability to adapt is limited by the
current level of development.
The notion that the child‟s ability to adapt is age related
is a crucial concept in Piaget‟s theory of development
Both the processes i.e. assimilation and
accommodation are used simultaneously
alternately throughout life
Through this continuous dual process child is
instantly building various hierarchies of related
behavior known as schemata.
It represents dynamic process of differentiation
and organization of knowledge with the resultant
evolution of behavior and cognitive functioning
appropriate for the age of child.
Sensorimotor Period Infants knowledge of world is limited to their sensory
perceptions and motor activities.
During the first 2 years of life,
a child develops from a newborn infant
Simple modes of thought that are the foundation of
language develop during this time,
Communication is limited because of the child‟s
simple concepts and lack of language capabilities
Birth – 2 months
reactions / Habits
Uses inborn motor and sensory reflexes (sucking,
grasping, looking) to interact and accommodate to
the external world.
Children co-ordinates sensation and new schemas.
Child becomes more focused on the world and
begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to
trigger a response in the environment.
8 months – 1 year
Child starts to show clearly intentional actions. Children
begins exploring the environment around them and will
often imitate the observed behaviors of the others.
understanding of objects begins. Also begins to recognize
certain objects have specific work.
1 year – 18 months
Period of trial and error experimentation.
18 months – 2
Children begins to develop symbols to represent events or
objects in the world. Begins to move towards understanding
the world through mental operations rather than purely
through actions. child knowledge develops by:
Object permanence, causality and symbolic play.
Because children above the age of 2 begin to
use language in ways similar to adults, it appears
that their thought processes are more like those
During the preoperational stage, the capacity
develops to form mental symbols representing
things and events not present, and children learn
to use words to symbolize these absent objects.
children understand the world in the way
they sense it through five primary senses.
Concepts that can not be seen heard
smelt, tasted or felt for example time and
Children use and understand language in
a literal sense.
Features of thought process:
A general feature of the thought process
and language during the preoperational
period is egocentrism
Defined as inability to assume another
persons point of view.
At this stage his own perspective is all that
he can manage
giving dental instrument and
equipment lifelike names and
Handpiece :- “Whistling Willie”
• Piaget found that few children shows any
understanding of conservation prior to age
Dental staff should use immediate sensations rather than
abstract reasoning in discussing concepts like prevention
of dental problems with a child at this stage.
Excellent oral hygiene is very important when an
orthodontic appliance is present
“Brushing and flossing remove food particles, which in
turn prevents bacteria from forming acids, which cause
“Brushing makes your teeth feel clean and smooth”, and
“tooth paste makes your mouth taste good”,
Period of Concrete
Operations(7 yr – 11 yr)
An improved ability to reason emerges.
8 year old could watch the water being poured
from one glass to another, imagine the reverse
of that process, and conclude that the amount
of water remains the same no matter what size
the container is
The child‟s thinking is still strongly tied to
concrete situations, and the ability to reason on
an abstract level is limited.
By seven or 8 years, most children develop the
ability to conserve number, length, and liquid
volume. Conservation refers to the idea that a
quantity remains the same despite changes in
Children are much more like adults
“Now wear your retainer every night and be sure to
keep it clean”,
“This is your retainer. Put it in your mouth like this,
and take it out like that. Put it in every evening
right after dinner before you go to bed, and take it
out before breakfast every morning. Brush it like
this with an old tooth brush to keep it clean”
Features of concrete
Children now are fairly good at inductive
logic which involves going from a
specific experience to a general
There is difficulty in using deductive logic
which involves using a general principle
to determine the outcome of a specific
Here is awareness that actions can
child might be able to recognize
that his or her dog is a Labrador,that
a Labrador is a dog.and that a dog
is an animal
Period of Formal Operations
Ability to deal with abstract concepts and abstract
reasoning develops by about age 11
Intellectually the child can and should be treated
as an adult
Successful communication, in other words, requires
a feel for the child‟s stage of intellectual
• Aware that others think
• Experiencing tremendous biologic changes in
growth and sexual development
• They feel as though they are constantly “on
stage”, being observed and criticized by
those around them
• “Imaginary Audiences” by Elkind
The imaginary audience is a powerful influence on
The reaction of the imaginary audience to braces
consideration to a teenage patient
“Others really care about my appearance and
feelings as much as I do”
“Because I am unique, I am not subject to
the consequences others will experience”.
Imaginary audience and the personal fable
have useful functions in helping us develop
social awareness and allowing us to cope in
a dangerous environment
Accept or reject T/t
To wear or not to wear appliance
Decalcification of the teeth from poor
orthodontist that he does not want to wear a
particular appliance because others will think it
makes him “look Goofy”
Deductive logic becomes important
during formal operational stage.
It requires ability to use general principle
to determine specific outcome.
This type of thinking is helpful in science
The ability to think about abstract
child begin to consider possible
outcomes and consequences of
Important in long term planning.
Ability to systematically solve a
problem in logical and methodical
Child is able to quickly plan an
organized approach to solving
One role of an effective dental professional is to
help teenagers test the reality that actually
It is the job of the dentist to carefully evaluate
the development of the child, and to adapt his
or her language
Adage “different strokes for different folks”
Evaluating Piaget’s theory
Contributions:•Psychologists owe him a long list of masterful
concepts of enduring power and fascination,
assimilation, accommodation, object
permanence, egocentrism, conservation and
•Psychologists also owe him the current vision of
children as active, constructive thinkers and
they have a debt to him for creating a theory
that generated a huge volume of research on
children‟s cognitive development
Piaget's focus on qualitative development
had an important impact on education.
While Piaget did not specifically apply his
programs are now built upon the belief that
children should be taught at the level for
which they are developmentally prepared.
Problems With Research
A major source of inspiration for the theory was
Piaget's observations of his own three children
Well-educated professionals of high
Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is
difficult to generalize his findings to a larger
Problems With Formal
Research has disputed Piaget's argument
that all children will automatically move to
the next stage of development as they
Some data suggests that environmental
factors may play a role in the
development of formal operations.
Most researchers agree that children
possess many of the abilities at an earlier
age than Piaget suspected.
For example, children of this age have
some ability to take the perspective of
another person, meaning they are far less
egocentric than Piaget believed.
Q. Is Piaget‟s account of cognitive
change clear and accurate?
Broad transformation in thinking but
exactly what the child does to
equilibrate is vague
On a variety of tasks infants and young
children appear more competent
than adolescents and adults who
appear less competent, than Piaget
Culture and education
• Culture and education exert a stronger
influence on children‟s development
than Piaget believed.
Dentistry for children can be demanding and
frustrating; at the same time, it can be enriching,
satisfying, and memorable
Child patient management was a concern 30
years ago as well as today
Multidisciplinary research that results from
combining the wealth of knowledge of both
dentistry and psychology significantly helps in
modifying behavior management and child
1.Profitt- textbook of contemporary orthodontics.
2. textbook of craniofacial growth- Shridhar premkumar.
3.Textbook Of Pedodontics
4. Library dissertation on theories of psychology.
(department of pedodontics, SPDC)
5.Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
been good listeners to
their elders, but they
never failed to imitate
~ James Baldwin
wishing you all
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