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The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point
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The Haunted Mansion of Hunts Point

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A haunted house dominated The Bronx during the Civil War and the Gilded Age before falling before developers.

A haunted house dominated The Bronx during the Civil War and the Gilded Age before falling before developers.

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    • 1. 1859 “Whitlock’s Folly” near Southern Boulevard “Cradle of Cuban Liberty.” Hommock Manor, the country seat of B. M. Whitlock, Esq., is situated in West Farms Township, on the East river, or Sound, about 3 miles from Harlem. The estate contains several hundred acres; but that part on which the dwelling is situated, is, as its name implies, a complete Hommock of about 20 acres - which at high tides is nearly surrounded by water - and is approached from the main part of the estate by a causeway. --"The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Local Kids Said the House Was Haunted “Haunted” Mansion of Hunts Friday, February 13, 15
    • 2. Artifacts from present day Soundview, Bronx The land is purchased from Indians This may certify whom it may concerne that we Shonearoekite, Wapomoe, Tuckorre, Whawhapenucke, Capahase, Quannaco, Shaquiski, Passachahenne, Harrawooke, have aleined and sold unto Edward Jessup and John Richardson, both of the place above said, a certain Tract of land bounded on the east by the River Aquehung or Bronxkx... -from original deed with native signers 1664 Similar deed signed by native sachem’s for Rye 1661 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 3. Arent van Curler, later van Corlaer, (1619, Nijkerk, Gelderland - 1667) He was born in Nijkerk, Netherlands. In 1643, Van Curler married the widow of Jonas Bronck, Teuntie Joriaens, aka Antonia Slaaghboom Joanas Broncx Signs Treaty with the Indians in 1642. Joanas Broncx Established a Farm along the Harlem RiverWilliam Kieft governor of New Amsterdam 1638-1647 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 4. Ferris Grove Farm Hunt Leggett Hunts Point The first landholders on Hunts Point were Edward Jessup and John Richardson. They bought the land from Native Americans. The land was inherited by both Gabriel Leggett (1637-1700) who married Elizabeth Richardson daughter of John Richardson, and Thomas Hunt of Grove Farm, who married Jessup’s daughter also named Elizabeth. 1666 land grant for Hunts Point from King Charles II of England John Throckmorton arrives from Rhode Island about 1642 1664 Morris 1671 Broncx 1644 Hutchinson Massacre 1643 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 5. Old Morrisania seat of the manor built on the site of Jonas Bronck’s original settlement 1671 now rail yards Lewis Morris First lord of the manor of Morrisania (15 October 1671 – 21 May 1746) Friday, February 13, 15
    • 6. “Debatable Lands.” debatable land Richardson & Jessup Lewis Morris by marriage land passed to Hunt and Leggett Friday, February 13, 15
    • 7. Historic Places and Features Overlaid on a 1921 map Leggett claim Morris claim Hunt Cemetery Debatable Land Friday, February 13, 15
    • 8. First Lord of the Manor of Morrisania Lewis Morris gives “part of the Manor of Morrissania,” land “by the sound that divides Long Island and the Islands of Nassau from the Continent.” to his father-in-law James Graham who is also an influential politician.The deed claims the land known as the “debatable land” for Morris who then transfers it to Graham. “Wigwam Brook. But by some falsely called Sakrahunck...” “by the House of Gabriel Legget...” “Including the same Jeafards neck with the Hammock Meadows and Marshes thereunto...” Deed circa 1738-1746 1671-1746 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 9. Westchester Road (Avenue) is cut through Morris land 1808-1814 Thomas Leggett 1755-1843 Gouverneur Morris 1752-1816 Bronx Accent: A Literary and Pictorial History of the Borough edited by Lloyd Ultan, Barbara Unge Gouverneur Morris Battles Thomas Leggett The Leggett and Morris families battle over access to Morrissania for 150 years. Map showing Leggett’s Creek as Wigwam Brook Friday, February 13, 15
    • 10. Hunts Tavern established 1730s Dickey estate Last estate in Hunts Point Paul Spofford estate Dennison mansion 1850 Faile mansion Francis Barretto Julia Coster Bath House 1910 P.S. 48 Leggett estate 1890 Thomas Leggett Jr. 1755-1843 Direct descendant of Gabriel Leggett Corpus Christy Monastery Rose Bank is seat of the Leggett estate by the 19th century Waddington Mansion 1808-1828 sold to Francis Barretto Fox Estate Hoe Estate 1856 Whitlock/Casanova mansion 1859 The land becomes the site of country estates for NYC’s rich Friday, February 13, 15
    • 11. Thomas B. Leggett (son of WIlliam) sold this land to Benjamin M. Whitlock... Whitlock’s wife sold it to Inocencio Casanova in 1867. -Steven Jenkins East River East River Thomas B. Leggett 1823-1895 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 12. view of the East River from Hunts Point on a 1864 real estate map south views north views Friday, February 13, 15
    • 13. Benjamin Morris Whitlock was born on January 31, 1815. On May 5, 1851 he married Amelia Mott Wilson. Whitlock’s sister Josephine married William L. McDonald who would figure in the 1864 Confederate plot to burn 13 hotels in NYC retaliating for Southern setbacks during the Civil War. 1857 Whitlock built an ornate manor costing $350,000 or $10 million today Friday, February 13, 15
    • 14. 1857 Wealth of the World net worth of $2,000,000 in 1857 = $60,000,000 today Vesey and Dey St. in 1857 Ann St. Broadway 1857 Outspoken against succession and for slavery.The Civil War would bankrupt Whitlock Benjamin Morris Whitlock Friday, February 13, 15
    • 15. Thaddeus Whitlock is Benjamin Whitlock’s fatherJosephine is Benjamin’s sister Franklin Market, foot of William St., New York City, 1820. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 16. WHITE, BENJAMIN (1755-1841), merchant. Benjamin and Mary (Morris) White of Shrewsbury, NJ are the maternal grandparents of Benjamin M.Whitlock. Benjamin White, a Quaker served in the American Revolution under General Daniel Morgan. Daniel Morgan Shrewsbury Monmouth County Friday, February 13, 15
    • 17. tea water pump in Chatham Square Chatham Square near Bayard and Bowery ThaddeusWhitlock was a school teacher. “There is no good water to be met with in the town itself; but at a little distance there is a large spring of good water, which the inhabitants take for their tea and for the uses of the kitchen.” Professor Kalm 1782 1812 1748 Thaddeus Whitlock is living in the 10th Ward in the 1820 census Friday, February 13, 15
    • 18. Thaddeus Whitlock teacher Friday, February 13, 15
    • 19. Thaddeus Whitlock land owner Thaddeus Whitlock at his death in 1832 owns 18-16 Oliver Street and 59-61 Bowery. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 20. 59-61 Bowery were eventually demolished for the Manhattan Bridge approach. Across the street was the Bowery Theater and Bulls-Head Tavern used in 1783 by Geo.Washington as an HQ 1826-1929 1750-1858 Thaddeus Whitlock properties 1832 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 21. Thaddeus Whitlock owned land used for the first public school in NewYork City. The current PS 1 was built in 1897. It’a also known as the Alfred E. Smith elementary school after the 4 time governor of NewYork who was born at 25 Oliver St. Alfred E. Smith residence Thaddeus Whitlock properties 1832 Alfred E. Smith school at Oliver and Henry St. 1873-1944 Mariner’s Temple Baptist Church founded by Henry Rutgers 1795 present structure built 1844. Public Schools were built on corner lots in the early days of public education. Considered optimal for light and air circulation. But by the 20th century these locations were too valuable for purchase by the city. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 22. Benjamin M Whitlock, "United States Census, 1850" He resides in the 18th Ward with a household of family members and servants Name: Benjamin M Whitlock Event Type: Census Event Date: 1850 Event Place: New York City, ward 18, New York, NY, United States Gender: Male Age: 29 Marital Status: Race (Original): Race: Birthplace: New York Birth Year (Estimated): 1821 Household Gender Age Birthplace Benjamin M Whitlock M 29 New York Sarah L Whitlock F 2 New York Mary Whitlock F 64 New Jersey Caroline Whitlock F 21 New York Edward Whitlock M 28 New York Josephine Whitlock F 19 New York Susan Wright F 32 New Jersey Bridget Heslen F 17 Ireland Mary Ann Heslen F 18 Ireland Mary Murray F 16 Ireland Mary Mcguire F 19 Ireland Margaret Mcgown F 13 New York S Arthur Ferris M 28 Connecticut 26th 14th Servants? Friday, February 13, 15
    • 23. real estate map of 84 Front St. in 1860s Edward A.Whitlock, Benjamin’s brother, is employed by James B.Wilson, a prominent NYC merchant whose daughter Amelia marries Benjamin M.Whitlock in May 1851. Benjamin started his business at 84 Front St. near the waterfront 81-83 Front street 1927 MCNY 1848 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 24. Whitlock traded in tobacco, wines and cotton. This is a bottle of his Ambrosia. Whitlock Avenue is the former name of the street now known as Bruckner Boulevard in the Bronx.The street was cut through property that belonged to the Leggett family and sold to a wealthy merchant and real estate speculator named Benjamin M.Whitlock. His father Thaddeus was a school teacher in lower Manhattan near the area known as Five Points. He came to NewYork from Connecticut.Whitlock’s specialty was tobacco (segars), wine and cotton. His business was based in the south and Whitlock was known as a southern sympathizer. Whitlock’s home Hommock Park in the Hunts Point section of the Bronx (also known as Waddington, Leggett and Oak point) was an ornate mansion and one of the largest private residences the United States. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 25. Whitlock’s fine wines and cigars Friday, February 13, 15
    • 26. 13 Beekman St. Whitlock’s business address moves from 84 Front St. to a new location at 13 Beekman Street near City Hall The company goes through changes of style under Benjamin Whitlock’s direction Friday, February 13, 15
    • 27. SLAVERY Friday, February 13, 15
    • 28. A major force in NewYork society and politics Whitlock cautioned his southern clients against secession, but when the Civil War broke out he was soon bankrupted, dying before the end of the conflict. In the years leading up to the war Whitlock participated in schemes to annex Cuba as a slave state, he supported a pro-slavery constitution for Kansas and angrily opposed John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry.Whitlock was well connected by marriage and business to the most prominent merchant families in NewYork. He was admired by many, apparently including his political enemies for his success and wealth. 1856 B.M. & E.A.Whitlock & Co... Whitlock’s Beekman Street address is known as the “Southern Headquarters” Friday, February 13, 15
    • 29. George M. Nichols was a resident of Louisiana and did extensive business with the independent Republic of Texas government before Texas became a state. A letter written by George M. Nichols to the Republic of Texas asking for funds to be sent to him in care of Whitlock, Nichols & Co. 84 Front St. Texas Library and Archives Commission Until 1856 George M. Nichols partnered with the Whitlock brothers. Nichols represented the firm in Texas Records in the Texas archives show that agents of Benjamin M.Whitlock’s firm travelled widely in the south. Apparently Whitlock’s business connections reached down into Texas when the the Lone Star state was an independent country. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 30. MAJOR B. F. JONES representative of B.M. Whitlock is a Confederate advisor and soldier Major Jones was born in Gwinett county, Georgia, on the 20th of June, 1831, and in the common schools acquired his education, after which he entered upon his business career as clerk in a country store near his home.With a young man's desire to see something of the world and seek a wider sphere of usefulness and activity, he left home at the age of 20 years and went to NewYork City.With most commendatory letters he carried with him he found no difficulty in obtaining employment, securing a situation in a dry-goods and carpet house on Cortlandt street.A year later he entered the service of Whitlock, Nichols & Company, a noted grocery firm, which was afterward succeeded by B. M. & E.A.Whitlock & Company. In the service of this house he traveled all over the south and was its representative at the time of the breaking out of the civil war. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 31. BF. Jones advises at a meeting of the Confederate Congress He utilized the information and experience that he had acquired through travel and business knowledge to the advantage of the newly organized Confederate government... He was a southern man by birth and training, and, true to the principles and teaching in which he had always been trained, when the war was inaugurated he hastened to Rome, Georgia, and in April, 1862, joined the Cherokee artillery... he was made quartermaster Confederate States Capitol Richmond,Va Friday, February 13, 15
    • 32. In 1874 Jones became the superintendent of the National Water-works Company. He was born in the State of Georgia, his ancestors on his father's side coming originally from Scotland. His mother was a descendant of an old Dutch family, and Scottish sagacity and thrift, together with Dutch tenacity, thoroughness and equable disposition combined, are leading characteristics of this gentle- man. His first business experience was gained at his birthplace, among his friends and neighbors ; but, finding this field too small for his ambitious efforts, he sought and found a wider one in New York, where he remained until the commencement of the "late unpleasantness," when he enlisted as a private in the Cherokee Artillery, at Rome, Ga. He remained in the army during the continuance of the strife, and at the close of the war, by the sheer force of inherent merit, he had risen from the ranks to the important post of Inspector General of the War Department, at Richmond, Va. Cherokee Artillery Friday, February 13, 15
    • 33. NYPLFeb. 1859 36th St. & Park Avenue in 1944 with JP Morgan Library in the background Park Ave. looking toward old Grand Central Terminal The Park Avenue Tunnel runs beneath the avenue between 33rd and 40th Streets. It was built in 1834 as an open cut for the New York & Harlem Railroad (NY&H) which ran both steam engines and horsecars, and the cut was bridged over in the 1850s, creating the tunnel — one of NYC’s oldest, if not the very oldest. The tunnel has carried trolley tracks, two-way traffic, and now northbound auto traffic. http://forgotten-ny.com/2012/12/park-avenue-tunnel/ Whitlock’s Sells Murray Hill and Names Park Avenue Friday, February 13, 15
    • 34. Investigation by the state superintendent -Insurance Department, Albany, September 12, 1860 Whitlock Real Estate Speculation Continues Along Park Avenue A $3,000 ($90,000*) investment on East 55th St. in 1851 worth $12,000 ($400,000*) in 1860. *2013 value Jones Woods on the upper east side of Manhattan was a forested area in this 1851 image Friday, February 13, 15
    • 35. American Eyes Turn Toward Cuba Friday, February 13, 15
    • 36. Whitlock sat on many political committees including this one to annex Cuba as a slave state “The Truth” NYC based pro-independence newspaper with a map of Cuba Friday, February 13, 15
    • 37. NY Herald February 10, 1858 One of the original Cuban flags waved in Cardenas by filibuster led by Gen. Narciso Lopez in 1850, Later became the national flag. Filibusters make war on countries at peace with their home country. Newspaper editors saw Cuba as ripe for annexation to the USA Friday, February 13, 15
    • 38. Battle of Cardenas 1850 The Sun a NYC newspaper that fanned the flames of intervention Friday, February 13, 15
    • 39. Cecilia Valdes is arguably the most important novel of 19th century Cuba. Originally published in New York City in 1882, Cirilo Villaverde's novel has fascinated readers inside and outside Cuba.CiriloVillaverde secretary to Lopez escaped to NYC publishing a pro-independence newspaper married Emilia Casanova who founded Las Hijas de Cuba (Daughters of Cuba) living in the Whitlock Mansion after 1868 CiriloVillaverde Friday, February 13, 15
    • 40. 1854: Emilia Casanova 22 years old disembarks at Philadelphia, She will marry CirilioVillaverde and become a leader of the “Daughters of Cuba” a movement to free Cuba from Spanish colonialism Passenger manifest Friday, February 13, 15
    • 41. A FATEFUL PARTNERSHIP: CHARLESV. MAPES AND B.M.WHITLOCK The Union Sketch Book Harvard Alumni 1913 “The war wiped out their Southern accounts and obliged them to succumb.” Friday, February 13, 15
    • 42. BASE OF OPERATIONS NY TIMES OCTOBER 5, 1905 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 43. A country-seat “3 miles from Harlem on several hundred acres, the dwelling sits a complete Hommock of about 20 acres - which at high tides is nearly surrounded by water - and is approached... by a causeway” “...the Hommock is devoted to an ornamental pleasure ground.” “... stables accommodate 40 horses, and the carriage house about half that number of carriages.” “... rises a bell tower of three stories, the lower one is fitted as a lecture and a school room” “... fitted up with numerous gas burners.The gas for lighting... is supplied from a highly architectural and ornamental gas-house... filled from the retorts in a building adjoining.” “A beautiful... curved drive skirts the base of the Hommock, on the north is... the bathing-rooms, boat-house... while statuary, and seats of various kinds embellish the grounds.” “...[Whitlock] commenced operations by removing to his grounds, from a distance of two or three miles, forest trees of large size... where they are now flourishing... for the most part Elms and Maples The Horticulturist of Rural Art and Rural Taste,Volume 13, Plan for a Rose-House,William Webster 1858 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 44. B.M. & E.A. Whitlock’s store at 13 Beekman St. near Nassau and Broadway. Nearby the old Brick Church was used as a hospital during the American revolution. In 1857 the Church was ripped down and replaced by the first New York Times building.* *B.M.Whitlock was an early investor in Murray Hill Real Estate where the Brick Church relocated Whitlock building old Brick Church City Hall Park 1870 1856 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 45. Demolition of Old Brick Church 1857 Ny Times 1853 1856 B. M. WHITLOCK's ROSE-HOUSE AND CONSERVATORY. One great object in publishing this plan, is to show how advantageously old materials may be worked into a house of this kind; for all the circular-headed windows, with a corresponding number of square ones, belonged to the old Brick Church in Beekman Street, which was pulled down to make room for stores; so that the plan had to be got up to meet the material, and not, as is usually the case, the materials to suit the plan. - Horticulturist And Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste The Brick Church, demolished in 1857, across from Whitlock’s business on Beekman Street.The ruins are used by Whitlock to build a rose house. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 46. Built with Windows from the old Brick Church “All the circular-headed windows, with a corresponding number of square ones, belonged to the old Brick Church in Beekman Street, which was pulled down to make room for stores; so that the plan had to be got up to meet the material, and not, as is usually the case, the materials to suit the plan. ” -- NY Times Friday, February 13, 15
    • 47. “Decorations were intended to depict Louis's grandeur and understandably omit any mention of French losses and defeats.” Wikipedia entry on Louis XIV King of France "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre" 1643-1715 (Wikipedia entry) Bedroom of Louis XIV -Versailles Soyez le Bienvenue A room fit for a New York merchant prince Louis XIV roomVersailles Louis XIV King of France Friday, February 13, 15
    • 48. National Academy home on Broadway from 1859 to 1865 Records of the National Academy of Fine Arts show Whitlock purchased this painting. P. 178 Waldo & Jewett 1845 Address: 1 Cortlandt Street 82. Portrait of a Gentleman B.M.WHITLOCK l New York Historical Society - Vo I. 77 American Academy of Fine Arts and American Art Union ...Exhibition Record P.137. Fowler, Trevor Thomas (Active 1829-1860) Purchaser Friday, February 13, 15
    • 49. Whitlock spoke at this angry pro-slavery meeting “[against]The treasonable raid of John Brown and his followers...” December 19, 1859 John Brown raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harper’s FerryVa. October 16, 1859 helped start the Civil WarHarper’s Ferry Friday, February 13, 15
    • 50. Great Union Meeting A reaction to John Brown’s raid "...chiefly to promote southern trade," and to express "sympathy for the slave owners of the south, for the men who buy, or are to be coaxed to buy A.T. Stewart's silks and Ben Whitlock's brandy." -A sometime friend and fellow-laborer in the old Whig cause to James W. Beekman in Tribune Dec. 9, 1859 Academy of Music corner of Irving Place and 14th St. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 51. Benjamin M.Whitlock 1860 His long interest in the abolition of slavery led Dr. Houghton to found the first black Sunday school in New York City and to harbor runaway slaves as part of the Underground Railway, one stop on which was the basement of the church's rectory. During the Civil War Blacks were burned, hanged, and mutilated during the Draft Riots of July 1863... Angry mobs trying to get at those who had found sanctuary within the church twice thronged the gates of the churchyard... George Houghton lifted the processional cross from its place in the church, walked out to face the rioters, held it before them, and said, "Stand back, you white devils; in the name of Christ, stand back!" With such courageous words, George Houghton held off the unruly mob, and those in the church remained safe for several more days, until the mob had been quelled and dispersed. George Hendric Houghton Henry Ward Beecher Henry Ward Beecher held mock “auctions” at which the congregation purchased the freedom of real slaves. The most famous of these former slaves was a young girl named Pinky, auctioned during a regular Sunday worship service at Plymouth on February 5, 1860 William Lloyd Garrison Lewis Tappan Friday, February 13, 15
    • 52. About 4 o'clock the visitors again embarked, and proceeded up the River through Hurl (Hells) Gate, about twelve miles, to the suburban villa of B.M. WHITLOCK, Esq., in Westchester County, on the banks of the river... After being photographed in line on the lawn in front of Mr. WHITLOCK's fine new brown-stone mansion, taking a look at his sixty blood horses, and extensive repository of carriages, imbibing a timely drink, and viewing the grounds, the company was invited to a collation spread for three hundred in a shady grove near one of the residences. -- NY Times July 23, 1860 “...the bronze doors, with their elegant coat of arms and the inviting inscription, "Soyez le Bienvenue," were never thrown open with greater cordiality than when an entire regiment from Georgia was being entertained, the officers lodged in the rooms and the men encamped on the lawns.” -Valentine’s Manual of Old New York Southern Militiamen known as Savannah Republican Blues Visit Whitlock promoting reconciliation on the eve of Civil War Friday, February 13, 15
    • 53. A Southern Woman's War Time Reminiscences: The Seventh Regiment entertained the Savannah Republican-Blues and the brothers B. and B. M. Whitlock gave a grand entertainment to them up the Hudson, where my "lovely Nell" and I were in attendance. In a letter home I used this language: "It seems to me as if our people were military-mad, and had rushed together for a last fraternal embrace, to separate and fight like maddened devils; so violent do altercations and argument come when the questions of slavery, free soil, etc., are discussed." And when I went South some of my friends dubbed me the "bloody prophet." -Mrs. Elizabeth Lyle Saxon Mrs. Elizabeth Lyle Saxon Involved in woman's suffrage and social reform issues in Memphis and New Orleans. 1832-1915 N.Y. 7th Regiment (scene in what is today Washington Square Park) took on the Savannah Republican Blues in a “friendly” drill competition in 1860. A Bloody prophecy Friday, February 13, 15
    • 54. Benjamin M.Whitlock was a major player in The Homestead Insurance Company until regulators shuttered the company. Operating from Whitlock’s office building Homestead was actually worth $50,000 not the advertised $150,000. Investigation by the state superintendent -Insurance Department, Albany, September 12, 1860 Whitlock’s Empire Crumbles 1835 Great Fire Fire’s were an ever present danger in NYC NYC volunteer fireman Friday, February 13, 15
    • 55. A DAUGHTER’S DEATH "WHITLOCK -- In Hommock Park, on Sunday, Oct. 21, after a brief illness, ADELINE WILSON, daughter of Benjamin M. and Amelia Whitlock, aged 6 years and 9 months. The friends of the family are respectfully invited to attend her funeral, from the residence of her parents, Hommock Park, Westchester County, this (Tuesday) afternoon, at 3 1/2 o'clock, without further notice. Carriages will meet at Mott-Haven, the Harlem train leaving 26th-st. at 2:30 P.M. NYTimes October 1860 Whitlock Family Plot Green Wood Brooklyn Friday, February 13, 15
    • 56. Whitlock begged his southern clients to stay in the union NY Historical Society Friday, February 13, 15
    • 57. Mayor Fernando Wood’s Recommendation of the Secession of New York City Mayor Wood January 06, 1861 “Then it may be said, why should not New York city, instead of supporting by her contributions in revenue two—thirds of the expenses of the United States, become also equally independent? As a free city, with but nominal duty on imports, her local Government could be supported without taxation upon her people. Thus we could live free from taxes, and have cheap goods nearly duty free. In this she would have the whole and united support of the Southern States, as well as all the other States to whose interests and rights under the Constitution she has always been true.” Time for compromise between North & South was running out Friday, February 13, 15
    • 58. LINCOLN ELECTED Lincoln speaks at Cooper Union before his election Friday, February 13, 15
    • 59. A YEAR LATERTOTHE DAY AFTER HIS DAUGHTER WHITLOCK’S MOTHER DIES -THE FUNERAL IS HELD ATTHE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH A STATION ONTHE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD NYTimes October 1861 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 60. Mourners Arrive on the Harlem River Rail Road 1861 They cross the Harlem River Bridge Before the Civil War (1861–1864), Mott Haven was the site of two stations on the Underground Railroad — the villa of Charles Van Doren, which stood at East 145th Street and Third Avenue, and the Mott Haven Dutch Reformed Church, which still stands on East 146th Street. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 61. ...A good many merchants, in order to avoid catastrophe were, the correspondents added, already abandoning their Establishments in New York and were preparing to set up business in "some city of the Confederate States" Charleston Mercury March 21,1861 ...the extensive grocery house of B.A. & E.A. WHITLOCK... had already completed negotiations for “going to Savannah.” Philip Foner 1941 The Civil War brought profound changes to the New York region. At the beginning of the war, the loss of trade with the South and disruptions caused by military activity and Southern privateering forced a number of banks and mercantile houses into bankruptcy. Most New York banks were forced to suspend payments and the building trades shut down operations. B.M. & E.A.Whitlock goes out of business March 1862. In 2004 his creditor bank merges into Friday, February 13, 15
    • 62. Bloody street fighting in NewYork City Draft Riots July 1863 NewYork erupts into rioting against military conscription. Burning the Abolitionist homes Lynchings Friday, February 13, 15
    • 63. -- Benjamin M. Whitlock, Esq., formerly one of the prominent wholesale grocers of this City, died on Wednesday last at his residence in Westchester County, after a very brief illness. Mr. Whitlock, in consequence of the present troubles, lost overwhelmingly, because of the failure of his Southern customers to meet their engagements, and was compelled to relinquish his business, which had before been one of the most profitable in the City. He was a man of finest business capacity, and of noble, generous impulses. His hospitality was lavish, and he was noted especially for keeping one of the finest studs in the country, his stock and stables being the centre of admiration and interest. These and the remainder of his property he sacrificed when misfortune overtook him, in order honorably to meet his sudden embarrassments. Benjamin Whitlock’s Obituary death on August 15, 1863 Descended of a horse owned by Whitlock Friday, February 13, 15
    • 64. Benjamin M.Whitlock’s Grave The Green-Wood Cemetery Brooklyn Friday, February 13, 15
    • 65. Whitlock Family Plot Friday, February 13, 15
    • 66. October 1864 Foreclosure Moses Taylor 1806-1882 Edward Haight 1817- 1885 Whitlock’s Hommock Auctioned to pay off his “sudden embarrassments” Friday, February 13, 15
    • 67. February 8, 1865 A NAWARK REBEL. WILLIAM LAWRENCE MCDONALD, who figures in the papers as the rebel agent in Canada, and the leading spirit in the Chesapeake, St. Albans, and New-York hotel- burning affairs... In 1860, he associated with Mr. B.M. WHITLOCK, (his brother-in-law,) in the carriage business... "GUS" MCDONALD, a brother of the above, who also lived in Orange, but recently a resident of New- York, is in custody on a charge of harboring the incendiaries while they were in that city. -- Newark Advertiser. The man who tried to burn New York November 25, 1864 Southern Gentleman (about to Fire the Hotel), Harper's Weekly. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 68. Married to Benjamin Whitlock’s sister Josephine Whitlock, McDonald does extensive business with the south 15 Beekman is directly adjacent to B.M. &E.A.Whitlock William “Larry” McDonald 1821-1895 Merchant, Sutler, Spy, Conspirator Friday, February 13, 15
    • 69. WILLIAM LARRY MCDONALD SUTLER: a person who followed an army and sold provisions to the soldiers. Having become heavily indebted to Mr. GREEN, carriage-maker in this city, "Larry," as he is familiarly called, tendered his services to him to pay his obligations, and on the former gentleman being appointed sutler to the Twenty- sixth Regiment, he accompanied him to Virginia. After the first stock of goods had been sold, LARRY came North and purchased $2,000 worth of goods for Mr. GREEN, and, on his return to Virginia, deliberately drove them into the rebel lines, where they were, of course, confiscated. Outbreak of Civil War makes McDonald: “A most bitter and consistent partisan of the rebels.” McDonald fakes his capture by the rebels inVirginia Friday, February 13, 15
    • 70. LARRY: FROM SUTLERTO SPY While in Richmond, as is since ascertained, he lived in luxury, affiliating with all the rebel leaders, giving them information as to the number and position of our forces, and other valuable facts. He was then released on a pretended parole, and came to this city, and while visiting his wife at Westchester, New-York, learned that his exploits had been divulged to the War Department, and detectives were after him. He immediately shipped as a sailor on a schooner for New-Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the authorities. -A Nawark Rebel, New York Times January 8, 1865 McDonald, now a POW is “paroled” to New York and then “released” in February 1863 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 71. “a vast and fiendish plot” P.T. Barnum’s Museum St. James Hotel Metropolitan Hotel United States Hotel Lafarge Hotel Astor Hotel St. Nicholas Hotel Tammany Hall November 25, 1864 Conspirators set fires in NewYork Hotels Friday, February 13, 15
    • 72. COPS VS. CONSPIRATORS John Alexander Kennedy superintendent of police for New York City 1860-70 Jacob Thompson apparently leader of Confederate Secret Service operations in Canada. Robert Cobb Kennedy Confederate Agent- Hanged March 25, 1865 For Setting New York Fires (picture taken two days before execution) Friday, February 13, 15
    • 73. McDonald, his brother “Gus” and niece Katie named in an investigation into the plot but never charged in the crime despite Larry’s confession to an undercover New York City police detective.. WILLIAM L. MCDONALD, the rebel agent in Canada, was in 1860 proprietor of the "Southern Carriage Repository," in this city, at No. 514 Broadway. His trade, which had been almost exclusively with the South, having been shut off by the war, he became one of the most bitter and consistent partisans of the South anywhere to be found in the North. NYTimes Feb. 6, 1865 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 74. Queen’s Hotel in Toronto where the conspirators hid after the attempt to burn New York “Gus” McDonald (brother of “Larry”) is arrested when detectives raid his piano store on Franklin St. The plotters had been meeting there. Martin was a Confederate agent. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 75. “Gus” McDonald is part of the conspiracy with niece Katie McDonald Katie’s father William L McDonald, brother to Gus was Whitlock’s brother-in-law. He rented a hideout Confederate Operations in Canada and NewYork -Headley New York Times, November 26, 1864 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 76. BURIAL PLACE OF WILLIAM L. & JOSEPHINE MCDONALD A peaceful end in the burial ground Christ Church - built 1769 Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, New Jersey Josephine Whitlock McDonald Birth: unknown Death: Nov. 20, 1892 Inscription: wife of William L. McDonald - dau of Thaddeus and Mary Whitlock Note: died in Eatontown, sister of Benjamin M. Whitlock William L McDonald Birth: Jan. 12, 1821 Death: Apr. 5, 1895 Inscription: born in Quebec, Canada Note: implicated in the 1864 plot to burn New York City Friday, February 13, 15
    • 77. Appomattox United States Civil War ends April 9, 1865 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 78. Edward A.Whitlock Son of Thaddeus and Mary Whitlock was born Jan. 7th 1819 in the City of NewYork died May 27th 1865 aged 46 years Abraham Lincoln assassinated April 14, 1865 The Green-Wood cemetery Brooklyn, NY Friday, February 13, 15
    • 79. NY Times After the death of Mr (Benjamin M.) Whitlock it was transferred by deed from his widow to Innocencio Casanova a Cuban patriot under date of November 1, 1867 for a consideration of $150,000 The first struggle for Cuban independence was then in progress and the house became a rendezvous for the supporters of Cuba Libre It is stated that its great cellars became storehouses for powder rifles and other munitions of war which were smuggled aboard the vessels which stole in and out of the creeks contiguous to the house and which sailed away on secret filibustering expeditions to the Ever Faithful Isle. It is also said that the ill fated Virginius took on board her unfortunate crew here With the downfall of the rebellion the visits of the dark skinned mysterious looking men ceased and the house was deserted while whispers of murdered Spanish spies and of ghosts and strange and unaccountable noises in the vacant house filled the neighborhood. Stephen Jenkins Friday, February 13, 15
    • 80. Underground Passages A tunnel under the mansion. The secret tunnel came out in the river at Duck Island Bronx Historical Society Historians entered the abandoned mansion in the early 20th century shortly before it was razed and photographed tunnels that apparently led to the inlet of Leggetts Creek at a small rock called Duck Island. Both are now below Tiffany street. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 81. “MAN OF MYSTERY” NYTimes January 2, 1922 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 82. 1871 The Casanova family was deeply involved in the struggle for Cuba’s independence On a trip to Cuba Casanova learns about a threat to his life from the Spanish government “I am under my flag!Viva Washington!” - Inocencio Casanova to Spanish officials from the deck of the American steamer “Columbia.” February 25, 1871 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 83. Casanova’s Plantation “La Armonia” was located outside city of Cardenas. Despite uprisings slavery was legal in Cuba until October 7, 1886 Casanova’s home Slave life on Armonia sugar plantation Friday, February 13, 15
    • 84. Inocencio Casanova’s sons run the families sugar plantation from Cardenas.They fear for their lives from the Cuban government. JOSE N. CASANOVA. Mr. Casanova was appointed and confirmed as American Consul, March 1, 1859, as from New York. He was born in France, and established a prominent family in Guayaquil; apparently he continued in the position of American Consul until 1861. Brief History Of The American Consulate General At Guayaquil, Ecuador By FREDERIC WEBSTER J. CODING GUAYAQUIL 1920 His son Jose was imprisoned in Cuba. Jose had been American Consul in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 85. Casanova’s daughter Emilia organizes the Daughters of Cuba to support independence fighters. One hotbed of militant activity was an old mansion in what is now the Hunts Point area of the Bronx. There, the activist Emilia Casanova (daughter of Inocencio) and her husband, exiled author Cirilo Villaverde, worked in support of the Cuban rebels, and are said to have collected arms and ammunition for smuggling out to Long Island Sound and shipment south to Cuba. - Museo del Barrio Emilia Casanova deVillaverde CiriloVillaverde Cuba’s Ten Years’War, 1868-78 On the grounds of his own small estate Carlos Manuel Cespedes sounded the work-bell of his sugar mill to assemble his slaves and their gave them their freedom. On the following day he read a declaration, known as the Manifiesto de la Junta Revolucionaria de Cuba setting forth the right to self-government of the protesters. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 86. Emilia Casanova deVillaverde Cardenas, CubaLatinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia edited by Vicki Lynn Ruiz Raffles to raise funds for weapons Friday, February 13, 15
    • 87. Letters of Emilia Casanova excerpts To benefit the next game of illustrious general Quesada I write you these lines.The disasters and reverses that have undergone expeditions of men and the ammunition of war , because of the ineptitude and stupidity of the ones in charge of their organization and handling, have produced deep misfortune, causing desperation to those Cubans who see clearly the origin of the evil... At this time I don't want to speak on misfortunes and discords between you, but you must count on the devotion of all Cubans and to distinguish between the sincere patriot and the weak speculator in patriotism. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo a Cuban planter who freed his slaves, and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years' War. General Manuel de Quesada elected as of the Cuban rebels’ Chief of the Armed Forces April 12, 1869. --Emilia Casanova de Villaverde ...the purpose I write is to inform you that the next shipment of arms and ammunition has been sent by the “League of Daughters of Cuba” Friday, February 13, 15
    • 88. Virginius leaves NYC bound for Cuba TheeVirginius was a Confederate blockade runner outfitted to smuggle arms to Cuba’s revolutionaries during the 10 years war between 1868 and 1878. “...the purpose I write is to inform you that the next shipment of arms and ammunition has been sent by the League of Daughters of Cuba” -Emilia Casanova de Villaverde October 4, 1870 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 89. NYC waterfront 1877 potential target of a Spanish ironclad John Roach, Maritime Entrepreneur By Leonard Alexander Swann Friday, February 13, 15
    • 90. Execution of the Virginius crew who apparently sailed from the Mansion on October 4, 1870 to supply arms to Cuban rebels. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 91. In this letter Miguel de Aldama, from New York, writes to José González Curbelo. He explains that there is not much he can do about the abuses committed by Emilia Casanova de Villaverde,among others, that have a detriment effect to Cuba's independence efforts. He goes on to say that this behavior will continue so long as they keep receiving support from people with candid intentions. Miguel de Aldama letter to José González Curbelo complaining about Emilia Casanova de Villaverde, June 19, 1874 CurbeloAldama Cuban newspapers attack Casanova as a “witch” using her wealth to back the insurgents.Who she rivaled in commitment and militancy. Here she’s portrayed as the selling insurgent flags “wholesale or retail.” Emilia’s home town of Cardenas was where Narciso Lopez first flew the Cuban flag. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 92. “I wouldn’t change my casita del oeste not even for Mrs. Grant’s Blue Room in the White House. No, not even my dining room, which is more dear [to me] than all the dining rooms in the palaces of Washington.” “I want nothing more than this. (for the U.S. to express support for abolition of slavery, encourage commerce, oppose oppression of Cubans, property, freedom) and basta! (enough), it’s late and my eyes and arms hurt me. Adios! loving son of my soul.” Washington, February 2, 1872 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/latinashistory Mi Querido Hijo: There are ladies here who beg to be with me with the idea of going to places where entry is forbidden to the common public. And I don’t doubt that being Americans they are surprised like that lady in Montreal when we went to see Victoria Bridge, of the easy way doors are opened for me. People offer me their respect. They are smothering me so much it bothers me instead of giving me pride. I don’t need formal entry to the wives of senators, ministers and other persons in Washington. In this, Enrique played a big role especially in the hotel, well he is so adorable and lively he attracts attention and people come to me to acariciarlo (hug, pet, or express endearments) and hear him speak in English and Spanish so well. People are anxious to serve me, bring me the paper, especially where there is news of Cuba. This is all great praise, but for someone else: not me. I wouldn’t change my casita del oeste not even for Mrs. Grant’s Blue Room in the White House. No, not even my dining room, which is more dear [to me] than all the dining rooms in the palaces of Washington. One cup of coffee there tastes better than [the] dozens of exquisite and costly plates that I’m served in Arlington. I have to edit the talk I’m giving Congress in the name of Las Hijas. (goes on to ask Congress to support rights of belligerence. ) Assure your father I want nothing more than this. (for the U.S. to express support for abolition of slavery, encourage commerce, oppose oppression of Cubans, property, freedom) and basta! (enough), it’s late and my eyes and arms hurt me. Adios! loving son of my soul. Don’t forget my advice to be loved and respected by all. Recibe el cariño y bendición de tu madre, Emilia Washington, February 2, 1872 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 93. Massive wrought-iron chandeliers adorned halls and chambers. On my visit I found bell-pulls in the immense apartments, which I vigorously rang, causing mysterious ringings in distant rooms below with true ghostlike effect —but never a servant appeared. Chance led us into the strangest place of all, the secret chamber containing the great safe, itself as big as a room. The entrance was by a hidden door. The place was lighted by opaque oval panels that exactly resembled the surrounding woodwork. High up beneath the lofty roof was a mysterious place, but whether it was an elaborate chapel or an immense ballroom we never learned. -Valentine’s Manual of Old New York A MYSTERIOUS MANSION’S LAST DAYS Friday, February 13, 15
    • 94. A local child named Eulia McVay ran to the roof of the mansion and climbed the flag pole. The view of the East River is what she saw from the top. --photos by Albert E. Lickman 1902 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 95. A local child named Eulia McVay ran to the roof of the mansion and climbed the flag pole. The view of the East River is what she saw from the top. --photos by Albert E. Lickman 1902 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 96. The Oak Point Bathing beach and Pavilion in 1887 Hunts Point public bath 1910 Casanova’s waterfront becomes an entertainment area William M.Allen 1814-1878 landowner Allen’s wife Catherine Leggett 1817-1890 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 97. Casanova estate is sold to the East Bay Land Improvement Company and English investors looking to host the 1893 Colombian Exposition Gen. Egbert Viele founder of the East Bay Land Improvement Company NewYork loses the Fair to Chicago NYTimes 1890 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 98. NY & Harlem RRYards The railroad yards of the NY & Harlem are established to the south west of William Leggett’s land. Bungay Creek on this map is now the course of 149th Street. Eventually named the Oak Point yards the railroad would expand to encompass the lands to the east of the former “debatable lands” that figured in the legal battles between Leggett and Morris holdings that began in the 17th century.1888 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 99. Demolition of the Casanova Mansion 1905 Friday, February 13, 15
    • 100. Evening Telegram 1906 Church E. Gates lumber yard, NYPL National Gypsum Co. 1952 C.E. Gates lumber yard and National Gypsum previously known as Rock Plaster Co. Friday, February 13, 15
    • 101. Graft and Pollution in 1909 Louis M. Haffen first Bronx Borough President Friday, February 13, 15
    • 102. NY Times 1922 Casanova site 2012 Friday, February 13, 15

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