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Design ManagementSeminar
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Design ManagementSeminar

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This is a presentation given at the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen.

This is a presentation given at the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen.

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  • 1. Working at the interface between design and construction Peter Demian Lecturer in Construction Management Department of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University
  • 2. Introduction to Myself
    • Lecturer in Construction Management since 2005
      • Interested in Design and Knowledge Management
    • PhD in Civil Engineering
    • Undergraduate studies in Structural Engineering
    • Disability: Poor eyesight
  • 3. Outline
    • First Principles
      • “Design”?
      • “Management”?
      • “Design Management”?
    • Why design management is difficult but important
    • Tools we can use
  • 4. First Principles: Design 1/2
    • “ The conception and planning of the artificial” (Buchanan 2000)
    • “ The process of developing information about an object that has not previously existed.” (Ullman 1994)
    • “ The most essential design activity is the production of a final description of the artefact.” (Cross 1989)
      • (a description that would enable someone to build the artefact)
  • 5. First Principles: Design 2/2
    • Yes, but how are designs generated?
    • Rational (or rationalisable) process made up of distinct phases ?
    • Rational problem solving?
    • Subjective, deeply human experience?
    • Social, collaborative activity?
    • Design ≠ construction
  • 6. First Principles: Management 1/2
    • Oxford English Dictionary: “Organization, supervision, or direction; the application of skill or care in the manipulation, use, treatment, or control (of a thing or person), or in the conduct of something.”
    • Gray and Hughes (2001): To conduct things and people in order to achieve some end.”
    • Managing ≠ doing
  • 7. First Principles: Management 2/2
    • Dictionary definition uses the word “ organisation” – from the notion of organs in the human body.
      • To organise something is to arrange the elements into a coordinated whole.
      • When it is difficult to deal with a whole, it is useful to split the whole into pieces, and deal with each piece in a separate but coordinated way.
    • Disassembly must not destroy essence – reductionism vs. holism.
  • 8. First Principles: Design Management 1/5 Managing≠doing Designing≠construction ? ? CONSTRUCTION ? ? DESIGN MANAGING DOING
  • 9. First Principles: Design Management 2/5 A long time ago… Architect/ Masterbuilder Workmen or labourers CONSTRUCTION Architect/ Masterbuilder Architect/ Masterbuilder DESIGN MANAGING DOING
  • 10. First Principles: Design Management 3/5 Recently… Const./Proj. Manager or General Contractor Subcontractors CONSTRUCTION Architect/ Engineer Architect/ Engineer DESIGN MANAGING DOING
  • 11. First Principles: Design Management 4/5 The future… Const./Proj. Manager or General Contractor Subcontractors CONSTRUCTION The Design Manager Architect/ Engineer + Others DESIGN MANAGING DOING
  • 12. First Principles: Design Management 5/5
    • “ A management framework for timely delivery of good, accurate and build-able designs that meet the stakeholder requirements.” – Design Management Handbook by Lee Bibby
    • “ The management of people and resources in a multidisciplinary process, performed in a series of iterative steps, to conceive, describe and justify increasingly detailed solutions and costings to meet the needs of the stakeholders.” – Professor Simon Austin Module notes, CVP010 Design Process Management.
    • Orchestra metaphor
  • 13. Changes in the Const. Industry
    • One person/entity oversee the entire design and construction process  Co-ordination of multiple specialist designers and works contractors.
      • Specialisation, fragmentation. As work becomes more complex, so more skills are needed to accomplish it.
    • Architect as project leader  Ambiguity: Who’s the boss?
      • Erosion of the role of architect.
      • Complex financing, accounting before an architect is even hired.
    • Leadership of project changes as project progresses
    • (For more, see Table 1, Page 2 in Gray and Hughes 2001)
  • 14. Who Contributes to the Design? CONTRIBUTION STAGE Brief Detail Concept and Scheme Specialist Engineering Design Construction Client Architect Engineer Specialist Gray and Hughes 2001. Fig 9
  • 15. Construction Man. ↔ Design Man.
    • Construction:
      • Complicated
      • Collaboration between many specialists
      • Const. Man./General contractor relieves architects and engineers of the need to manage construction
    • Design
      • Complicated, many specialists
      •  Design management to relieve entire team of management role
  • 16. Characteristics of Design 1/2
    • Many stakeholders, disciplines
      • Different disciplines because complexity  differentiation
      • Different organisations because of transaction cost economics
    • Each discipline has its own language and way of working
    • We want this, but we need to provide integration and coordination
  • 17. Characteristics of Design 2/2
    • Design is problem seeking (or problem definition) as well as problem solving
    • Design is iterative. No right answer first time. No perfectly right answer at all?
    • “Designer” is often not “builder”.
    •  Contrast between design and construction.
  • 18. Design versus Construction Design Management Handbook, Lee Bibby 2002
  • 19. Design: greatest scope for change
    • During the design phase we have the greatest influence over the total final cost of the project
    • During the design phase we have the greatest influence over the total final cost of the project
    • During the design phase we have the greatest influence over the total final cost of the project
  • 20. Level of Influence Feasibility Brief Design Construction Utilisation Chapter 10 of “Professional Construction Management” by Barrie and Paulson (1992) Project Phase Level of Influence 0% 100% Decreasing Influence Increasing Expenditure Cumulative Cost of Project
  • 21. Design Manager Imposes Freezes Feasibility Brief Design Construction Utilisation Chapter 10 of “Professional Construction Management” by Barrie and Paulson (1992) Project Phase 0% 100% Decreasing Influence Increasing Expenditure Cumulative Cost of Project Cost of change BRIEF FREEZE DESIGN FREEZE
  • 22. Design Management tools: ICT and Modelling PRODUCT PROCESS ORGANISATION ICT
  • 23. Summary
    • First Principles
      • “ Managing ≠ doing
      • Designing ≠ construction
    • Difficult : Complicated, specialists, iterative
    • Important: Design: greatest influence
    • Tools
      • Product modelling
      • Process modelling
      • Organisational modelling
      • ICT