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Information Technology Detail

Information Technology Detail



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Ch01a Ch01a Presentation Transcript

  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 1Information SystemsInformation SystemsWhy Do People Need Information? Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment Businesses - Decision making, problem solving andcontrol
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 2Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsData vs. Information Data A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture Represents something in the real world The raw materials in the production of information Information Data that have meaning within a context Data in relationships Data after manipulation
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 3Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsData Manipulation Example: customer survey Reading through data collected from a customer survey withquestions in various categories would be time-consuming andnot very helpful. When manipulated, the surveys may provide usefulinformation.
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 4Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand Systems Generating Information Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, andproduce information as output.Figure 1.1 Input-process-output
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 5Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful informationData, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand Systems Information in Context
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 6Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand Systems What Is a System? System: A set of components that work together to achieve acommon goal Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of morethan one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with othersystems Open system: System that interfaces with other systems
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 7Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsFigure 1.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accountingsystem.
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 8Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsInformation and Managers Systems thinking Creates a framework for problem solving and decisionmaking. Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations ofbusiness.
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 9Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsFigure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute tosynergy
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 10Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsThe Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy Synergy When combined resources produce output that exceeds thesum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately Allows human thought to be translated into efficientprocessing of large amounts of data
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 11Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsFigure 1.6 Components of an information system
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 12Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsThe Four Stages of Data Processing Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. Data processing: Data is manipulated into information usingmathematical, statistical, and other tools. Output: Information is displayed or presented. Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use.
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 13Why Study IS?Why Study IS? Information Systems Careers Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP),database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. Knowledge Workers Managers and non-managers Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to useinformation technology. Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy Key to full participation in western society
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 14Ethical and Societal IssuesEthical and Societal IssuesThe Not-So-Bright SideThe Not-So-Bright SideConsumer Privacy Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) hugeamounts of data on individuals.Employee Privacy IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violatingprivacy and creating stress.
  • MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 15Ethical and Societal IssuesEthical and Societal IssuesThe Not-So-Bright SideThe Not-So-Bright Side Freedom of Speech IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectualproperty crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge freespeech. IT Professionalism No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlikeother professions. Social Inequality Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than3% have Internet access.