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Information Technology Detail

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    1. 1. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 1Information SystemsInformation SystemsWhy Do People Need Information? Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment Businesses - Decision making, problem solving andcontrol
    2. 2. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 2Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsData vs. Information Data A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture Represents something in the real world The raw materials in the production of information Information Data that have meaning within a context Data in relationships Data after manipulation
    3. 3. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 3Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsData Manipulation Example: customer survey Reading through data collected from a customer survey withquestions in various categories would be time-consuming andnot very helpful. When manipulated, the surveys may provide usefulinformation.
    4. 4. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 4Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand Systems Generating Information Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, andproduce information as output.Figure 1.1 Input-process-output
    5. 5. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 5Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful informationData, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand Systems Information in Context
    6. 6. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 6Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand Systems What Is a System? System: A set of components that work together to achieve acommon goal Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of morethan one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with othersystems Open system: System that interfaces with other systems
    7. 7. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 7Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsFigure 1.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accountingsystem.
    8. 8. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 8Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsInformation and Managers Systems thinking Creates a framework for problem solving and decisionmaking. Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations ofbusiness.
    9. 9. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 9Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsFigure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute tosynergy
    10. 10. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 10Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsThe Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy Synergy When combined resources produce output that exceeds thesum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately Allows human thought to be translated into efficientprocessing of large amounts of data
    11. 11. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 11Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsFigure 1.6 Components of an information system
    12. 12. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 12Data, Information,Data, Information,and Systemsand SystemsThe Four Stages of Data Processing Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. Data processing: Data is manipulated into information usingmathematical, statistical, and other tools. Output: Information is displayed or presented. Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use.
    13. 13. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 13Why Study IS?Why Study IS? Information Systems Careers Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP),database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. Knowledge Workers Managers and non-managers Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to useinformation technology. Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy Key to full participation in western society
    14. 14. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 14Ethical and Societal IssuesEthical and Societal IssuesThe Not-So-Bright SideThe Not-So-Bright SideConsumer Privacy Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) hugeamounts of data on individuals.Employee Privacy IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violatingprivacy and creating stress.
    15. 15. MIS 715 Eaton Fall 2001 15Ethical and Societal IssuesEthical and Societal IssuesThe Not-So-Bright SideThe Not-So-Bright Side Freedom of Speech IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectualproperty crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge freespeech. IT Professionalism No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlikeother professions. Social Inequality Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than3% have Internet access.