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2013 09-29 rv03 the old testament background of revelation
 

2013 09-29 rv03 the old testament background of revelation

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Lesson 3 in a series of Bible Classes on the Book of Revelation. Presented 9/29/13 at Palm Desert Church of Christ by Dale Wells.

Lesson 3 in a series of Bible Classes on the Book of Revelation. Presented 9/29/13 at Palm Desert Church of Christ by Dale Wells.

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  • Amen! Hallelujah! – A Study of the Book of RevelationBy Dale WellsCopyright © 2013Dale R. WellsScripture quoted by permission. All scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. www.bible.org. All rights reserved. This material is available in its entirety as a free download or online web use at http://www.netbible.org/.All rights reserved.
  • In 404 verses, there is not a single Old Testament quote, yet there are hundreds of allusions to the Old Testament.Within the Book of Revelation, 278 verses (70% of the book) reference the Old Testament.The UBS Greek New Testament cross-references the Old Testament in the Book of Revelation more than 500 times.^ By contrast, Paul’s letters contain only 95 direct quotes and about 100 other allusions to the Old Testament.
  • Balaam and Balak, Jezebel, the throne in heaven, the four living creatures, the beast out of the sea, the Song of Moses, the fall of Babylon, the new heaven and earth, the new Jerusalem, the tree of life, etc., all come right out of the pages of the Old Testament.
  • Revelation 1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me, and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands …
  • This was reminiscent of the menorah in the tabernacle.Exodus 25:31-40 “You are to make a lampstand of pure gold. The lampstand is to be made of hammered metal; its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its blossoms are to be from the same piece. 32 Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand, three branches of the lampstand from one side of it and three branches of the lampstand from the other side of it. … 37 “You are to make its seven lamps, and then set its lamps up on it, so that it will give light to the area in front of it. 38 Its trimmers and its trays are to be of pure gold. 39 About seventy- five pounds of pure gold is to be used for it and for all these utensils. 40 Now be sure to make them according to the pattern you were shown on the mountain.
  • Also reminiscent of Zechariah’s vision.Zechariah 4:2 He asked me, “What do you see?” I replied, “I see a menorah of pure gold with a receptacle at the top and seven lamps, with fourteen pipes going to the lamps.
  • Revelation 1:13-16 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest. 14 His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame. 15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters. 16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double- edged sword extended out of his mouth. His face shone like the sun shining at full strength.
  • The picture comes from the Old Testament image of the Messiah.Daniel 7:13 I was watching in the night visions, “And with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man was approaching. He went up to the Ancient of Days and was escorted before him.
  • Revelation 4:2-5 Immediately I was in the Spirit, and a throne was standing in heaven with someone seated on it! 3 And the one seated on it was like jasper and carnelian in appearance, and a rainbow looking like it was made of emerald encircled the throne. 4 In a circle around the throne were twenty- four other thrones, and seated on those thrones were twenty- four elders. They were dressed in white clothing and had golden crowns on their heads. 5 From the throne came out flashes of lightning and roaring and crashes of thunder. Seven flaming torches, which are the seven spirits of God, were burning in front of the throneThe description imports aspects of the visions of several prophets.
  • Isaiah 6:1 In the year of King Uzziah’s death, I saw the sovereign master seated on a high, elevated throne. The hem of his robe filled the temple.
  • Ezekiel 1:26-28 Above the platform over their heads was something like a sapphire shaped like a throne. High above on the throne was a form that appeared to be a man. 27 I saw an amber glow like a fire enclosed all around from his waist up. From his waist down I saw something that looked like fire. There was a brilliant light around it, 28 like the appearance of a rainbow in the clouds after the rain. This was the appearance of the surrounding brilliant light; it looked like the glory of the LORD. …
  • Daniel 7:9-10 “While I was watching, thrones were set up, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His attire was white like snow; the hair of his head was like lambs wool. His throne was ablaze with fire and its wheels were all aflame. 10 A river of fire was streaming forth and proceeding from his presence. Many thousands were ministering to him; Many tens of thousands stood ready to serve him. The court convened and the books were opened.
  • Revelation 4:6-8 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. In the middle of the throne and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes in front and in back. 7 The first living creature was like a lion, the second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. 8 Each one of the four living creatures had six wings and was full of eyes all around and inside.
  • The words are reminiscent of Old Testament images of God.Ezekiel 1:5-10 In the fire were what looked like four living beings. In their appearance they had human form, 6 but each had four faces and four wings. 7 Their legs were straight, but the soles of their feet were like calves feet. They gleamed like polished bronze. 8 They had human hands under their wings on their four sides. As for the faces and wings of the four of them, 9 their wings touched each other; they did not turn as they moved, but went straight ahead. 10 Their faces had this appearance: Each of the four had the face of a man, with the face of a lion on the right, the face of an ox on the left and also the face of an eagle.
  • Revelation 6:1-8 I looked on when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying with a thunderous voice, “Come!” 2 So I looked, and here came a white horse! The one who rode it had a bow, and he was given a crown, and as a conqueror he rode out to conquer. 3 Then when the Lamb opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, “Come!” 4 And another horse, fiery red, came out, and the one who rode it was granted permission to take peace from the earth, so that people would butcher one another, and he was given a huge sword. 5 Then when the Lamb opened the third seal I heard the third living creature saying, “Come!” So I looked, and here came a black horse! The one who rode it had a balance scale in his hand. 6 Then I heard something like a voice from among the four living creatures saying, “A quart of wheat will cost a days pay and three quarts of barley will cost a days pay. But do not damage the olive oil and the wine!” 7 Then when the Lamb opened the fourth seal I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, “Come!” 8 So I looked and here came a pale green horse! The name of the one who rode it was Death, and Hades followed right behind. They were given authority over a fourth of the earth, to kill its population with the sword, famine, and disease, and by the wild animals of the earth.
  • The horses and riders are a reminder of God’s judgments in the Old Testament.Zechariah 6:1-8 Once more I looked, and this time I saw four chariots emerging from between two mountains of bronze. 2 Harnessed to the first chariot were red horses, to the second black horses, 3 to the third white horses, and to the fourth spotted horses, all of them strong. 4 Then I asked the angelic messenger who was speaking with me, “What are these, sir?” 5 The messenger replied, “These are the four spirits of heaven that have been presenting themselves before the Lord of all the earth. 6 The chariot with the black horses is going to the north country and the white ones are going after them, but the spotted ones are going to the south country. 7 All these strong ones are scattering; they have sought permission to go and walk about over the earth.” The Lord had said, “Go! Walk about over the earth!” So they are doing so. 8 Then he cried out to me, “Look! The ones going to the northland have brought me peace about the northland.”
  • Revelation 6:12-17 Then I looked when the Lamb opened the sixth seal, and a huge earthquake took place; the sun became as black as sackcloth made of hair, and the full moon became blood red; 13 and the stars in the sky fell to the earth like a fig tree dropping its unripe figs when shaken by a fierce wind. 14 The sky was split apart like a scroll being rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved from its place. 15 Then the kings of the earth, the very important people, the generals, the rich, the powerful, and everyone, slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains. 16 They said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one who is seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb, 17 because the great day of their wrath has come, and who is able to withstand it?”
  • The description reminds the reader of God’s judgments in the Old Testament.Joel 2:30-31 I will produce portents both in the sky and on the earth- blood, fire, and columns of smoke. 31 The sunlight will be turned to darkness and the moon to the color of blood, before the day of the Lord comes- that great and terrible day!
  • Isaiah 34:4 All the stars in the sky will fade away, the sky will roll up like a scroll; all its stars will wither, like a leaf withers and falls from a vine or a fig withers and falls from a tree.
  • Isaiah 2:19 They will go into caves in the rocky cliffs and into holes in the ground, trying to escape the dreadful judgment of the Lord and his royal splendor, when he rises up to terrify the earth.
  • Hosea 10:8 The high places of the “House of Wickedness” will be destroyed; it is the place where Israel sins. Thorns and thistles will grow up over its altars. Then they will say to the mountains, “Cover us!” and to the hills, “Fall on us!”
  • Revelation 7:1-8 After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth so no wind could blow on the earth, on the sea, or on any tree. 2 Then I saw another angel ascending from the east, who had the seal of the living God. He shouted out with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given permission to damage the earth and the sea: 3 “Do not damage the earth or the sea or the trees until we have put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” 4 Now I heard the number of those who were marked with the seal, one hundred and forty- four thousand, sealed from all the tribes of the people of Israel: 5 From the tribe of Judah, twelve thousand were sealed, from the tribe of Reuben, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Gad, twelve thousand, 6 from the tribe of Asher, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Naphtali, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Manasseh, twelve thousand, 7 from the tribe of Simeon, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Levi, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Issachar, twelve thousand, 8 from the tribe of Zebulun, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Joseph, twelve thousand, from the tribe of Benjamin, twelve thousand were sealed.
  • This picture is reminiscent of a similar passage in Ezekiel 9.Ezekiel 9:1-6 Then he shouted in my ears, “Approach, you who are to visit destruction on the city, each with his destructive weapon in his hand!” 2 Next, I noticed six men coming from the direction of the upper gate which faces north, each with his war club in his hand. Among them was a man dressed in linen with a writing kit at his side. They came and stood beside the bronze altar. 3 Then the glory of the God of Israel went up from the cherub where it had rested to the threshold of the temple. He called to the man dressed in linen who had the writing kit at his side. 4 The Lord said to him, “Go through the city of Jerusalem and put a mark on the foreheads of the people who moan and groan over all the abominations practiced in it.” 5 While I listened, he said to the others, “Go through the city after him and strike people down; do no let your eye pity nor spare anyone! 6 Old men, young men, young women, little children, and women- wipe them out! But do not touch anyone who has the mark. Begin at my sanctuary!” So they began with the elders who were at the front of the temple.
  • Revelation 8:6-12 Now the seven angels holding the seven trumpets prepared to blow them. 7 The first angel blew his trumpet, and there was hail and fire mixed with blood, and it was thrown at the earth so that a third of the earth was burned up, a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up. 8 Then the second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain of burning fire was thrown into the sea. A third of the sea became blood, 9 and a third of the creatures living in the sea died, and a third of the ships were completely destroyed. 10 Then the third angel blew his trumpet, and a huge star burning like a torch fell from the sky; it landed on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. 11 (Now the name of the star is Wormwood.) So a third of the waters became wormwood, and many people died from these waters because they were poisoned. 12 Then the fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. And there was no light for a third of the day and for a third of the night likewise.The judgments depicted by trumpets come from various places in the Old Testament.
  • In part, the picture comes from the Day of the Lord in Joel.Joel 2:1-3 Blow the trumpet in Zion; sound the alarm signal on my holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land shake with fear, for the day of the Lord is about to come. Indeed, it is near! 2 It will be a day of dreadful darkness, a day of foreboding storm clouds, like blackness spread over the mountains. It is a huge and powerful army- there has never been anything like it ever before, and there will not be anything like it for many generations to come! 3 Like fire they devour everything in their path; a flame blazes behind them. The land looks like the Garden of Eden before them, but behind them there is only a desolate wilderness- for nothing escapes them!
  • They are also reminiscent of the plagues of Egypt.Exodus 9:23-26 When Moses extended his staff toward the sky, the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire fell to the earth; so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 24 Hail fell and fire mingled with the hail; the hail was so severe that there had not been any like it in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.
  • Exodus 7:19-21 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypts waters- over their rivers, over their canals, over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs- so that it becomes blood. There will be blood everywhere in the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 20 Moses and Aaron did so, just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised the staff and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 21 When the fish that were in the Nile died, the Nile began to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood everywhere in the land of Egypt!
  • Exodus 10:21-23 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven so that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” 22 So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness throughout the land of Egypt for three days. 23 No one could see another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived.
  • Revelation 10:8-11 Then the voice I had heard from heaven began to speak to me again, “Go and take the open scroll in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.” 9 So I went to the angel and asked him to give me the little scroll. He said to me, “Take the scroll and eat it. It will make your stomach bitter, but it will be as sweet as honey in your mouth.” 10 So I took the little scroll from the angel’s hand and ate it, and it did taste as sweet as honey in my mouth, but when I had eaten it, my stomach became bitter. 11 Then they told me: “You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, languages, and kings.”
  • This episode is reminiscent of an experience of the prophet Ezekiel.Ezekiel 2:8-3:3 As for you, son of man, listen to what I am saying to you: Do not rebel like that rebellious house! Open your mouth and eat what I am giving you.” 9 Then I looked and realized a hand was stretched out to me, and in it was a written scroll. 10 He unrolled it before me, and it had writing on the front and back; written on it were laments, mourning, and woe. 3:1 He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you see in front of you- eat this scroll- and then go and speak to the house of Israel.” 2 So I opened my mouth and he fed me the scroll. 3 He said to me, “Son of man, feed your stomach and fill your belly with this scroll I am giving to you.” So I ate it, and it was sweet like honey in my mouth.
  • Revelation 11:1-2 Then a measuring rod like a staff was given to me, and I was told, “Get up and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and the ones who worship there. 2 But do not measure the outer courtyard of the temple; leave it out, because it has been given to the Gentiles, and they will trample on the holy city for forty- two months.
  • Zechariah similarly envisioned a man measuring Jerusalem.Zechariah 2:1-5 I looked again, and there was a man with a measuring line in his hand. 2 I asked, “Where are you going?” He replied, “To measure Jerusalem in order to determine its width and its length.” 3 At this point the angelic messenger who spoke to me went out, and another messenger came to meet him 4 and said to him, “Hurry, speak to this young man as follows: Jerusalem will no longer be enclosed by walls because of the multitude of people and animals there. 5 But I (the Lord says) will be a wall of fire surrounding Jerusalem and the source of glory in her midst. “
  • Revelation 11:3-6 And I will grant my two witnesses authority to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth. 4 (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.) 5 If anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths and completely consumes their enemies. If anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. 6 These two have the power to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time they are prophesying. They have power to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want.
  • These two witnesses remind us of the two olive branches in Zechariah 4.Zechariah 4:11-14 Next I asked the messenger, “What are these two olive trees on the right and the left of the menorah?” 12 Before he could reply I asked again, “What are these two extensions of the olive trees, which are emptying out the golden oil through the two golden pipes?” 13 He replied, “Don’t you know what these are?” And I said, “No, sir.” 14 So he said, “These are the two anointed ones who stand by the Lord of the whole earth.”
  • The power to turn water to blood and inflict plagues reminds us of Moses.Exodus 7:19-21 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters- over their rivers, over their canals, over their ponds, and over all their reservoirs- so that it becomes blood. There will be blood everywhere in the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” 20 Moses and Aaron did so, just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised the staff and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. 21 When the fish that were in the Nile died, the Nile began to stink, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood everywhere in the land of Egypt!
  • The power to shut the sky and prevent rain reminds us of Elijah.1 Kings 17:1 Elijah the Tishbite, from Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, “As certainly as the Lord God of Israel lives (whom I serve), there will be no dew or rain in the years ahead unless I give the command.”
  • Revelation 12:7-9 Then war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. 8 But the dragon was not strong enough to prevail, so there was no longer any place left in heaven for him and his angels. 9 So that huge dragon- the ancient serpent, the one called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world- was thrown down to the earth, and his angels along with him.
  • The description sounds like a similar description in Isaiah 14.Isaiah 14:12-15 Look how you have fallen from the sky, O shining one, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the ground, O conqueror of the nations! 13 You said to yourself, “I will climb up to the sky. Above the stars of El I will set up my throne. I will rule on the mountain of assembly on the remote slopes of Zaphon. 14 I will climb up to the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High!” 15 But you were brought down to Sheol, to the remote slopes of the pit.
  • It has features of a leopard, bear and lion.Revelation 13:1-2 Then I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads, and on its horns were ten diadem crowns, and on its heads a blasphemous name. 2 Now the beast that I saw was like a leopard, but its feet were like a bear’s, and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. The dragon gave the beast his power, his throne, and great authority to rule.
  • In a similar Old Testament passage, Daniel saw four beasts coming out of the sea.Daniel 7:1-7 In the first year of King Belshazzar of Babylon, Daniel had a dream filled with visions while he was lying on his bed. Then he wrote down the dream in summary fashion. 2 Daniel explained: “I was watching in my vision during the night as the four winds of the sky were stirring up the great sea. 3 Then four large beasts came up from the sea; they were different from one another. 4 “The first one was like a lion with eagles wings. As I watched, its wings were pulled off and it was lifted up from the ground. It was made to stand on two feet like a human being, and a human mind was given to it. 5 “Then a second beast appeared, like a bear. It was raised up on one side, and there were three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. It was told, Get up and devour much flesh! 6 “After these things, as I was watching, another beast like a leopard appeared, with four bird- like wings on its back. This beast had four heads, and ruling authority was given to it. 7 “After these things, as I was watching in the night visions a fourth beast appeared- one dreadful, terrible, and very strong. It had two large rows of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns.
  • Revelation 14:14-20 Then I looked, and a white cloud appeared, and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! He had a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. 15 Then another angel came out of the temple, shouting in a loud voice to the one seated on the cloud, “Use your sickle and start to reap, because the time to reap has come, since the earths harvest is ripe!” 16 So the one seated on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped. 17 Then another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. 18 Another angel, who was in charge of the fire, came from the altar and called in a loud voice to the angel who had the sharp sickle, “Use your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of grapes off the vine of the earth, because its grapes are now ripe.” 19 So the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard of the earth and tossed them into the great winepress of the wrath of God. 20 Then the winepress was stomped outside the city, and blood poured out of the winepress up to the height of horses bridles for a distance of almost two hundred miles.
  • In the Old Testament, harvesting grain and grapes depict God’s judgment.Joel 3:12-14 Let the nations be roused and let them go up to the valley of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit in judgment on all the surrounding nations. 13 Rush forth with the sickle, for the harvest is ripe! Come, stomp the grapes, for the winepress is full! The vats overflow. Indeed, their evil is great! 14 Crowds, great crowds are in the valley of decision, for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision!
  • Isaiah 63:1-6 Who is this who comes from Edom, dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? Who is this one wearing royal attire, who marches confidently because of his great strength? “It is I, the one who announces vindication, and who is able to deliver!” 2 Why are your clothes red? Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? 3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself; no one from the nations joined me. I stomped on them in my anger; I trampled them down in my rage. Their juice splashed on my garments, and stained all my clothes. 4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance, and then payback time arrived. 5 I looked, but there was no one to help; I was shocked because there was no one offering support. So my right arm accomplished deliverance; my raging anger drove me on. 6 I trampled nations in my anger, I made them drunk in my rage, I splashed their blood on the ground.”
  • Revelation 18:1-3 After these things I saw another angel, who possessed great authority, coming down out of heaven, and the earth was lit up by his radiance. 2 He shouted with a powerful voice: “Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the great! She has become a lair for demons, a haunt for every unclean spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detested beast. 3 For all the nations have fallen from the wine of her immoral passion, and the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth have gotten rich from the power of her sensual behavior.”
  • The prophets made similar proclamations in the Old Testament.Isaiah 21:9 Look what’s coming! A charioteer, a team of horses.” When questioned, he replies, “Babylon has fallen, fallen! All the idols of her gods lie shattered on the ground!”
  • Jeremiah 51:7-8 Babylonia had been a gold cup in the Lord s hand. She had made the whole world drunk. The nations had drunk from the wine of her wrath. So they have all gone mad. 8 But suddenly Babylonia will fall and be destroyed. Cry out in mourning over it! Get medicine for her wounds! Perhaps she can be healed!
  • Revelation 19:5-9 Then a voice came from the throne, saying: “Praise our God all you his servants, and all you who fear Him, both the small and the great! 6 Then I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng, like the roar of many waters and like loud crashes of thunder. They were shouting: “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the All- Powerful, reigns! 7 Let us rejoice and exult and give him glory, because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready. 8 She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen” (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints). 9 Then the angel said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!” He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.”
  • The prophets speak of Israel both as God’s betrothed and as his wife.Hosea 2:19-20 I will commit myself to you forever; I will commit myself to you in righteousness and justice, in steadfast love and tender compassion. 20 I will commit myself to you in faithfulness; then you will acknowledge the Lord.”
  • Isaiah 54:1-8 “Shout for joy, O barren one who has not given birth! Give a joyful shout and cry out, you who have not been in labor! For the children of the desolate one are more numerous than the children of the married woman,” says the Lord. 2 Make your tent larger, stretch your tent curtains farther out! Spare no effort, lengthen your ropes, and pound your stakes deep. 3 For you will spread out to the right and to the left; your children will conquer nations and will resettle desolate cities. 4 Don’t be afraid, for you will not be put to shame! Don’t be intimidated, for you will not be humiliated! You will forget about the shame you experienced in your youth; you will no longer remember the disgrace of your abandonment. 5 For your husband is the one who made you- the Lord who commands armies is his name. He is your protector, the Holy One of Israel. He is called “God of the entire earth.” 6 “Indeed, the Lord will call you back like a wife who has been abandoned and suffers from depression, like a young wife when she has been rejected,” says your God. 7 “For a short time I abandoned you, but with great compassion I will gather you. 8 In a burst of anger I rejected you momentarily, but with lasting devotion I will have compassion on you,” says your protector, the Lord.
  • Revelation 19:11-16 Then I saw heaven opened and here came a white horse! The one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True,” and with justice he judges and goes to war. 12 His eyes are like a fiery flame and there are many diadem crowns on his head. He has a name written that no one knows except himself. 13 He is dressed in clothing dipped in blood, and he is called the Word of God. 14 The armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, were following him on white horses. 15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod, and he stomps the winepress of the furious wrath of God, the All- Powerful. 16 He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”
  • Portions of this picture come from Isaiah and the Psalms.Isaiah 63:1-6 Who is this who comes from Edom, dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? Who is this one wearing royal attire, who marches confidently because of his great strength? “It is I, the one who announces vindication, and who is able to deliver!” 2 Why are your clothes red? Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? 3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself; no one from the nations joined me. I stomped on them in my anger; I trampled them down in my rage. Their juice splashed on my garments, and stained all my clothes. 4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance, and then payback time arrived. 5 I looked, but there was no one to help; I was shocked because there was no one offering support. So my right arm accomplished deliverance; my raging anger drove me on. 6 I trampled nations in my anger, I made them drunk in my rage, I splashed their blood on the ground.”
  • Isaiah 11:1-5 A shoot will grow out of Jesses root stock, a bud will sprout from his roots. 2 The Lord s spirit will rest on him- a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans, a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord. 3 He will take delight in obeying the Lord. He will not judge by mere appearances, or make decisions on the basis of hearsay. 4 He will treat the poor fairly, and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and order the wicked to be executed. 5 Justice will be like a belt around his waist, integrity will be like a belt around his hips.
  • Psalms 2:9 You will break them with an iron scepter; you will smash them like a potter’s jar! “
  • John refers to Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Psalms, Exodus, and Deuteronomy.
  • He often reinterprets Old Testament passages, giving them new meanings. In order to understand the Book of Revelation, you have to know the Old Testament.
  • LOOKING AHEAD

2013 09-29 rv03 the old testament background of revelation 2013 09-29 rv03 the old testament background of revelation Presentation Transcript

  • Amen! Hallelujah! – A Study of the Book of Revelation By Dale Wells Copyright © 2013 Dale R. Wells Scripture quoted by permission. All scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2006 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. www.bible.org. All rights reserved. This material is available in its entirety as a free download or online web use at http://www.netbible.org/. All rights reserved. 1
  • LESSON 3 OLD TESTAMENT BACKGROUND OF THE BOOK OF REVELATION 2
  • NO OLD TESTAMENT QUOTATIONS IN THE BOOK OF REVELATION 3
  • There are 404 verses in Revelation Revelation contains • Not one direct OT quote • Hundreds of OT allusions • 278 vss (70%) reference OT • 500+ OT cross-references in UBS Greek New Testament Paul’s letters contain • 95 direct OT quotes • About 100 OT allusions 4
  • MANY OLD TESTAMENT REFERENCES IN REVELATION 5
  • These come out of the Old Testament Balaam and Balak Jezebel God’s throne Four living creatures Beast out of the sea Song of Moses Fall of Babylon New heaven and earth New Jerusalem Tree of life 6
  • SEVEN GOLDEN LAMPSTANDS FROM EXODUS 25 AND ZECHARIAH 4 Revelation 1:12 7
  • Revelation 1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me, and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands … 8
  • Exodus 25:31-40 “You are to make a lampstand of pure gold. … [32] Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand, three branches of the lampstand from one side of it and three branches of the lampstand from the other side of it. … [40] Now be sure to make them according to the pattern you were shown on the mountain. 9
  • Zechariah 4:2 He asked me, “What do you see?” I replied, “I see a menorah of pure gold with a receptacle at the top and seven lamps, with fourteen pipes going to the lamps. 10
  • ONE LIKE A SON OF MAN FROM DANIEL 7 Revelation 1:13-16 11
  • Revelation 1:13-16 … in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest. [14] His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame. … 12
  • Daniel 7:13 I was watching in the night visions, “And with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man was approaching. He went up to the Ancient of Days and was escorted before him. 13
  • GOD ON HIS THRONE FROM ISAIAH, EZEKIEL, AND DANIEL Revelation 4:2-5 14
  • Revelation 4:2-5 Immediately I was in the Spirit, and a throne was standing in heaven with someone seated on it! [3] And the one seated on it was like jasper and carnelian in appearance, and a rainbow looking like it was made of emerald encircled the throne. … 15
  • Isaiah 6:1 In the year of King Uzziah’s death, I saw the sovereign master seated on a high, elevated throne. The hem of his robe filled the temple. 16
  • Ezekiel 1:26-28 Above the platform over their heads was something like a sapphire shaped like a throne. High above on the throne was a form that appeared to be a man. [27] I saw an amber glow like a fire enclosed all around from his waist up. From his waist down I saw something that looked like fire. There was a brilliant light around it, [28] like the appearance of a rainbow in the clouds after the rain. This was the appearance of the surrounding brilliant light; it looked like the glory of the LORD. … 17
  • Daniel 7:9-10 “While I was watching, thrones were set up, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His attire was white like snow; the hair of his head was like lambs wool. His throne was ablaze with fire and its wheels were all aflame. [10] A river of fire was streaming forth and proceeding from his presence. … The court convened and the books were opened. 18
  • FOUR LIVING CREATURES FROM EZEKIEL 1 Revelation 4:6-8 19
  • Revelation 4:6-8 … In the middle of the throne and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes in front and in back. [7] The first living creature was like a lion, the second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. … 20
  • Ezekiel 1:5-10 In the fire were what looked like four living beings. In their appearance they had human form, [6] but each had four faces and four wings. [7] Their legs were straight, but the soles of their feet were like calves feet. They gleamed like polished bronze. [8] They had human hands under their wings on their four sides. … [10] Their faces had this appearance: Each of the four had the face of a man, with the face of a lion on the right, the face of an ox on the left and also the face of an eagle. 21
  • THE FOUR HORSEMEN FROM ZECHARIAH 6 Revelation 6:1-8 22
  • Revelation 6:1-8 I looked on when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying with a thunderous voice, “Come!” [2] So I looked, and here came a white horse! … [3] Then when the Lamb opened the second seal, … another horse, fiery red, came out, … [5] Then when the Lamb opened the third seal … here came a black horse! … [7] Then when the Lamb opened the fourth seal … here came a pale green horse! … 23
  • Zechariah 6:1-8 … I saw four chariots emerging from between two mountains of bronze. [2] Harnessed to the first chariot were red horses, to the second black horses, [3] to the third white horses, and to the fourth spotted horses, all of them strong. [4] Then I asked the angelic messenger who was speaking with me, “What are these, sir?” [5] The messenger replied, “These are the four spirits of heaven that have been presenting themselves before the Lord of all the earth. … 24
  • EARTHQUAKE FROM JOEL, ISAIAH, AND HOSEA Revelation 6:12-17 25
  • Revelation 6:12-17 Then I looked when the Lamb opened the sixth seal, and a huge earthquake took place; the sun became as black as sackcloth made of hair, and the full moon became blood red; [13] and the stars in the sky fell to the earth like a fig tree dropping its unripe figs when shaken by a fierce wind. [14] The sky was split apart like a scroll being rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved from its place. [15] Then the kings of the earth, the very important people, the generals, the rich, the powerful, and everyone, slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains. [16] They said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one who is seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb, [17] because the great day of their wrath has come, and who is able to withstand it?” 26
  • Joel 2:30-31 I will produce portents both in the sky and on the earth- blood, fire, and columns of smoke. [31] The sunlight will be turned to darkness and the moon to the color of blood, before the day of the Lord comes- that great and terrible day! 27
  • Isaiah 34:4 All the stars in the sky will fade away, the sky will roll up like a scroll; all its stars will wither, like a leaf withers and falls from a vine or a fig withers and falls from a tree. 28
  • Isaiah 2:19 They will go into caves in the rocky cliffs and into holes in the ground, trying to escape the dreadful judgment of the Lord and his royal splendor, when he rises up to terrify the earth. 29
  • Hosea 10:8 The high places of the “House of Wickedness” will be destroyed; it is the place where Israel sins. Thorns and thistles will grow up over its altars. Then they will say to the mountains, “Cover us!” and to the hills, “Fall on us!” 30
  • SEALING GOD’S PEOPLE FROM EZEKIEL 9 Revelation 7:1-8 31
  • Revelation 7:1-8 After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, … [2] Then I saw another angel ascending from the east, who had the seal of the living God. He shouted out with a loud voice to the four angels … [3] “Do not damage the earth or the sea or the trees until we have put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” … 32
  • Ezekiel 9:1-6 … [2] … I noticed six men … each with his war club in his hand. Among them was a man … with a writing kit at his side. … [4] The Lord said to him, “Go through the city of Jerusalem and put a mark on the foreheads of the people who moan and groan over all the abominations practiced in it.” [5] While I listened, he said to the others, “Go through the city after him and strike people down; do no let your eye pity nor spare anyone! … 33
  • TRUMPETS AS HARBINGERS OF JUDGMENT FROM JOEL 2 Revelation 8:6-12 34
  • Revelation 8:6-12 Now the seven angels holding the seven trumpets prepared to blow them. [7] The first angel blew his trumpet, hail and fire mixed with blood, … [8] Then the second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain of burning fire was thrown into the sea. ... [10] Then the third angel blew his trumpet, and a huge star burning like a torch fell from the sky … [12] Then the fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars … 35
  • Joel 2:1-3 Blow the trumpet in Zion; sound the alarm signal on my holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land shake with fear, for the day of the Lord is about to come. Indeed, it is near! [2] It will be a day of dreadful darkness, a day of foreboding storm clouds, like blackness spread over the mountains. It is a huge and powerful army- there has never been anything like it ever before, and there will not be anything like it for many generations to come! [3] Like fire they devour everything in their path; a flame blazes behind them. The land looks like the Garden of Eden before them, but behind them there is only a desolate wilderness- for nothing escapes them! 36
  • Exodus 9:23-26 When Moses extended his staff … the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire fell to the earth; so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. [24] Hail fell and fire mingled with the hail; the hail was so severe that there had not been any like it in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. … [26] Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail. 37
  • Exodus 7:19-21 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters … so that it becomes blood. There will be blood everywhere in the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” [20] Moses and Aaron did so, just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised the staff and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. … 38
  • Exodus 10:21-23 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward heaven so that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.” [22] So Moses extended his hand toward heaven, and there was absolute darkness throughout the land of Egypt for three days. [23] No one could see another person, and no one could rise from his place for three days. But the Israelites had light in the places where they lived. 39
  • EATING A BOOK FROM EZEKIEL 3 Revelation 10:8-11 40
  • Revelation 10:8-11 Then the voice I had heard from heaven began to speak to me again, “Go and take the open scroll in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.” [9] So I went to the angel and asked him to give me the little scroll. He said to me, “Take the scroll and eat it. It will make your stomach bitter, but it will be as sweet as honey in your mouth.” [10] So I took the little scroll from the angel’s hand and ate it, and it did taste as sweet as honey in my mouth, but when I had eaten it, my stomach became bitter. … 41
  • Ezekiel 2:8-3:3 As for you, son of man, listen to what I am saying to you: Do not rebel like that rebellious house! Open your mouth and eat what I am giving you.” [9] Then I looked and realized a hand was stretched out to me, and in it was a written scroll. [10] He unrolled it before me, and it had writing on the front and back; written on it were laments, mourning, and woe. [3:1] He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you see in front of you- eat this scroll- and then go and speak to the house of Israel.” [2] So I opened my mouth and he fed me the scroll. [3] He said to me, “Son of man, feed your stomach and fill your belly with this scroll I am giving to you.” So I ate it, and it was sweet like honey in my mouth. 42
  • MEASURING GOD’S TEMPLE FROM ZECHARIAH 2 Revelation 11:1-2 43
  • Revelation 11:1-2 Then a measuring rod … was given to me, and I was told, “Get up and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and the ones who worship there. [2] But do not measure the outer courtyard of the temple; leave it out, because it has been given to the Gentiles, and they will trample on the holy city for forty- two months. 44
  • Zechariah 2:1-5 I looked … and there was a man with a measuring line ... [2] I asked, “Where are you going?” He replied, “To measure Jerusalem …” [3] At this point the angelic messenger who spoke to me went out, and another messenger came to meet him [4] and said to him, “Hurry, speak to this young man as follows: Jerusalem will no longer be enclosed by walls because of the multitude of people and animals there. [5] But I (the Lord says) will be a wall of fire surrounding Jerusalem and the source of glory in her midst.” 45
  • THE TWO WITNESSES FROM ZECHARIAH 4 Revelation 11:3-6 46
  • Revelation 11:3-6 And I will grant my two witnesses authority to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth. [4] (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.) [5] If anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths and completely consumes their enemies. If anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. [6] These two have the power to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time they are prophesying. They have power to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want. 47
  • Zechariah 4:11-14 Next I asked the messenger, “What are these two olive trees on the right and the left of the menorah?” [12] Before he could reply I asked again, “What are these two extensions of the olive trees, which are emptying out the golden oil through the two golden pipes?” [13] He replied, “Don’t you know what these are?” And I said, “No, sir.” [14] So he said, “These are the two anointed ones who stand by the Lord of the whole earth.” 48
  • Exodus 7:19-21 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, Take your staff and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s waters … so that it becomes blood. There will be blood everywhere in the land of Egypt, even in wooden and stone containers.” [20] Moses and Aaron did so, just as the Lord had commanded. Moses raised the staff and struck the water that was in the Nile right before the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, and all the water that was in the Nile was turned to blood. … 49
  • 1 Kings 17:1 Elijah the Tishbite, from Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, “As certainly as the Lord God of Israel lives (whom I serve), there will be no dew or rain in the years ahead unless I give the command.” 50
  • SATAN THROWN OUT OF HEAVEN FROM ISAIAH 14 Revelation 12:7-9 51
  • Revelation 12:7-9 Then war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. [8] But the dragon was not strong enough to prevail, so there was no longer any place left in heaven for him and his angels. [9] So that huge dragon- the ancient serpent, the one called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world- was thrown down to the earth, and his angels along with him. 52
  • Isaiah 14:12-15 Look how you have fallen from the sky, O shining one, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the ground, O conqueror of the nations! [13] You said to yourself, “I will climb up to the sky. Above the stars of El I will set up my throne. I will rule on the mountain of assembly on the remote slopes of Zaphon. [14] I will climb up to the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High!” [15] But you were brought down to Sheol, to the remote slopes of the pit. 53
  • BEAST COMING OUT OF THE SEA FROM DANIEL 7 Revelation 13:1-2 54
  • Revelation 13:1-2 Then I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads, and on its horns were ten diadem crowns, and on its heads a blasphemous name. [2] Now the beast that I saw was like a leopard, but its feet were like a bear’s, and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. The dragon gave the beast his power, his throne, and great authority to rule. 55
  • Daniel 7:1-7 “I was watching in my vision … as the four winds of the sky were stirring up the great sea. [3] Then four large beasts came up from the sea; they were different from one another. [4] “The first one was like a lion with eagles wings. … [5] “Then a second … like a bear ... [6] “After these … another beast like a leopard … [7] “After these things … a fourth beast appeared-one dreadful, terrible, and very strong. It had two large rows of iron teeth. … It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns. 56
  • GOD’S JUDGMENT AS HARVESTING COMES FROM JOEL 3 AND ISAIAH 63 Revelation 14:14-20 57
  • Revelation 14:14-20 Then I looked , and a white cloud appeared, and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! He had a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. [15] Then another angel came …. shouting … “Use your sickle and start to reap, because the time to reap has come, since the earth’s harvest is ripe!” [16] So the one seated on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped. [17] Then another angel came … and he too had a sharp sickle. [18] Another angel … called … “Use your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of grapes off the vine of the earth, because its grapes are now ripe.” [19] So the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard of the earth and tossed them into the great winepress of the wrath of God. … 58
  • Joel 3:12-14 Let the nations be roused and let them go up to the valley of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit in judgment on all the surrounding nations. [13] Rush forth with the sickle, for the harvest is ripe! Come, stomp the grapes, for the winepress is full! The vats overflow. Indeed, their evil is great! [14] Crowds, great crowds are in the valley of decision, for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision! 59
  • Isaiah 63:1-6 Who is this who comes from Edom … coming from Bozrah? Who is this one wearing royal attire…? … [2] Why are your clothes red? Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? [3] “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself … I stomped on them in my anger; I trampled them down in my rage. Their juice splashed on my garments, and stained all my clothes. … [6] I trampled nations in my anger, I made them drunk in my rage, I splashed their blood on the ground.” 60
  • FALL OF BABYLON FROM ISAIAH 21 AND JEREMIAH 51 Revelation 18:1-3 61
  • Revelation 18:1-3 After these things I saw another angel, who possessed great authority, coming down out of heaven, and the earth was lit up by his radiance. [2] He shouted with a powerful voice: “Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the great! She has become a lair for demons, a haunt for every unclean spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detested beast. [3] For all the nations have fallen from the wine of her immoral passion, and the kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth have gotten rich from the power of her sensual behavior.” 62
  • Isaiah 21:9 Look what’s coming! A charioteer, a team of horses.” When questioned, he replies, “Babylon has fallen, fallen! All the idols of her gods lie shattered on the ground!” 63
  • Jeremiah 51:7-8 Babylonia had been a gold cup in the Lord’s hand. She had made the whole world drunk. The nations had drunk from the wine of her wrath. So they have all gone mad. [8] But suddenly Babylonia will fall and be destroyed. Cry out in mourning over it! Get medicine for her wounds! Perhaps she can be healed! 64
  • THE BRIDE FROM HOSEA 2 AND ISAIAH 54 Revelation 19:5-9 65
  • Revelation 19:5-9 … [6] Then I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng ... They were shouting: “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the All- Powerful, reigns! [7] Let us rejoice and exult and give him glory, because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come, and his bride has made herself ready. [8] She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen” (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints). [9] Then the angel said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!” He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.” 66
  • Hosea 2:19-20 I will commit myself to you forever; I will commit myself to you in righteousness and justice, in steadfast love and tender compassion. [20] I will commit myself to you in faithfulness; then you will acknowledge the Lord.” 67
  • Isaiah 54:1-8 “Shout for joy, O barren one who has not given birth! Give a joyful shout and cry out, you who have not been in labor! For the children of the desolate one are more numerous than the children of the married woman,” says the Lord. … [5] For your husband is the one who made you-the Lord who commands armies is his name. He is your protector, the Holy One of Israel. He is called “God of the entire earth.” [6] “Indeed, the Lord will call you back like a wife who has been abandoned and suffers from depression, like a young wife when she has been rejected,” says your God. [7] “For a short time I abandoned you, but with great compassion I will gather you. [8] In a burst of anger I rejected you momentarily, but with lasting devotion I will have compassion on you,” says your protector, the Lord. 68
  • DIVINE WARRIOR FROM ISAIAH 63, ISAIAH 11, AND PSALMS 2 Revelation 19:11-16 69
  • Revelation 19:11-16 Then I saw heaven opened and here came a white horse! The one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True,” and with justice he judges and goes to war. [12] His eyes are like a fiery flame and there are many diadem crowns on his head. He has a name written that no one knows except himself. [13] He is dressed in clothing dipped in blood, and he is called the Word of God. [14] The armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, were following him on white horses. [15] From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod, and he stomps the winepress of the furious wrath of God, the All- Powerful. [16] He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.” 70
  • Isaiah 63:1-6 Who is this who comes from Edom, dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? Who is this one wearing royal attire, who marches confidently because of his great strength? … [2] Why are your clothes red? Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? [3] “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself ... I stomped on them in my anger; I trampled them down in my rage. Their juice splashed on my garments, and stained all my clothes. [4] For I looked forward to the day of vengeance, and then payback time arrived. … [6] I trampled nations in my anger, I made them drunk in my rage, I splashed their blood on the ground.” 71
  • Isaiah 11:1-5 A shoot will grow out of Jesse’s root stock, a bud will sprout from his roots. [2] The Lord s spirit will rest on him- a spirit that gives extraordinary wisdom, a spirit that provides the ability to execute plans, a spirit that produces absolute loyalty to the Lord. [3] He will take delight in obeying the Lord. He will not judge by mere appearances, or make decisions on the basis of hearsay. [4] He will treat the poor fairly, and make right decisions for the downtrodden of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and order the wicked to be executed. [5] Justice will be like a belt around his waist, integrity will be like a belt around his hips. 72
  • Psalms 2:9 You will break them with an iron scepter; you will smash them like a potter’s jar! “ 73
  • A FEW OF MANY OLD TESTAMENT ALLUSIONS IN REVELATION 74
  • John refers to Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel Psalms Exodus Deuteronomy 75
  • He often reinterprets Old Testament passages, giving them new meanings In order to understand the Book of Revelation, you have to know the Old Testament 76
  • LOOKING AHEAD Our next lesson will focus on the historical background of the Book of Revelation. 77