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Persuasion Through Rhetoric Words, Phrases, and Simple Assertions
A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable infl...
A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable infl...
A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable infl...
A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable infl...
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms <ul><li>Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being d...
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms <ul><li>Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being d...
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms <ul><li>Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being d...
Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a...
Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a...
Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a...
Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a...
Stereotype <ul><li>May function as an  unexamined assumption  behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the q...
Stereotype <ul><li>May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the que...
Stereotype <ul><li>May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the que...
Innuendo <ul><li>A suggestion that is made indirectly  </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a negative impression (using indirect lan...
Loaded Question <ul><li>Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur with any question form  </li></ul><ul>...
Loaded Question <ul><li>Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur with any question form  </li></ul><ul>...
Weaseler <ul><li>A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim  </li></ul>
Weaseler <ul><li>A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim  </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with careful qual...
Weaseler <ul><li>A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim  </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with careful qual...
Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim  </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim  </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim  </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim  </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person app...
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person app...
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person app...
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person app...
Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations  </li></ul>
Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations  </li></u...
Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations  </li></u...
Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations  </li></u...
Proof Surrogate <ul><li>An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a cl...
Proof Surrogate <ul><li>An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a cl...
Proof Surrogate <ul><li>An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a cl...
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Rhetoric1 s05

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Transcript of "Rhetoric1 s05"

  1. 1. Persuasion Through Rhetoric Words, Phrases, and Simple Assertions
  2. 2. A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior.
  3. 3. A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness.
  4. 4. A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness. The positive and negative impressions made by use of rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can have powerful and long-lasting effects.
  5. 5. A psychological point about rhetoric and suggestion... It’s a fact that even fleeting impressions may have measurable influence on behavior. The operation of such influences may occur below the threshold of consciousness. The positive and negative impressions made by use of rhetorical devices, while they may sometimes seem trivial, can have powerful and long-lasting effects. Critical thinking addresses influence of rhetoric in two ways: (1) helps identify attempts at non-argumentative persuasion (2) helps check “spontaneous” beliefs and impulses
  6. 6. Euphemisms and Dysphemisms <ul><li>Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light </li></ul>
  7. 7. Euphemisms and Dysphemisms <ul><li>Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light </li></ul>Euphemism: “Used cars” become “pre-owned vehicles”. Dysphemism: “Music” becomes “noise”.
  8. 8. Euphemisms and Dysphemisms <ul><li>Words or phrases that are substituted for other words or phrases to put what is being discussed in a more positive or negative light </li></ul>Euphemism: “Used cars” become “pre-owned vehicles”. Dysphemism: “Music” becomes “noise”. Note: Reports and descriptions may convey pleasant or unpleasant information without being euphemistic or dysphemistic. It’s the quality of the language that matters.
  9. 9. Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of content, not of form </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of content, not of form </li></ul>Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong.
  11. 11. Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of content, not of form </li></ul>Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong. Definition: religion - the opiate of the people
  12. 12. Rhetorical Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations <ul><li>Ways of speaking that depart positively or negatively from a fair or neutral position </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of content, not of form </li></ul>Comparison: The American revolutionaries used tactics similar to those employed by the Viet Cong. Definition: religion - the opiate of the people Explanation: Franklin stayed in France throughout the revolution because he was a celebrity there.
  13. 13. Stereotype <ul><li>May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as circular reasoning) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stereotype <ul><li>May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as circular reasoning) </li></ul><ul><li>When directly expressed, takes the form of a generalization </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stereotype <ul><li>May function as an unexamined assumption behind a premise (easily results in fallacy of begging the question) or explanatory claim (especially, as circular reasoning) </li></ul><ul><li>When directly expressed, takes the form of a generalization </li></ul><ul><li>As expectation, may cause an observer to ignore conflicting phenomena or supply consistent details that never occurred </li></ul>
  16. 16. Innuendo <ul><li>A suggestion that is made indirectly </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a negative impression (using indirect language to create a positive impression is usually better classed as understatement ) </li></ul><ul><li>May be constructed by association with something negative or by faint praise </li></ul>Example: Prof. X? Is he the one who admitted that his emotions influence his grading? (When speaker knows Prof. X didn’t.) Example: Student Y? Yes, I remember her. She satisfied the minimum requirements of the course.
  17. 17. Loaded Question <ul><li>Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur with any question form </li></ul><ul><li>Answering directly requires accepting or presuming a questionable, hostile, or unjustified assumption </li></ul><ul><li>May function similarly to innuendo </li></ul>
  18. 18. Loaded Question <ul><li>Often a yes-no question or a false dilemma, but could occur with any question form </li></ul><ul><li>Answering directly requires accepting or presuming a questionable, hostile, or unjustified assumption </li></ul><ul><li>May function similarly to innuendo </li></ul>Example: Are you still abusing illegal drugs? Example: Should we vote for the Democrat or the Repulican in this election? Example: What were you thinking when you attempted to steal that CD ?
  19. 19. Weaseler <ul><li>A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim </li></ul>
  20. 20. Weaseler <ul><li>A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with careful qualification </li></ul>
  21. 21. Weaseler <ul><li>A word or phrase that deceptively weakens a claim </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be confused with careful qualification </li></ul>Example: Save up to 40% (when typical savings will be less) Example: It’s easy to go all the way ...on the phone . (real ad!)
  22. 22. Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim </li></ul><ul><li>May overlap with weaseler </li></ul>
  23. 23. Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim </li></ul><ul><li>May overlap with weaseler </li></ul>Example: Today’s “ patriots ” are just looking for a way to make a quick buck in Iraq.
  24. 24. Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim </li></ul><ul><li>May overlap with weaseler </li></ul>Example: Today’s “ patriots ” are just looking for a way to make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your wages are low, but it’s normal for some full-time workers in any modern society to be below the poverty line. (Notice how the individual’s particular situation is effectively submerged.)
  25. 25. Downplayer <ul><li>A word, phrase, or punctuation that subtly diminishes a concept or weakens a claim </li></ul><ul><li>May overlap with weaseler </li></ul>Example: Today’s “ patriots ” are just looking for a way to make a quick buck in Iraq. Example: I understand your wages are low, but it’s normal for some full-time workers in any modern society to be below the poverty line. (Notice how the individual’s particular situation is effectively submerged.) Example: Interest rates are at their the lowest point in years, though only customers with excellent credit will qualify .
  26. 26. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous </li></ul>
  27. 27. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous </li></ul><ul><li>May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope </li></ul>
  28. 28. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous </li></ul><ul><li>May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope </li></ul>Example: One thing I can say for Schwarzenegger, I bet he’s not a complainer. So now we won’t have to listen to a lot of complaining from the governor’s office while Bush’s friends are looting California.
  29. 29. Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm <ul><li>An attempt to weaken a claim or undermine credibility by making an idea or person appear ridiculous </li></ul><ul><li>May make use of other devices, e.g., hyperbole, slippery slope </li></ul>Example: One thing I can say for Schwarzenegger, I bet he’s not a complainer. So now we won’t have to listen to a lot of complaining from the governor’s office while Bush’s friends are looting California. Example: You don’t like how the PATRIOT Act expands police powers? How about the next time you need help, try calling a hippie.
  30. 30. Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations </li></ul><ul><li>May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule, slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations </li></ul><ul><li>May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule, slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well </li></ul>Example: What I need is a vehicle that can go anywhere.
  33. 33. Hyperbole <ul><li>Use of exaggeration to make an impression of greater importance or deviation from expectations </li></ul><ul><li>May show up in other devices, e.g., ridicule, slippery slope, straw man, poisoning the well </li></ul>Example: What I need is a vehicle that can go anywhere. Example: “While this framework does a good job of catering to environmental extremists, it falls alarmingly short of addressing the rising threat of wildfires facing our forests.” (Rep. Wally Herger, on the Sierra Nevada Framework, 11/03)
  34. 34. Proof Surrogate <ul><li>An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a claim </li></ul>
  35. 35. Proof Surrogate <ul><li>An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a claim </li></ul><ul><li>May make use of listed, but unchecked or unverifiable references </li></ul>
  36. 36. Proof Surrogate <ul><li>An assertion or strong suggestion that good evidence exists somewhere out of reach to support a claim </li></ul><ul><li>May make use of listed, but unchecked or unverifiable references </li></ul>Example: Unnamed sources report that... Example: Experts agree that... Example: I read on the Internet that... (if used as evidence)
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