Weed Control for Organic Farmers

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Weed Control for Certified Organic Farmers

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Weed Control for Organic Farmers

  1. 1. Weed Control For Certified Organic Farmers Tom Lanini University of California, Davis
  2. 2. Organic Weed Control • • • • • Mulches Water management g Cultivation Flamers Organic Herbicides
  3. 3. Mulches • Act by blocking light • Numerous organic and synthetic materials can be used th ti t i l b d for this purpose
  4. 4. Seedlin emerg ng gence (N No./m2) Seedling Emergence relative to Light Dark 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Light Light + Glass
  5. 5. String trimmer damage?? Rodents???
  6. 6. Lumite Mulch M l h Wood chip p Mulch
  7. 7. Water Management
  8. 8. Preirrigation for weed seed  reduction prior to crop planting d i i l i Questions: • Is furrow irrigation any different than sprinkler irrigation as a preirrigation method • H How l long should you wait after h ld it ft preirrigation before weed removal • What is the most effective method of weed removal – flamer or cultivation
  9. 9. Hand Weeding Time as Affected  by Preirrigation and Weed  by Preirrigation and Weed Removal Timing and Method g H Hand wee eding time (min/plo e ot) 7 Day wait 14 Day wait 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 No Preirrigation Furrow Sprinkler
  10. 10. Preirrigation Conclusions Preirrigation Conclusions • Maximum weed emergence occurred at 120 to 130 cumulative degree days (base temperature = 10°C) 10 C) • Preirrigation/weed removal was less beneficial when weed density is low • Hand weeding times are reduced if preirrigation d i i ti and weed removal are performed d l f d prior to crop planting.
  11. 11. Cultivation • Best when weeds are small • Dry conditions after cultivation help to prevent re-rooting • Shallow cultivation reduces the quantity of new seeds brought to the surface
  12. 12. Weed Seed Emergence relative to Depth (inches) Optimum depth Maximum depth Wild oat 1.0 10 7.0 70 Shepherdspurse 0.2 0.8 Lambsquarters 0.3 2.0 g Crabgrass 0.4 1.6 Foxtail 1.0 3.0 Chickweed Chi k d 0.4 04 0.8 08 King 1966
  13. 13. Night Cultivation? • Some studies have found that cultivation at night reduces weed germination • GPS guided systems (?) p • Better results after repeat treatments • At worst, you lose a little sleep
  14. 14. Propane Flamers • Kills weeds like a contact eeds herbicide • Treated leaves go from a glossy g g y to a mat finish • Fuel cost??
  15. 15. Just prior to flaming
  16. 16. 5 minutes after flaming
  17. 17. 10 minutes after flaming
  18. 18. Organic Herbicides Registered for Food Use • • • • • C-Cide Green Match O Matran EC Weed Zap Green Match EX Not Registered for Food Use • Pine Oil • Racer* • Acetic Acid – must be food grade All are contact type herbicides – no residual activity
  19. 19. C-Cide 33% @ 70 GPA 55º F at application
  20. 20. C-Cide 33% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70GPA 74ºF
  21. 21. C-Cide 33% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70GPA 10 DAT
  22. 22. C-Cide 25% 70gpa + 0.5% Natural Wet 81 ºF at application
  23. 23. C Cide C-Cide 25% 70gpa + 0.5% Natural Wet 81 ºF at 1st and 76 ºF at 2nd application – treated twice
  24. 24. For Control of Annual and Broadleaf Weeds In Non-Crop Areas ACTIVE INGREDIENT: d-limonene …………… 70% INERT INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS:……….…..………….…. 30% Total ........................................................................100% KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN CAUTION EPA Reg. No. 82052 - 1 R N EPA Est. No. 82052-GA-1 Manufactured by: Cutting Edge Formulations, Inc. 5106 Bristol Industrial Way y Buford, GA 30518 (866) 906-WEED DIRECTIONS FOR USE: It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. General information: GREENMATCH O is a broad spectrum weed killer that contains a citrus extract. It is non-selective and controls most annual weeds, both grasses and broadleaves. For best performance, complete coverage of target weeds is necessary. Spray until thoroughly wet. It is recommended for non-food areas such as borders, driveways, sidewalks, around mature trees and ornamentals, around buildings, in greenhouses and around flower beds.
  25. 25. GreenMatch O 10% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA 55ºF at application
  26. 26. GreenMatch O 15% + 1% Natural wet @ 70gpa 81º F
  27. 27. GreenMatch O 15%+ 1% Natural wet @ 70gpa - treated twice
  28. 28. Matran EC 10% + 1% Natural Wet @ 35 GPA 55º F at application
  29. 29. Matran EC 15% + 1% Natural Wet @ 35 GPA 55º F at application
  30. 30. Matran EC 10% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA 74º F
  31. 31. Matran EC 10% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA 10 DAT
  32. 32. Matran 15% + 0.05% Natural wet @ 70 gpa
  33. 33. Vinegar 20% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA 55ºF 55 F
  34. 34. Vinegar 20% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA Treated twice
  35. 35. Vinegar 20% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA 74ºF
  36. 36. Vinegar 20% + 1% NuFilm P @ 70 GPA 10 DAT
  37. 37. Vinegar 20% 70gpa + 0.05% Natural Wet 0 05% 81ºF at application
  38. 38. Vinegar 20% 70gpa + 0.05% Natural Wet – Treated twice
  39. 39. 0.25% v/v Natural Wet 35 gallons per acre spray volume
  40. 40. 16 Days after treatment
  41. 41. WeedZap 15% + 1% Natural Wet @ 35 GPA 55º F at application pp
  42. 42. WeedZap 20% + 1% NuFilmP @ 35 GPA 10 DAT
  43. 43. WeedZap 10% @ 70 GPA p 10 DAT
  44. 44. WeedZap 10% 70gpa + 0.05% Natural wet 0 05%
  45. 45. GreenMatch EX 15% @ 35 GPA 10 days after application
  46. 46. GreenMatch EX 15% 70gpa + gp 0.05% Natural wet
  47. 47. GreenMatch EX 10% 70 GPA 1% NuFilm P
  48. 48. Does age (size) make a difference? d 2nd application d li i date Gr rass control (% %) Youngest g Oldest 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 C-Cide GreenM GreenM EX Matran Vinegar WeedZap S. Horimoto, unpublished
  49. 49. Organic Adjuvants Organic adjuvants
  50. 50. Matran 10% - 2 DAT
  51. 51. Matran 10% + Organic Adjuvant 1% - 2 DAT
  52. 52. Matran + WE 1098 – 1 DAT M t
  53. 53. Matran + WE 1098 8 DAT
  54. 54. Organic Herbicides • Good spray coverage is essential 70 GPA? • Work better in warm (sunny?) weather (80ºF) • Organic adjuvants improve weed control • Treat when weeds are small • Repeat applications are needed for larger weeds
  55. 55. Prevention • Avoid letting weeds go to seed • Do not let weeds come in on equipment
  56. 56. Questions?

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