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A brief overview of Monasticism

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  1. 1. Monasticism Mr. Pablo Cuadra Religion Class
  2. 2. What is the meaning of the word monk? <ul><li>The word monk comes from the Greek “monachos” </li></ul><ul><li>A term that means: </li></ul><ul><li>solitary , one living alone. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Who is the founder of Christian monasticism? <ul><li>The tradition of monastic life goes back to St. Anthony the Great (251-356) in Egypt . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Who is a monk? <ul><li>A person who practices religious asceticism . </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is the meaning of the word asceticism? <ul><li>A. Asceticism is the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Ex: A football player devotion to his or her game through rigorous training. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where does the concept of monasticism come from? <ul><li>A. Monastic life has roots in the Old Testament and New Testament . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Prophets like Elias and John the Baptist both lived alone in the desert living a life of prayer and sacrifice for God . </li></ul><ul><li>C. Jesus also went away to the desert to pray and find spiritual strength. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How did monastic life develop? <ul><li>A. St. Anthony began the tradition in the 3 rd century. </li></ul><ul><li>B. He lived alone in the Egyptian desert as an anchorite . </li></ul><ul><li>C. He attracted a group of followers that imitated him in his spiritual pursuit . </li></ul><ul><li>D. St. Anthony taught them how to pursuit God in solitude . </li></ul><ul><li>E. More joined in attracted by the holiness of St. Anthony. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Gradually they formed small communities, coming together only on Sundays and special holidays. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who developed the practice of life in communities? <ul><li>Monks living together under one roof and one rule is attributed to St. Pachomios (292-348). </li></ul><ul><li>This tradition grew in the Eastern Roman empire . </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries housed an average of 30,000 monks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Who was St. Basil the Great? <ul><li>St. Basil the Great was the first to establish clear rules for monks on how to live the monastic life . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who were John Cassian and St Benedict? <ul><li>They are the fathers of monastic life in the Western church. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What are some of the characteristics of monastic living? <ul><li>A. Monks separate themselves from the world in order to pray for the world . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Monks are concerned with “Theosis ” or union with God . </li></ul><ul><li>C. Monks are self-supporting. </li></ul><ul><li>D. A monk’s life is dived into three parts: worship , manual labor , and private study , prayer and rest. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Meals are eaten in common while listening to the scriptures. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Most of the monk’s activities are done in silence . </li></ul><ul><li>G. Monks practice self-discipline, poverty, and prayer </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are the three types of monastic living in the Eastern and Orthodox Churches? <ul><li>A. Anchorites or hermits (living in isolation). </li></ul><ul><li>B. Coenobitic (living in community) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Skete ( a mixture of solitary living and community). </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are the degrees of monastic life in the East? <ul><li>A. Novitiate (one under obedience) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Rassaphore (robe-bearer) Wears a black robe with wide sleeves and a belt signifying death to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Stavrophore (cross-bearer) or little schema. The monk makes his first formal vows or promises. He is given a cross and a candle that will be use at his funeral. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Great Schema (the highest level of spiritual excellence) </li></ul><ul><li>Monks receive the Great schema a scapular with the instruments of the Passion and Trisagion . </li></ul><ul><li>This stage is given only after 25 years of service or at deathbed. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How are monks addressed? <ul><li>Monks are addressed as “Fathers” even if they are not priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Monks can be priests, deacons , bishops or brothers. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Eastern Church bishops are selected from the ranks of monks. </li></ul><ul><li>Seminaries are usually attached to a monastery to teach students preparing for priesthood the benefits of the spiritual life. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is a monastery? <ul><li>A. A monastery is the place where monks or nuns live in community . </li></ul><ul><li>B. The head of the monastery is the “Abbott” or father. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Abbot <ul><li>The spiritual Father of the Monastery. </li></ul><ul><li>The abbot is elected by the monks </li></ul><ul><li>The abbot is blessed by the Bishop. </li></ul><ul><li>Abbots received Episcopal insignias (Mitre, ring, crosier, pectoral cross) </li></ul><ul><li>Abbots can confer the ministries of acolyte and lector. </li></ul><ul><li>Abbots have spiritual jurisdiction over their monastery. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Roman Catholic Monks (Western Church) <ul><li>A. Follow the Rule of St. Benedict of Nursia . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Profess three vows or promises: obedience, Stability and Conversion of Life (Conversatio Morum). </li></ul><ul><li>C. To become a monk one must first be an oblate or novice . </li></ul><ul><li>D. Monks live in a monastery with other monks. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Monks wear a plain brown or black cape and a cross. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Conversion of Life or fidelity to the monastic life includes a commitment to poverty and chastity. </li></ul><ul><li>G. The life of the monk is marked by prayer and manual labor (Ora et Labora). </li></ul><ul><li>H. The monks’ prayer is rooted in the tradition of the Liturgy of the hours. The call to pray without ceasing. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The End