Figuring out Fun: Exploring teacher and learner perceptions of 'fun' in language learning with ICTs
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Figuring out Fun: Exploring teacher and learner perceptions of 'fun' in language learning with ICTs

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Slides from a paper presentation at the ECAWA State Conference 2011 at Canning College, Bentley, Western Australia. This paper is co-authored with Lindy Norris and a similar version was previously ...

Slides from a paper presentation at the ECAWA State Conference 2011 at Canning College, Bentley, Western Australia. This paper is co-authored with Lindy Norris and a similar version was previously presented at the AFMLTA 2011 National Conference in Darwin, Nothern Territory.

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Figuring out Fun: Exploring teacher and learner perceptions of 'fun' in language learning with ICTs Figuring out Fun: Exploring teacher and learner perceptions of 'fun' in language learning with ICTs Presentation Transcript

  • Figuring Out Fun Exploring teacher and learner perceptions of ‘fun’ in languages learning with ICTsLindy Norris ECAWA State Conference 2011Penelope Coutas Canning College, BentleySchool of EducationMurdoch University
  • “One theme emerging is the idea of fun. The students talkabout it, the teachers talk about it, and the literature... doesn’ttalk about it (much). (Coutas, 2009)
  • Game Theory
  • “Fun is all about our brains feeling good - the release ofendorphins into our system. The various cocktails ofchemicals released in different ways are basically all thesame ... Basically, our brains are on drugs pretty much all thetime. (Koster, 2005, p. 40)
  • “One of the subtlest releases of chemicals is atthat moment of triumph when we learnsomething or master a task. This almost alwayscauses us to break into a smile. After all, it isimportant to the survival of the species that welearn - therefore our bodies reward us for it withmoments of pleasure ... learning is the drug. ” (Koster, 2005, p. 40)
  • Fun is just another word for learning (Koster, 2005, p. 46) ,
  • “...the human brain is mostly a voraciousconsumer of patterns, a soft pudgy grayPac-Man of concepts. ” (Koster, 2005, p. 14)
  • “...we have tried to leverage the motivational value ofgames, offering children a safe and meaningful spacefor play while at the same time supporting autonomy,agency, collaboration, a sense of purpose andconsequentiality, and even academic learning. (Barab, 2005, p. 104)
  • Teachers today need almost to be conceived of as thegame designers with our students as the gamers.
  • Play-basedLiteracy Learning
  • SLA Theory Not this kind of theory...
  • “Play is also intelligent ... Play is anexuberance of the mind... ” (Cook, 1997, p. 227)
  • 3 ways in which language play as fun mayimpact on SLA: (Broner and Tarone, 2001)
  • 3 ways in which language play as fun mayimpact on SLA:1 The emotional excitement that comes with language play may simply make the L2 discourse more noticeable and thus more (Broner and Tarone, 2001)
  • 3 ways in which language play as fun mayimpact on SLA:1 The emotional excitement that comes with language play may simply make the L2 discourse more noticeable and thus more2 Semantic language play may help in the mastery of more than one discourse. (Broner and Tarone, 2001)
  • 3 ways in which language play as fun mayimpact on SLA:1 The emotional excitement that comes with language play may simply make the L2 discourse more noticeable and thus more2 Semantic language play may help in the mastery of more than one discourse.3 Ludic language play may impact on interlanguage development. (Broner and Tarone, 2001)
  • 10 Commandments for motivating language learnersI. Set a personal example with your own behaviour.II. Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.III. Present the tasks properly.IV. Develop a good relationship with the learners.V. Increase the learnersʼ linguistic self-confidence.VI. Make the language classes interesting.VII. Promote learner autonomy.VIII. Personalize the learning process.IX. Increase the learnersʼ goal-orientedness.X. Familiarize learners with the target language culture. (Dornyei & Csizer, 1998, p. 215)
  • Control Theory
  • 5 basic needs: “1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Survive and reproduce Belong and love Gain power Be free Have fun ” (Glasser, 1986)
  • “The need to have some fun and freedomare (according to Glasser, 1991) basichuman needs. This is an interesting andimportant understanding because if teachersignore this fundamental aspect of ‘socialbelonging’ children will easily find theirown versions of fun! ” (Rogers, 1997, p. 36)
  • So where does this literature review bring us?
  • The link between fun and learning is evident in thedifferent discourses that have been examined. (Koster; Barab; Cook; Broner and Tarone; Glasser)
  • The emotional dimension of fun is also veryevident, and there is significant personalinvestment associated with something being fun. (Lazzaro; Makin; Pomerantz & Bell)
  • Agency and control are important for a personwho is having fun.
  • Playing with patterns is fun. (Koster; Cook; Makin; Broner & Tarone)
  • In the literature, fun is not easy. Fun ischallenging. In fact there is significant emphasison hard fun but this does not diminish ‘the smile’. (Lazzaro; Papert)
  • Teachersʼ Voices
  • Anything associated with a computer is fun.
  • “See, these days when the kids have a little time and we say, “Well all right,if you’ve finished what you’re doing you’ve got 10 minutes of free time” and ”they get on to all the games that they play. It frightens me, actually.
  • “See, these days when the kids have a little time and we say, “Well all right,if you’ve finished what you’re doing you’ve got 10 minutes of free time” and ”they get on to all the games that they play. It frightens me, actually.“...it’s a bit of fun, um, and they pick up stuff because they enjoy the ”computer? Rather than doing lots of worksheets...
  • “See, these days when the kids have a little time and we say, “Well all right,if you’ve finished what you’re doing you’ve got 10 minutes of free time” and ”they get on to all the games that they play. It frightens me, actually.“...it’s a bit of fun, um, and they pick up stuff because they enjoy the ”computer? Rather than doing lots of worksheets...“I had a year nine class, it was mostly boys in there, there were 25 kids and Ihad just four girls and the rest, all of them were boys. And I just couldn’t getthem engaged with the books. So that year I thought maybe I’d get out ofthis, and I actually went, and I said, “We’ll book all your lessons on thecomputer” and that’s what I did.
  • Fun as revision and consolidation.
  • “ ”...it’s a bit of revision, it’s a bit of fun.
  • “ ” ...it’s a bit of revision, it’s a bit of fun.“It’s not me, but for the kids I think I really enjoy it when they arerevising and they’ve got like a quiz ... And they come back and ”say, “Miss, I’ve actually learned a word today.”
  • Fun equals ‘little activities’ or stand-alone activities.
  • “... there’s all different activities. Some are games, some aresongs, um, some are little activities ... So it gives them a chance ”to have a bit of fun with the language.
  • “... there’s all different activities. Some are games, some aresongs, um, some are little activities ... So it gives them a chance ”to have a bit of fun with the language. “ ” And so it just makes the repetition a bit more fun.
  • If it’s easy, it’s fun.
  • “If they go to something that’s too difficulty theycan go, “Nup, don’t like it, too hard” and go onto the next thing. Which means they don’t sitthere, sort of looking at the screen or out thewindow because they’ve got something theycan do. And they actually have fun trying to find ”something that’s OK.
  • Studentsʼ Voices
  • Not everything associated with a computer ortechnology is fun.
  • “ ”No, not really. It was basic technology.
  • “ ”No, not really. It was basic technology.“Now, all of the stuff we’ve got at school they can do athome, and better, or so they tell us. “Oh, this ”computer’s crap.”
  • Fun supports the learning process.
  • “...he’d [the teacher] write it down and he’d just go off the topof the list or whatever? We were just. Yeh. Where when ”we’re doing it with a bit of fun it kind of helps.
  • “...he’d [the teacher] write it down and he’d just go off the topof the list or whatever. We were just. Yeh. Where when ”we’re doing it with a bit of fun it kind of helps.“...and that’s pretty fun because it’s like, like cool, and it’s notlike writing down and stuff. It’s using our own mind on the ”computer and translating stuff.
  • Actual learning is fun.
  • “...we’re cutting them out and doing all the little kid stuff. ... it’s ”not that much fun.
  • “Interviewer:That [videoconferencing in the target language]would be fun though.Brooke:Yeh it would be.Interviewer:Why do you think video conferencing would be fun?Ella:It’d be challenging to talk to them in Italian all thetime.
  • “Some lessons we have all Italian, we just have to figure it ”out... It’s fun. Challenging.
  • “Some lessons we have all Italian, we just have to figure it ”out... It’s fun. Challenging.
  • “Some lessons we have all Italian, we just have to figure it ”out... It’s fun. Challenging. “Like you get to play and you’re like, Aha! ”
  • “Some lessons we have all Italian, we just have to figure it ”out... It’s fun. Challenging. “Like you get to play and you’re like, Aha!“ ”And you’d be able to like verse other people with games andthings like in Indonesian and things? And in Indonesia andplaces like that. So, um, you still have fun playing the gamesbut you’d also be versing someone else of that language?
  • We see students conceptualising theirlanguage learning as fun, and we see anemotional investment in the exercise. What issignificant, however, is that much of what theysay here is not reflective of the here and now,or of their own experiences with their additionallanguage. They are ‘figuring out’ what theythink will be ‘fun.’
  • Figuring Out Fun
  • “Boredom is the brain casting about for newinformation... It is the feeling you get whenthere are no new patterns to absorb. (Koster, 2005, p. 41)
  • “One wonders, then, why learning is sodamn boring to so many people. It’salmost certainly because the method oftransmission is wrong. ” (Koster, 2005, p. 46)
  • flatline [ˈflætˌlaɪn]vb (intr) Informal1. (Medicine) to die or be so near deaththat the display of ones vital signs onmedical monitoring equipment shows aflat line rather than peaks and troughs2. to remain at a continuous low level
  • CPerhaps we do better with ʻCʼ words - learningthat is creative, often collaborative, thatinvolves curiosity, consequentiality andcontrol and supports our students’ brains asconsumers of patterns (Koster. 2005, p.14).
  • CAll of this involves emotional investment and,of course, challenge. Collectively thecombination equals fun and supports languagelearning that is not a flatline experience but onethat is mindful, and meaningful.
  • Figuring Out FunPenelope CoutasLindy Norris ? ECAWA State Conference 2011 Canning College, BentleySchool of EducationMurdoch University
  • Image Credits Slide 2: http://www.exploringthehyper.net Slide 3: http://www.angrybirds.com Slide 4: Penelope Coutas Slide 5: Screenshot by Penelope Coutas from Angry Birds HD Free for iPad. Slide 7: Nicole Lazaroo. http://www.fastcompany.com/article/nicole-lazzaro-xeodesign Slide 10: http://newsinfo.iu.edu/asset/page/normal/4529.html Slide 11: http://attawards.msu.edu/winners/2008/ ; http://mkoehler.educ.msu.edu/ Slide 13: Stock clip art. Slide 14: Google Books. Slide 15: Chesi. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pimkie_fotos/3439170184/ Slide 16: http://www8.open.ac.uk/platform/your-subject/languages Slide 21: http://www.learnerautonomy.org/Zoltan_revised.jpg Slide 24: http://gabayatkalinga.blogspot.com/2011/02/summary-of-reality-therapy.html Slide 26: RLHyde http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4014/4692258762_5e011036c5_b_d.jpg Slide 32: http://www.brentwood.k12.mo.us/esl/images/talking.gif Slide 62: shareski. http://www.flickr.com/photos/shareski/5521489602 Slide 63: http://www.metaversejournal.com/2009/01/25/interview-raph-koster-co- founder-and-president-metaplace/ Slide 64: http://skincare-makeup.com/tuzmig/Angry-Birds
  • References First and Second Digital Divides. Sociology of Education. 74, (3), pp. Attewell, P. 2001. The 252-259. Barab, S., Thomas, M., Dodge, T., Carteaux, R. and Tuzun, H. 2005. Making Learning Fun: Quest Atlantis, a game without guns. ETR&D. 53, (1), pp.86-107. Bisson, C., & Luckner, J. (1996). Fun in learning: The pedagogical role of fun in adventure education. Perspectives. Journal of Experiential Education, 19, (2), 108-112. Broner, M. A., & Tarone, E. E. (2001). Is it fun? Language play in a fifth-grade Spanish immersion classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 85(3), 363-379. doi: 10.1111/0026-7902.00114   Cavallo, D. 2005. Hard fun yields lessons on nature of intelligence. EE/Times News and analysis. http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-news/4054171/-Hard-fun-yields-lessons-on- nature-of-intelligence. Accessed 6/26/2011. Clay, M. (1975). What did I write? Auckland, NZ: Heinemann. Comber, B. and Reid, J. 2007. Understanding literacy pedagogy in and out of school. In L.Makin, C. Jones Diaz and C. McLachlan. (Eds.) Literacies in Childhood: Changing views, challenging practice. Sydney: MacLennan and Petty.
  • References play, language learning. ELT Journal. 51, (3), pp.224-231. Cook, G. 1997. Language Cope, B. and Kalantzis, M. (Eds). 2000. Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures. Victoria: McMillan, p.5. Cordova, D and Lepper, M. 1996. Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualisation, personalisation, and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology. 88, pp.715-73. Dickson, D and Tabors, P. (eds.) 2001. Beginning Literacy with Language: Young Children Learning at Home and School. Baltimore: Brookes. Dornyei, Z. and Csizer, K. 1998. Ten commandments for motivating language learners: Results of an empirical study. Language Teaching Research. 2, (3), pp.203-229. Draper, S. (1999). Analysing fun as a candidate software requirement. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 3(3), 117-122. doi:10.1007/BF01305336   Garn, A. C., & Cothran, D. (2006). The fun factor in physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 25,(3), 281-297.   Glasser, W. 1986. Control Theory in the Classroom. New York: Harper and Row. Hall, N., Larson, J. and Marsh, J. (Eds.) 2003. Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy. London: Sage.
  • References of Fun for Game Design. Arizona: Paraglyph Press. Koster, R. 2005. A Theory MacFarlane, S., Sim, G., & Horton, M. (2005). Assessing usability and fun in educational software. In Proceedings of the 2005 conference on interaction design and children (pp. 103-109). Boulder, Colorado: ACM. doi:10.1145/1109540.1109554 Lantolf, J. (1997). The function of language play in the acquisition of L2 Spanish. In W.Glass and A Perez-Leroux (Eds.) Contemporary Perspectives on the Acquisition of Spanish. Vol.2: Production, Processing and Comprehension. Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, pp.3-24. Lazzaro, N. 2004. Why we play games: Four keys to more emotion without story. http:// xeodesign_whyweplaygames201n061205.pdf v.2.01. Makin, L. 2003. Creating Positive Literacy Learning Environments in Early Childhood. In Hall, N., Larson, J. and Marsh, J. (Eds.) 2003. Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy. London: Sage. Malone, T. W. (1981). What makes things fun to learn? A study of intrinsically motivating computer games. Pipeline, 6, (2), 50-51,49.   Mishra, P. and Koehler, M. Using the TPACK Framework: You can have your hot tools and teach with them too. Learning and Leading with Technology. May, 2009, pp. 14-18.
  • References OReilly E., Tompkins J., & Gallant M. (2001). They ought to enjoy physical activity, you know?: Struggling with fun in physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 6, 211-221. Papert, S. (1998). Does easy do it? Children, games, and learning. Game Developer, 5,(6), 88. Pomerantz, A. and Bell, N. (2007). Learning to play, playing to learn: FL learners as multicompetent language users. Applied Linguistics, 28, (4), pp.556-578. Shipley, D. (2008). Empowering children. Play based curriculum for lifelong learning. USA: Nelson Education.