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+ Transport Opportunities: Trade drives prosperity White Paper on the changing opportunities from investing in multimodal transport facilities world- wide.
+ Executive Summary of Conclusions US seriously lags in intermodal transport infrastructure. Canada has positioned itself to be land-bridge with Asia in competition with Panama Canal. Fastest growth in North America will be in West Coast to China, as bulk commodities trade use will grow from North American ports of: Shanghai to Prince Rupert Is. in British Columbia; Improvements in productivity in worst ports on West Coast namely Portland, Seattle ~ Tacoma, and British Columbia ports, only if change in ways these strategic assets are run; Fastest trade growth intra Asia, followed by trade from Asia to North America. Canadian National Railroads will be biggest beneficiary of Asia to East Coast USA, even with new Panama Canal increase in capacity.
+ Globalization has meant the explosion of Containerization
+ Capital Equipment as % of revenues in US industryRail transportation is one of the most capital intensive activity, particularly in North America where rail operators (Class I) ownand operate their networks. Thus, maintenance and improvement costs tend to be high. Comparatively, other transport sectorsare facing a different context. Roads are often provided and subsidized by public agencies. Ports and airport also tend to beowned by public agencies with user charges being the standard business model. Thus, if a maritime shipping company or anairline decides to lower or cut its services to a terminal, there are essentially no financial penalty in doing so. However, a railoperator seeing a decline of its traffic will still have similar maintenance costs. Abandoning tracks is seen as a last resortmeasure.
+ Canadian National Rail likely winner in North America.
+ Percent Rail Passenger Traffic to Total Rail, 
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+ Sources: Bibliography: Governor’s Container Ports Initiative: Recommendations of the Container Ports and Land Use Work Group, Washington State 2009; Office of Financial Management, State of Washington , Land use around the Port of Seattle, 2009; State of Washington Office of Financial Management. Land Use and local finance 2005. Jean-Paul Rodrigue et al The Geography of Transport Systems, Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography, EC (2005), ExternE: Externalities of Energy - Methodology 2005 Update, Directorate-General forResearch Sustainable Energy Systems, European Commission (www.externe.info). EDRG (2007), Monetary Valuation of Hard-to-Quantify Transportation Impacts: Valuing Environmental, Health/Safety & Economic Development Impacts, NCHRP 8-36-61, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (www.trb.org/nchrp); at www.statewideplanning.org/_resources/63_NCHRP8-36-61.pdf.