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The Renaissance

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  • 1. The Renaissance ~ 1400-1600
  • 2. The Philosophy
    • “ Renaissance” = rebirth
    • 1000 years after Rome fell, Europe embraced the classical values of Greece and Rome
    Titian, Sacred and Profane Love
  • 3. Renaissance Man
    • The shaper of his own destiny
    • (vs. a plaything of the supernatural)
    • Individuals are valued
    • Life is more than a preparation for the afterlife
    • Optimistic, confident in their basic goodness and in the power of people to solve problems
    • = Humanism (remember, from the Greeks?)
  • 4. A Cultural Revolution
    • Politics = democracy and nation-states
    • Economics = capitalists and the middle class
    • Religion = a move away from Church dominance towards the assertion of man
    • + more personal faith (  Protestant Reformation)
    • Secular Learning supercedes superstition and ignorance
    • Scientists observe and learn, rather than relying on old texts/knowledge
  • 5. Humanist, But Not Anti-Christian
    • The assertion of man, not the repudiation of God
    • Artists saw themselves as an extension of God’s creative powers
    • Art glorified God by glorifying man’s abilities
    Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam
  • 6. Renaissance Art
    • A triumph of order and harmony.
    • Re-mastered realism, three-dimensionality, balance, and perspective (were lost during Dark Ages)
    • Sculptors portrayed idealized human bodies, balanced perfectly between motion and rest.
    • All art forms took inspiration from ancient Greek and Roman works.
  • 7.
    • In art, as in their philosophy, humans are not scrawny, puny sinners -
    • they’re strong, confident,
    • rational creatures –
    • gods on earth.
    Michelangelo, David
  • 8. Realistic Anatomy
    • Most artists did comprehensive and detailed studies of surface human anatomy
    • In Middle Ages, dissecting corpses was a sin/crime.
    Michelangelo, Studies for the Libyan Sibyl
    • Some Renaissance artists were willing to “sell their souls” for artistic knowledge.
    Rubens, Left Forearm and Right Forearm
  • 9. Themes in the Art
    • Still a lot of Christian imagery
    • Unlike medieval works, the art could exist for the sake of beauty/holiness, not just for education
    • = Less symbols and halos to identify figures, but radiate purity and beauty.
    • Democratic values = portraits of people besides just popes, kings, and saints.
  • 10.
    • Perspective (closer figures are larger, farther figures are smaller)
    • Picture Frame = a window on the world from a specific point of view (a human perspective)
    • Balance and symmetrical
      • Statues stand with weight balanced on one leg or
      • Designed around a central axis
      • Madonnas flanked by Saints, balanced number
    • Most of all, it’s beautiful. Art for art’s sake.
    Qualities of Renaissance Art
  • 11. Cimabue, Santa Trinita Madonna c. 1280
  • 12. Giotto, Ognissanti Madonna 1310
  • 13. Raphael, La Belle Jardiniere 1507
  • 14. Uccello, Battle of San Romano
  • 15. da Vinci, Madonna and Saint Anne
  • 16. Top Italian Artworks to Know
    • Da Vinci
    • The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Vitruvian Man
  • 17. da Vinci, The Last Supper , 1498
  • 18. Da Vinci, Portrait of Lisa Gherardini , wife of Francesco del Giocondo (“Mona Lisa”) 1503-1506
  • 19. Sfumato
    • ( noun ) - from the Latin (via Italian) fumare ("to smoke"), a painting technique. Sfumato means that there are no harsh outlines (as in a coloring book) present; areas blend into one another through miniscule brushstrokes, which makes for a rather hazy, albeit more realistic, depiction of light and color.
    • http://arthistory.about.com/cs/glossaries/g/s_sfumato.htm
  • 20. Da Vinci, Vitruvian Man 1487
  • 21.  
  • 22. Top Italian Artworks to Know
    • Da Vinci
    • The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Vitruvian Man
    • Botticelli
    • Primavera, The Birth of Venus
  • 23. Botticelli, Primavera, 1482
  • 24. Mythological Figures in Primavera
    • Venus
    • Cupid
    • the Charities (Three Graces)
    • Mercury
    • Zephyrus
    • Chloris (goddess of flowers, mother of fruit)
    • Flora (the goddess of spring)
  • 25. Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, 1486
  • 26. Venus de’ Medici (copy of Greek statue) Venus de Milo
  • 27. Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, 1486
  • 28. Top Italian Artworks to Know
    • Da Vinci
    • The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Vitruvian Man
    • Botticelli
    • Primavera, The Birth of Venus
    • Raphael
    • The School of Athens, The Wedding of the Virgin, The Madonna of the Meadow
  • 29. Raphael, The School of Athens, 1512
  • 30. Raphael, The Wedding of the Virgin, 1504
  • 31. Kehinde Wiley, Passing/Posing (The Wedding of the Virgin) 2005
  • 32. Raphael, The Madonna of the Meadow, 1506
  • 33. Top Italian Artworks to Know
    • Da Vinci
    • The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, Vitruvian Man
    • Botticelli
    • Primavera, The Birth of Venus
    • Raphael
    • The School of Athens, The Wedding of the Virgin, The Madonna of the Meadow
    • Michelangelo
    • David, The Sistine Chapel , Piet à
  • 34. Michelangelo Video
    • Part 1
    • Part 2
  • 35. Michelangelo, David , 1504
  • 36. Donatello, David , c. 1440
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  • 40. Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel , 1508-1512
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  • 50. Michelangelo, Pieta, 1499
  • 51. 1550 1564
  • 52. Michelangelo, Pieta, 1499
  • 53.
    • (Commentary from the guide to St. Peter’s Basilica)
    • This is probably the world's most famous sculpture of a religious subject.
    • A highly spiritual and Christian view of human suffering.
    • Artists before and after Michelangelo always depicted the Virgin with the dead Christ in her arms as grief stricken, almost on the verge of desperation.
    • Michelangelo, on the other hand, created a highly supernatural feeling.
  • 54. Is Mary too young? Historically, she was around 45-50 years old when Jesus died. Michelangelo said he made her youthful deliberately because the effects of time could not mar the virginal features of this, the most blessed of women. He also said that he was thinking of his own mother's face, he was only five when she died: the mother's face is a symbol of eternal youth.
  • 55. It is the only piece of art he ever signed: MICHAELA[N]GELUS BONAROTUS FLORENTIN[US] FACIEBA[T] (Michelangelo Buonarroti, Florentine, made this)
  • 56. He was 24 years old when he carved it.

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