Rome
The Founding of Rome (753 BC) <ul><li>Legend says Rome was founded by twin brothers Romulus (= “Rome”) and Remus. </li></u...
Etruscan She-Wolf  (c. 500 BC)
 
The Real Story <ul><li>Farmers and shepherds of the Latin tribe settled in the middle of current Italy, near the mouth of ...
Etruscan <ul><li>Golden Age = 800-500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly the area of Tuscany in Italy today </li></ul><ul><li>Mi...
Etruscan Sarcophagus  (c. 700 BC)
Roman Republic <ul><li>In 509 BC the Etruscan king raped a Roman woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Her husband lead a revolt that d...
Conquest by Brawn <ul><li>War was the business of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>They conquered Greeks and Etruscans, then celebra...
Punic Wars <ul><li>Rome v. Carthage (in North Africa) for control of the Mediterranean x 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Final score? ...
Hannibal of Carthage <ul><li>2 nd  Punic War, Hannibal launched a surprise attack on Rome by going through Spain, over the...
Hannibal’s Defeat <ul><li>Finally, Romans attacked Carthage, Hannibal rushed home to help and lost the war. </li></ul><ul>...
Conquest by Brain <ul><li>Aside from Carthage, Romans were relatively nice to their new subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Built ...
Rome’s Government <ul><li>Senatus Populusque Romanus  </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Senate and the People of Rome” </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Consuls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controlled the army, tax collection, laws </l...
<ul><li>Prefects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They ran the city (courts, markets, the port)  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tribunes </li...
Other people? <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul>
Spartacus <ul><li>In 73 BC a slave named Spartacus escaped and started a rebellion, getting an army of 70,000 angry slaves...
Spartacus  (the film) <ul><li>Original Clip </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsi Commercial </li></ul>
<ul><li>One soldier who helped kick slave butt?  </li></ul><ul><li>A kid named Julius Caesar. </li></ul>
Julius Caesar <ul><li>Marched his troops through France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Built a...
 
Dictator Extraordinaire <ul><li>Hugely popular, so he seize power in 49 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Outwardly cherished the Repu...
Et tu, Brute? <ul><li>At the peak of his power on the Ides of March (March 15, 44 BC), he was surrounded by a band of assa...
Emperor Augustus Caesar (63 BC – 14 AD) <ul><li>Octavian (JC’s grand-nephew/adopted son) </li></ul><ul><li>Killed Brutus, ...
Augustus, cont. <ul><li>Liked power, but was more sensitive to Senate and their traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Declared hims...
Pax Romana <ul><li>Augustus started 200 years of peace,  prosperity, and expansion for Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>By its peak...
Key Roman Emperors <ul><li>Julius Caesar – Veni, Vedi, Vici </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus Caesar – 1 st  Emperor </li></ul><u...
 
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Rome

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Rome

  1. 1. Rome
  2. 2. The Founding of Rome (753 BC) <ul><li>Legend says Rome was founded by twin brothers Romulus (= “Rome”) and Remus. </li></ul><ul><li>They were orphaned as babies in the wilderness and raised by wolves. </li></ul><ul><li>A metaphor for the Romans – such ‘civilized’ people growing out of ‘barbarian’ surroundings. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Etruscan She-Wolf (c. 500 BC)
  4. 5. The Real Story <ul><li>Farmers and shepherds of the Latin tribe settled in the middle of current Italy, near the mouth of the Tiber River. </li></ul><ul><li>= A crude society sandwiched between two great civilizations – the Greeks to the south and the Etruscans to the north. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Etruscan <ul><li>Golden Age = 800-500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly the area of Tuscany in Italy today </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of Greek-style art and Roman customs </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known for gold jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Much of what we know today comes from their tombs </li></ul><ul><li>Necropolis = city of the dead </li></ul>
  6. 7. Etruscan Sarcophagus (c. 700 BC)
  7. 8. Roman Republic <ul><li>In 509 BC the Etruscan king raped a Roman woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Her husband lead a revolt that drove out Rome’s Etruscan masters and lead to Rome being ruled by 300 elected senators and a code of law, rather than a king. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Conquest by Brawn <ul><li>War was the business of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>They conquered Greeks and Etruscans, then celebrated by building triumphal arches and parading under them. </li></ul><ul><li>Next up? Carthage. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Punic Wars <ul><li>Rome v. Carthage (in North Africa) for control of the Mediterranean x 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Final score? Rome 3, Carthage 0 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hannibal of Carthage <ul><li>2 nd Punic War, Hannibal launched a surprise attack on Rome by going through Spain, over the Alps, and attacking from the north. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s over 1200 miles marched with 50,000 men and 50 elephants! </li></ul><ul><li>For 15 years Hannibal was the terror of Italy, but he couldn’t take Rome. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hannibal’s Defeat <ul><li>Finally, Romans attacked Carthage, Hannibal rushed home to help and lost the war. </li></ul><ul><li>When Romans beat Carthage in the 3 rd Punic War, they sacked and burned the city, then salted the ground to make sure nothing would ever grow there again. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome ruled! </li></ul>
  12. 13. Conquest by Brain <ul><li>Aside from Carthage, Romans were relatively nice to their new subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Built roads, post offices, schools, police stations, and water supply systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed elements of conquered cultures into their own. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan gods, Greek Gods, Greek statues, Egyptian obelisks, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Rome’s Government <ul><li>Senatus Populusque Romanus </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Senate and the People of Rome” </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The Consuls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controlled the army, tax collection, laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They both had to agree in order to change anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If one of them said “veto” ( Latin for “I forbid it”) then nothing would be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men from wealthy families in Rome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lifetime appointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most consuls eventually joined the Senate, and most senators were from families where their fathers and grandfathers had been in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the time, the consuls did what the Senate advised. </li></ul></ul>The Structure of the Government
  15. 16. <ul><li>Prefects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They ran the city (courts, markets, the port) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tribunes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were supposed to speak for the poorer people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were elected by the Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also all men. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the men free, of age, and Roman citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voted on some big issues, if the consuls asked them to – things like whether to go to war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected the consuls and prefects and the Senators. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was set up so that richer people got more votes than poorer people. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Other people? <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul>
  17. 18. Spartacus <ul><li>In 73 BC a slave named Spartacus escaped and started a rebellion, getting an army of 70,000 angry slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartacus was killed in battle </li></ul><ul><li>6000 of his rebels were rounded up and crucified along a 100-mile stretch of the Appian way. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Spartacus (the film) <ul><li>Original Clip </li></ul><ul><li>Pepsi Commercial </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>One soldier who helped kick slave butt? </li></ul><ul><li>A kid named Julius Caesar. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Marched his troops through France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Built a temple to Jupiter on the future site of Notre Dame in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>When asked about a minor war, he said, “Veni, vidi, vici.” </li></ul><ul><li>Seduced Cleopatra </li></ul><ul><li>Even had a month named after him. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Dictator Extraordinaire <ul><li>Hugely popular, so he seize power in 49 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Outwardly cherished the Republic, but was essentially a dictator for 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Was never elected by the senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Those senators who loved the Republic wasn’t going to let him become king. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Et tu, Brute? <ul><li>At the peak of his power on the Ides of March (March 15, 44 BC), he was surrounded by a band of assassins during a Senate meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>He cried out for help, but one by one they stabbed him while the senators sat in silence and watched, including his adopted son, Brutus. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Emperor Augustus Caesar (63 BC – 14 AD) <ul><li>Octavian (JC’s grand-nephew/adopted son) </li></ul><ul><li>Killed Brutus, Marc Antony and Cleopatra </li></ul><ul><li>United Rome’s warring factions </li></ul><ul><li>Took the title “Augustus” (= August) </li></ul><ul><li>Made sure family name (Caesar) would be associated with rulers (Caesar, Kaiser, Czar) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Emperor of Rome (not a republic anymore!) </li></ul>
  24. 26. Augustus, cont. <ul><li>Liked power, but was more sensitive to Senate and their traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Declared himself Pontifex Maximus (High Priest) and governed morality (or at least tried to) </li></ul><ul><li>Said “I found Rome a city of brick and left a city of marble.” </li></ul>
  25. 27. Pax Romana <ul><li>Augustus started 200 years of peace, prosperity, and expansion for Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>By its peak (117 AD), the Roman Empire stretched from Scotland to Egypt, from Spain to Iraq </li></ul>
  26. 28. Key Roman Emperors <ul><li>Julius Caesar – Veni, Vedi, Vici </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus Caesar – 1 st Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius – Jesus Christ was “rendered unto” </li></ul><ul><li>Caligula & Nero – Bad, bad, bad men </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian – Traveled everywhere; built a wall in England </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius – the fall begins </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine – 1 st Christian emperor, moved capital from Rome to Constantinople </li></ul>

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