Prehistory II ( liths)


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Prehistory II ( liths)

  1. 1. Prehistory II: Rise of the Megaliths
  2. 2. Tracking Man’s Evolution <ul><li>You can trace man’s technological development by tracking the weapons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone axe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flint arrowhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsidian spear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper hatchet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze dagger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron sword </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Settling </li></ul><ul><li>Villages </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation and Communities </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Government, Shared Ideas, </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure Time, Common Language, and the Beginnings of Writing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Division of Prehistoric Ages <ul><li>Tracks the progression of stone/metal tools </li></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic 40,000-8000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Mesolithic 8000-4500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic 4500-2000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Age 3000-1800 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze Age 1800-500 BC </li></ul><ul><li> (Lith = Stone) </li></ul><ul><li>(Dates are approximate and the periods can overlap because people developed at different rates in different places.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Megalith Structures <ul><li>Megalith = “big stone” </li></ul><ul><li>Found all over Europe, especially in the north (Britain, Ireland, western France, and Scandinavia) – over 1200 have been found in France! </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Dolmens and Menhirs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dolmens <ul><li>Tombs made of several upright stones topped with a giant slab, then covered with earth </li></ul><ul><li>= Burial chambers for warrior chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to carry the warrior’s soul into the next life </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs were buried with all of their possessions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Newgrange c. 3200 BC
  8. 8. Newgrange c. 3200 BC <ul><li>Found in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 200,000 tons of stone </li></ul><ul><li>More than 300 feet in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>All designed for ~15 minutes of fame: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the winter solstice, a ray of light enters the tomb, creeps down a narrow passage, and briefly illuminates the sacred central chamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(presumably to transport the sun-worshipping warrior chief’s soul to the next life). </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Menhirs <ul><li>Large, upright rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Often inscribed with a hunter or symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Can stand alone or be arranged in a circle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stonehenge c. 2500 BC
  11. 11. Stonehenge c. 2500 BC <ul><li>Most famous of the ~300 megalith structures around Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The stones weigh up to 400 tons each (13-24 feet tall) and probably came from Wales (240 miles away) </li></ul><ul><li>A GIANT calendar, made to calculate celestial movements/patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the summer solstice the rising sun perfectly filters through and hits the alter stones </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>BBC’s animation of it’s history. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Age of Metals <ul><li>Once man figured out you could melt rocks to make metal, Europe forged ahead (Get it? “ Forged ”?) </li></ul><ul><li>Recipe for making copper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine copper ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a clay furnace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the ore inside, light a fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat to </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Mine copper ore </li></ul><ul><li>Build a clay furnace </li></ul><ul><li>Put the ore inside, light a fire </li></ul><ul><li>Heat to 2300 o Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the molten copper and pour into a stone mold within 12 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>After cooling, reheat the copper to hammer it into shape </li></ul><ul><li>Grind to a sharp edge and polish </li></ul><ul><li>Use your new weapon to threaten the Stone Age losers up north. </li></ul>Recipe for making a copper axe:
  15. 15. <ul><li>What else can you make? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming tools, cooking pots, statuettes, jewelry, keys, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once they figured out the wheel and the plow, things really got moving in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>But! While Europe was figuring all this out, Mesopotamia was already hopping.... </li></ul>