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  1. 1. Homer Two Epic Poems
  2. 2. The Greek Dark Ages <ul><li>1200-800 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Roads crumbled, writing was lost, cities deserted </li></ul><ul><li>The mountains divided people into tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Most of what we know of this time came from Homer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Homer <ul><li>Sometime between 1150 BC - 800 BC </li></ul><ul><li>A blind (probably) poet </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote down the legends that had been told orally for generations </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for two epic poems </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Iliad <ul><li>Describes the battles and struggles of the early Greeks (the Mycenaeans) as they conquer Troy. </li></ul><ul><li>The opening lines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sing, Goddess, of the rage, of Peleus' son Achilles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The accursed rage, which brought pain to thousands of the Achaeans . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Major Characters: </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Achaeans (The Greeks)
  6. 6. Agamemnon <ul><li>King of Mycenae, leader of the Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Brother to Menelaus </li></ul><ul><li>(Not his mask) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Menelaus <ul><li>Brother to Agamemnon </li></ul><ul><li>Helen’s Husband </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of the Spartan side of the Greek army </li></ul>
  8. 8. Achilles <ul><li>Central character </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Hero </li></ul><ul><li>Almost immortal </li></ul><ul><li>Dies in battle (usually) when Paris shoots a poisoned arrow into his heel </li></ul>
  9. 9. Odysseus <ul><li>King of Ithica </li></ul><ul><li>A Greek Commander </li></ul><ul><li>Survives and gets his own poem </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Trojans (as in from Troy, not as in the condoms)
  11. 11. Hector <ul><li>Trojan Prince </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of the Trojans </li></ul><ul><li>Known for courage and noble nature </li></ul><ul><li>Killed by Achilles in battle </li></ul><ul><li>Begs Achilles to let him be buried with honor, </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles drags his corpse around the walls of Troy instead. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Priam <ul><li>Aged king of Troy </li></ul><ul><li>After Hector is killed, Priam goes to Achilles and begs for his son’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles is moved by the old man and a truce is called so Priam can bury his son. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Paris <ul><li>Prince of Troy </li></ul><ul><li>“The Judgment of Paris” (golden apple of the goddesses) </li></ul><ul><li>Elopes with/abducts Helen, which starts the war </li></ul><ul><li>Not so great at battle, but </li></ul><ul><li>Kills Achilles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Helen <ul><li>Most beautiful woman in the world </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is this the face that launched a thousand ships </li></ul><ul><li>And burnt the topless towers of Illium?” </li></ul><ul><li>- Dr. Faustus Christopher Marlow </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cassandra <ul><li>Youngest daughter of Priam </li></ul><ul><li>Because of her beauty, Apollo gives her the gift of prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>When she did not return his love, Apollo cursed her that no one would believe her prophecies </li></ul><ul><li>She tries to warn about the fall of Troy, but to no avail </li></ul><ul><li>Is abducted by Ajax </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Odyssey <ul><li>Describes Odysseus’ (Ulysses) and his soldier’s (long, long, long) trip back home after the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Trojan war lasted 10 years, it takes Odysseus another 10 to get home </li></ul><ul><li>His adventures include: </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Lotus-Eaters <ul><li>Some of his men eat their fruit, which makes them apathetic – they stop caring about getting home </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Cyclops <ul><li>Captures O. and eats some of his men </li></ul><ul><li>O. tricks him and stabs him in the eye with a pointed stick </li></ul>
  19. 19. Aeolus <ul><li>Master of the Winds </li></ul><ul><li>Give O. a bag of winds to help him sail </li></ul><ul><li>Just as Ithica came into sight, O.’s men open the bag, thinking it held gold, and they were blown back to where they came from </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cannibals <ul><li>A race of giants </li></ul><ul><li>Ate some of his men and </li></ul><ul><li>Threw boulders that destroyed 11 of O.’s 12 ships </li></ul><ul><li>(Laestrygonians) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Circe <ul><li>Who turns O.’s men into pigs after giving them a feast of cheese and wine </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Sirens <ul><li>Who lure men with their song, then drown them </li></ul><ul><li>O. escapes by plugging his ears with wax and having the men bind him to the mast </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Sacred Cattle of Helios <ul><li>O.’s men ignore the warnings and hunt them </li></ul><ul><li>= O. is shipwrecked on the shore of Calypso’s island </li></ul>
  24. 24. Journey to the Underworld
  25. 25. Calypso <ul><li>Being held captive on the nypmph Calypso’s island for 7 years </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nausicaa <ul><li>O. wakes up after shipwrecking his raft from Calypso’s island and hears the laughter of girls </li></ul><ul><li>He meets Nausicaa, who is washing clothes with her maids </li></ul><ul><li>She invites him to stay at her parent’s house </li></ul>
  27. 27. Blind Prophet <ul><li>There, O. hears a blind prophet/poet/singer </li></ul><ul><li>The prophet tells O. tales of the Trojan War (which O. is well aware of) </li></ul><ul><li>O. reveals his identity (as king of Ithica) and tells them the tales of his adventures, leading up to his arrival at their court </li></ul>
  28. 28. Home! <ul><li>They agree to help him get home </li></ul><ul><li>Upon arrival, he disguises himself </li></ul><ul><li>He finds his wife, Penelope, and son, Telemacus, have been forced to host 108 men in his absent = the Suitors </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Challenge <ul><li>He challenges the Suitors to an archery competition for Penelope’s hand </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever can string and shoot from O.’s old bow wins </li></ul><ul><li>O. does it (of course), then turns and shoots all 108 Suitors </li></ul><ul><li>Then he reveals himself to Penelope (with the help of some hints) </li></ul>