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Homer

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Transcript

  • 1. Homer Two Epic Poems
  • 2. The Greek Dark Ages
    • 1200-800 BC
    • Roads crumbled, writing was lost, cities deserted
    • The mountains divided people into tribes
    • Most of what we know of this time came from Homer
  • 3. Homer
    • Sometime between 1150 BC - 800 BC
    • A blind (probably) poet
    • Wrote down the legends that had been told orally for generations
    • Best known for two epic poems
  • 4. The Iliad
    • Describes the battles and struggles of the early Greeks (the Mycenaeans) as they conquer Troy.
    • The opening lines:
      • Sing, Goddess, of the rage, of Peleus' son Achilles
      • The accursed rage, which brought pain to thousands of the Achaeans .
    • The Major Characters:
  • 5. The Achaeans (The Greeks)
  • 6. Agamemnon
    • King of Mycenae, leader of the Greeks
    • Brother to Menelaus
    • (Not his mask)
  • 7. Menelaus
    • Brother to Agamemnon
    • Helen’s Husband
    • Leader of the Spartan side of the Greek army
  • 8. Achilles
    • Central character
    • Greek Hero
    • Almost immortal
    • Dies in battle (usually) when Paris shoots a poisoned arrow into his heel
  • 9. Odysseus
    • King of Ithica
    • A Greek Commander
    • Survives and gets his own poem
  • 10. The Trojans (as in from Troy, not as in the condoms)
  • 11. Hector
    • Trojan Prince
    • Leader of the Trojans
    • Known for courage and noble nature
    • Killed by Achilles in battle
    • Begs Achilles to let him be buried with honor,
    • Achilles drags his corpse around the walls of Troy instead.
  • 12. Priam
    • Aged king of Troy
    • After Hector is killed, Priam goes to Achilles and begs for his son’s body.
    • Achilles is moved by the old man and a truce is called so Priam can bury his son.
  • 13. Paris
    • Prince of Troy
    • “The Judgment of Paris” (golden apple of the goddesses)
    • Elopes with/abducts Helen, which starts the war
    • Not so great at battle, but
    • Kills Achilles
  • 14. Helen
    • Most beautiful woman in the world
    • “ Is this the face that launched a thousand ships
    • And burnt the topless towers of Illium?”
    • - Dr. Faustus Christopher Marlow
  • 15. Cassandra
    • Youngest daughter of Priam
    • Because of her beauty, Apollo gives her the gift of prophecy
    • When she did not return his love, Apollo cursed her that no one would believe her prophecies
    • She tries to warn about the fall of Troy, but to no avail
    • Is abducted by Ajax
  • 16. The Odyssey
    • Describes Odysseus’ (Ulysses) and his soldier’s (long, long, long) trip back home after the war.
    • Trojan war lasted 10 years, it takes Odysseus another 10 to get home
    • His adventures include:
  • 17. The Lotus-Eaters
    • Some of his men eat their fruit, which makes them apathetic – they stop caring about getting home
  • 18. The Cyclops
    • Captures O. and eats some of his men
    • O. tricks him and stabs him in the eye with a pointed stick
  • 19. Aeolus
    • Master of the Winds
    • Give O. a bag of winds to help him sail
    • Just as Ithica came into sight, O.’s men open the bag, thinking it held gold, and they were blown back to where they came from
  • 20. Cannibals
    • A race of giants
    • Ate some of his men and
    • Threw boulders that destroyed 11 of O.’s 12 ships
    • (Laestrygonians)
  • 21. Circe
    • Who turns O.’s men into pigs after giving them a feast of cheese and wine
  • 22. The Sirens
    • Who lure men with their song, then drown them
    • O. escapes by plugging his ears with wax and having the men bind him to the mast
  • 23. The Sacred Cattle of Helios
    • O.’s men ignore the warnings and hunt them
    • = O. is shipwrecked on the shore of Calypso’s island
  • 24. Journey to the Underworld
  • 25. Calypso
    • Being held captive on the nypmph Calypso’s island for 7 years
  • 26. Nausicaa
    • O. wakes up after shipwrecking his raft from Calypso’s island and hears the laughter of girls
    • He meets Nausicaa, who is washing clothes with her maids
    • She invites him to stay at her parent’s house
  • 27. Blind Prophet
    • There, O. hears a blind prophet/poet/singer
    • The prophet tells O. tales of the Trojan War (which O. is well aware of)
    • O. reveals his identity (as king of Ithica) and tells them the tales of his adventures, leading up to his arrival at their court
  • 28. Home!
    • They agree to help him get home
    • Upon arrival, he disguises himself
    • He finds his wife, Penelope, and son, Telemacus, have been forced to host 108 men in his absent = the Suitors
  • 29. The Challenge
    • He challenges the Suitors to an archery competition for Penelope’s hand
    • Whoever can string and shoot from O.’s old bow wins
    • O. does it (of course), then turns and shoots all 108 Suitors
    • Then he reveals himself to Penelope (with the help of some hints)

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