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  • 1. Greece!
  • 2. Archaic Period
    • 800-500 BC
    • The scattered tribes from the Greek Dark Ages started settling down
    • They formed city-states with governments
    • City-states made ties with each other
    • Within 200 years, it was a unified community and the center of the civilized world.
  • 3. City-States
    • The islands/mountain-valley geography made individual cities make more sense
    • City = polis
    • An ideal city-state =
      • Small enough to walk across in a day
      • Large enough to have all the necessities
        • Merchants, Farmers, etc.
  • 4.
    • The city-states would have a fortress/temple on top of a hill
    • = The Acropolis (“high city”)
    • The agora (marketplace) sat at the base of the hill
    • Homes and farms gather around the agora
    • The stoa (a covered walkway) is where people met to discuss politics
    • (All of these are still in Athens today)
  • 5. The Acropolis in Athens
  • 6. The Agora in Athens
  • 7. The Stoa in Athens
  • 8.  
  • 9. The Acropolis in Rome
  • 10. The Agora in Rome
  • 11.
    • Bad land for farming
    • The Greeks were excellent craftsmen, sailors, and salesmen
    • They settled and traded in distant lands
      • Greek ruins in southern Italy, Sicily, Egypt, France, and Turkey
    • They also picked up cultural lessons from their travels such as
      • Art from the Egyptians (statues!)
      • The alphabet from the Phoenicians
  • 12. Government Evolution
    • Hereditary Kings
    • Rich Land-owners (oligarchy)
    • Popular Tyrants (seize power during crisis)
    • Ruled by Citizens (= democracy )
      • (However, only free, landowning men were allowed to vote in these early democracies)
  • 13.
    • Some quarrels between city-states, but they were almost more like sport than serious war
    • Outsiders were considered “barbarians”
    • With a common language and common religion, the city-states allied with their neighbors and the political units grew
  • 14. The Olympics
    • In 776 BC athletes from across Greece gathered in Olympia to strip naked and compete in sports
  • 15. Art in the Archaic Period
    • Statues are crude and stiff
    • Not individuals, but generic people
      • Kore (girl)
      • Kouros (boy)
    • Style copied from the Egyptians
      • Face forward
      • Arms in fists at sides
      • A forced smile
      • One foot forward to try to show movement
  • 16.
    • The generic style embodies balance, order, and stability
      • Perfectly round heads
      • Symmetrical bodies
      • A navel in the center
    • The statues represent what the unstable city-states were trying to achieve
  • 17. Sparta
    • Archaic Greece’s largest city-state
    • 3000 square miles (bigger than Delaware!)
    • A highly organized military state
    • Conquered neighbors and turned them into farm-working slaves
    • NOT democratic – ruled by kings
  • 18.
    • Men (and women) were raised to be warriors
    • At 7, boys were taken from their families and raised in the barracks where they were taught the art of war, discipline, and how to endure hardships
    • They were deliberately underfed so they would master the art of stealing food
  • 19.
    • At 18 they joined the army (although some were first sent into the wilderness with only a knife as a test)
    • At 20 they were encouraged to marry, but
    • Married couples couldn’t live together until the man was 30 (he also became a citizen at that age)
    • Women were schooled by the state (the only place in Greece to teach women!), including training for battle
  • 20.
    • By 700 BC, Greece’s city-states were centered around two major powers:
      • Militaristic, no-frills Sparta
      • and
      • Democratic, business-friendly Athens
  • 21. The Rise of Athens
    • With a good harbor and good farmland, Athens flourished.
    • In 490 BC the Persians (under King Darius I) came to get revenge on the Greeks who tried to take over western Turkey
    • The Greeks were outnumbered 3:1
  • 22.
    • A few thousand Athenian soldiers ran to Marathon to cut the Persians off at the bottlenecked valley
    • With cunning, the Athenians won!
    • (And one excited solider ran all the 26.2 miles back to Athens to report the news, then promptly died)
  • 23.
    • 10 years later, the Persians attacked again
    • This time all of Greece united to fight
    • Between Athens’ ships and Sparta’s soldier, they drove the Persians out
    • Athens was hailed as Greece’s protector and all the city-states pledged tributes to Athens in exchange for their protection
    • (Sparta was mad!)
  • 24. The Golden Age of Athens
    • Greeks flocked to Athens and the money from the city-state tributes fueled a cultural explosion –
    • Paintings, sculptures, architecture, drama, music, poetry, dancing, trade, politics, science, and philosophy all flourished and defined the Greek Golden Age
    • (450-400 BC)
  • 25.
    • The ideal Greek was a well-rounded man
      • An athlete and a bookworm, a lover and a philosopher, an architect and a musician, a warrior and a poet
    • (Of course, he was also a free, land-owning man)
    • Education flourished, and the Greeks loved to study man and his place in the world
    • (Interestingly, this was happening in several places in the world all around the same time:
      • Buddha in India
      • Confucius in China
      • The Old Testament prophets in Palestine)
  • 26.
    • Greece led the world with brains, not brawn
    • Art, Philosophy, Science, Math – what was developed in Ancient Greece in all of these still very much influences our world today
  • 27. The Decline of Athens
    • Eventually, the city-states started to resent the money they were paying Athens each year for protection they didn’t seem to need.
    • They rallied behind Sparta and ganged up on Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars
    • In 339 BC, all of the city-states (including Athens and Sparta) were conquered from the north by the Macedonians
  • 28.
    • The stiff, traditional Archaic period
    • The Golden Age of Athens
    • The democratic, wildly individualistic Hellenistic age
  • 29. Hellenism
    • (333-31 BC)
    • Hellene = Greek
    • After King Philip of Macedonia conquered the Greece, his 20-year-old son succeeded him.
    • Alexander had been tutored by Aristotle (who got him hooked on all things Greek) and supposedly went to bed each night with two things under his pillow: a copy of The Iliad and a knife
  • 30.
    • He was a daring general,
    • a benevolent conqueror,
    • and a good administrator.
    • He was, well, great!
    • In 334 BC Alexander and his army of 40,000 headed east and conquered Turkey, Palestine, Egypt (where he was declared a living god), Iraq, Iran, and part of India
  • 31.
    • As he conquered, he set up cities on the Greek model with the Greek language and opened Greek schools
    • After 8 years on the road, he headed back home but died en route at the age of 32.
  • 32.
    • For the next 300 years, most of the Mediterranean and Asia (in other words, the entire civilized world) was dominated by Greek culture and Greek rulers.
    • Alexandria (in Egypt) became a thriving intellectual center and the greatest library in the world – no ship was allowed to enter the port without first surrendering its books to be copied.
  • 33. So what happened?
    • As Alexander was conquering the East, a new power was rising the West:
    • Rome
    • Rome eventually conquered Greece, but culturally the Greeks ruled the Romans.
    • But that’s a story for another day….