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Ancient Greece
 

Ancient Greece

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    Ancient Greece Ancient Greece Presentation Transcript

    • Greece!
    • Archaic Period
      • 800-500 BC
      • The scattered tribes from the Greek Dark Ages started settling down
      • They formed city-states with governments
      • City-states made ties with each other
      • Within 200 years, it was a unified community and the center of the civilized world.
    • City-States
      • The islands/mountain-valley geography made individual cities make more sense
      • City = polis
      • An ideal city-state =
        • Small enough to walk across in a day
        • Large enough to have all the necessities
          • Merchants, Farmers, etc.
      • The city-states would have a fortress/temple on top of a hill
      • = The Acropolis (“high city”)
      • The agora (marketplace) sat at the base of the hill
      • Homes and farms gather around the agora
      • The stoa (a covered walkway) is where people met to discuss politics
      • (All of these are still in Athens today)
    • The Acropolis in Athens
    • The Agora in Athens
    • The Stoa in Athens
    •  
    • The Acropolis in Rome
    • The Agora in Rome
      • Bad land for farming
      • The Greeks were excellent craftsmen, sailors, and salesmen
      • They settled and traded in distant lands
        • Greek ruins in southern Italy, Sicily, Egypt, France, and Turkey
      • They also picked up cultural lessons from their travels such as
        • Art from the Egyptians (statues!)
        • The alphabet from the Phoenicians
    • Government Evolution
      • Hereditary Kings
      • Rich Land-owners (oligarchy)
      • Popular Tyrants (seize power during crisis)
      • Ruled by Citizens (= democracy )
        • (However, only free, landowning men were allowed to vote in these early democracies)
      • Some quarrels between city-states, but they were almost more like sport than serious war
      • Outsiders were considered “barbarians”
      • With a common language and common religion, the city-states allied with their neighbors and the political units grew
    • The Olympics
      • In 776 BC athletes from across Greece gathered in Olympia to strip naked and compete in sports
    • Art in the Archaic Period
      • Statues are crude and stiff
      • Not individuals, but generic people
        • Kore (girl)
        • Kouros (boy)
      • Style copied from the Egyptians
        • Face forward
        • Arms in fists at sides
        • A forced smile
        • One foot forward to try to show movement
      • The generic style embodies balance, order, and stability
        • Perfectly round heads
        • Symmetrical bodies
        • A navel in the center
      • The statues represent what the unstable city-states were trying to achieve
    • Sparta
      • Archaic Greece’s largest city-state
      • 3000 square miles (bigger than Delaware!)
      • A highly organized military state
      • Conquered neighbors and turned them into farm-working slaves
      • NOT democratic – ruled by kings
      • Men (and women) were raised to be warriors
      • At 7, boys were taken from their families and raised in the barracks where they were taught the art of war, discipline, and how to endure hardships
      • They were deliberately underfed so they would master the art of stealing food
      • At 18 they joined the army (although some were first sent into the wilderness with only a knife as a test)
      • At 20 they were encouraged to marry, but
      • Married couples couldn’t live together until the man was 30 (he also became a citizen at that age)
      • Women were schooled by the state (the only place in Greece to teach women!), including training for battle
      • By 700 BC, Greece’s city-states were centered around two major powers:
        • Militaristic, no-frills Sparta
        • and
        • Democratic, business-friendly Athens
    • The Rise of Athens
      • With a good harbor and good farmland, Athens flourished.
      • In 490 BC the Persians (under King Darius I) came to get revenge on the Greeks who tried to take over western Turkey
      • The Greeks were outnumbered 3:1
      • A few thousand Athenian soldiers ran to Marathon to cut the Persians off at the bottlenecked valley
      • With cunning, the Athenians won!
      • (And one excited solider ran all the 26.2 miles back to Athens to report the news, then promptly died)
      • 10 years later, the Persians attacked again
      • This time all of Greece united to fight
      • Between Athens’ ships and Sparta’s soldier, they drove the Persians out
      • Athens was hailed as Greece’s protector and all the city-states pledged tributes to Athens in exchange for their protection
      • (Sparta was mad!)
    • The Golden Age of Athens
      • Greeks flocked to Athens and the money from the city-state tributes fueled a cultural explosion –
      • Paintings, sculptures, architecture, drama, music, poetry, dancing, trade, politics, science, and philosophy all flourished and defined the Greek Golden Age
      • (450-400 BC)
      • The ideal Greek was a well-rounded man
        • An athlete and a bookworm, a lover and a philosopher, an architect and a musician, a warrior and a poet
      • (Of course, he was also a free, land-owning man)
      • Education flourished, and the Greeks loved to study man and his place in the world
      • (Interestingly, this was happening in several places in the world all around the same time:
        • Buddha in India
        • Confucius in China
        • The Old Testament prophets in Palestine)
      • Greece led the world with brains, not brawn
      • Art, Philosophy, Science, Math – what was developed in Ancient Greece in all of these still very much influences our world today
    • The Decline of Athens
      • Eventually, the city-states started to resent the money they were paying Athens each year for protection they didn’t seem to need.
      • They rallied behind Sparta and ganged up on Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars
      • In 339 BC, all of the city-states (including Athens and Sparta) were conquered from the north by the Macedonians
      • The stiff, traditional Archaic period
      • The Golden Age of Athens
      • The democratic, wildly individualistic Hellenistic age
    • Hellenism
      • (333-31 BC)
      • Hellene = Greek
      • After King Philip of Macedonia conquered the Greece, his 20-year-old son succeeded him.
      • Alexander had been tutored by Aristotle (who got him hooked on all things Greek) and supposedly went to bed each night with two things under his pillow: a copy of The Iliad and a knife
      • He was a daring general,
      • a benevolent conqueror,
      • and a good administrator.
      • He was, well, great!
      • In 334 BC Alexander and his army of 40,000 headed east and conquered Turkey, Palestine, Egypt (where he was declared a living god), Iraq, Iran, and part of India
      • As he conquered, he set up cities on the Greek model with the Greek language and opened Greek schools
      • After 8 years on the road, he headed back home but died en route at the age of 32.
      • For the next 300 years, most of the Mediterranean and Asia (in other words, the entire civilized world) was dominated by Greek culture and Greek rulers.
      • Alexandria (in Egypt) became a thriving intellectual center and the greatest library in the world – no ship was allowed to enter the port without first surrendering its books to be copied.
    • So what happened?
      • As Alexander was conquering the East, a new power was rising the West:
      • Rome
      • Rome eventually conquered Greece, but culturally the Greeks ruled the Romans.
      • But that’s a story for another day….