Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ancient Greece
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ancient Greece


Published on

Published in: Education

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Greece!
  • 2. Archaic Period
    • 800-500 BC
    • The scattered tribes from the Greek Dark Ages started settling down
    • They formed city-states with governments
    • City-states made ties with each other
    • Within 200 years, it was a unified community and the center of the civilized world.
  • 3. City-States
    • The islands/mountain-valley geography made individual cities make more sense
    • City = polis
    • An ideal city-state =
      • Small enough to walk across in a day
      • Large enough to have all the necessities
        • Merchants, Farmers, etc.
  • 4.
    • The city-states would have a fortress/temple on top of a hill
    • = The Acropolis (“high city”)
    • The agora (marketplace) sat at the base of the hill
    • Homes and farms gather around the agora
    • The stoa (a covered walkway) is where people met to discuss politics
    • (All of these are still in Athens today)
  • 5. The Acropolis in Athens
  • 6. The Agora in Athens
  • 7. The Stoa in Athens
  • 8.  
  • 9. The Acropolis in Rome
  • 10. The Agora in Rome
  • 11.
    • Bad land for farming
    • The Greeks were excellent craftsmen, sailors, and salesmen
    • They settled and traded in distant lands
      • Greek ruins in southern Italy, Sicily, Egypt, France, and Turkey
    • They also picked up cultural lessons from their travels such as
      • Art from the Egyptians (statues!)
      • The alphabet from the Phoenicians
  • 12. Government Evolution
    • Hereditary Kings
    • Rich Land-owners (oligarchy)
    • Popular Tyrants (seize power during crisis)
    • Ruled by Citizens (= democracy )
      • (However, only free, landowning men were allowed to vote in these early democracies)
  • 13.
    • Some quarrels between city-states, but they were almost more like sport than serious war
    • Outsiders were considered “barbarians”
    • With a common language and common religion, the city-states allied with their neighbors and the political units grew
  • 14. The Olympics
    • In 776 BC athletes from across Greece gathered in Olympia to strip naked and compete in sports
  • 15. Art in the Archaic Period
    • Statues are crude and stiff
    • Not individuals, but generic people
      • Kore (girl)
      • Kouros (boy)
    • Style copied from the Egyptians
      • Face forward
      • Arms in fists at sides
      • A forced smile
      • One foot forward to try to show movement
  • 16.
    • The generic style embodies balance, order, and stability
      • Perfectly round heads
      • Symmetrical bodies
      • A navel in the center
    • The statues represent what the unstable city-states were trying to achieve
  • 17. Sparta
    • Archaic Greece’s largest city-state
    • 3000 square miles (bigger than Delaware!)
    • A highly organized military state
    • Conquered neighbors and turned them into farm-working slaves
    • NOT democratic – ruled by kings
  • 18.
    • Men (and women) were raised to be warriors
    • At 7, boys were taken from their families and raised in the barracks where they were taught the art of war, discipline, and how to endure hardships
    • They were deliberately underfed so they would master the art of stealing food
  • 19.
    • At 18 they joined the army (although some were first sent into the wilderness with only a knife as a test)
    • At 20 they were encouraged to marry, but
    • Married couples couldn’t live together until the man was 30 (he also became a citizen at that age)
    • Women were schooled by the state (the only place in Greece to teach women!), including training for battle
  • 20.
    • By 700 BC, Greece’s city-states were centered around two major powers:
      • Militaristic, no-frills Sparta
      • and
      • Democratic, business-friendly Athens
  • 21. The Rise of Athens
    • With a good harbor and good farmland, Athens flourished.
    • In 490 BC the Persians (under King Darius I) came to get revenge on the Greeks who tried to take over western Turkey
    • The Greeks were outnumbered 3:1
  • 22.
    • A few thousand Athenian soldiers ran to Marathon to cut the Persians off at the bottlenecked valley
    • With cunning, the Athenians won!
    • (And one excited solider ran all the 26.2 miles back to Athens to report the news, then promptly died)
  • 23.
    • 10 years later, the Persians attacked again
    • This time all of Greece united to fight
    • Between Athens’ ships and Sparta’s soldier, they drove the Persians out
    • Athens was hailed as Greece’s protector and all the city-states pledged tributes to Athens in exchange for their protection
    • (Sparta was mad!)
  • 24. The Golden Age of Athens
    • Greeks flocked to Athens and the money from the city-state tributes fueled a cultural explosion –
    • Paintings, sculptures, architecture, drama, music, poetry, dancing, trade, politics, science, and philosophy all flourished and defined the Greek Golden Age
    • (450-400 BC)
  • 25.
    • The ideal Greek was a well-rounded man
      • An athlete and a bookworm, a lover and a philosopher, an architect and a musician, a warrior and a poet
    • (Of course, he was also a free, land-owning man)
    • Education flourished, and the Greeks loved to study man and his place in the world
    • (Interestingly, this was happening in several places in the world all around the same time:
      • Buddha in India
      • Confucius in China
      • The Old Testament prophets in Palestine)
  • 26.
    • Greece led the world with brains, not brawn
    • Art, Philosophy, Science, Math – what was developed in Ancient Greece in all of these still very much influences our world today
  • 27. The Decline of Athens
    • Eventually, the city-states started to resent the money they were paying Athens each year for protection they didn’t seem to need.
    • They rallied behind Sparta and ganged up on Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars
    • In 339 BC, all of the city-states (including Athens and Sparta) were conquered from the north by the Macedonians
  • 28.
    • The stiff, traditional Archaic period
    • The Golden Age of Athens
    • The democratic, wildly individualistic Hellenistic age
  • 29. Hellenism
    • (333-31 BC)
    • Hellene = Greek
    • After King Philip of Macedonia conquered the Greece, his 20-year-old son succeeded him.
    • Alexander had been tutored by Aristotle (who got him hooked on all things Greek) and supposedly went to bed each night with two things under his pillow: a copy of The Iliad and a knife
  • 30.
    • He was a daring general,
    • a benevolent conqueror,
    • and a good administrator.
    • He was, well, great!
    • In 334 BC Alexander and his army of 40,000 headed east and conquered Turkey, Palestine, Egypt (where he was declared a living god), Iraq, Iran, and part of India
  • 31.
    • As he conquered, he set up cities on the Greek model with the Greek language and opened Greek schools
    • After 8 years on the road, he headed back home but died en route at the age of 32.
  • 32.
    • For the next 300 years, most of the Mediterranean and Asia (in other words, the entire civilized world) was dominated by Greek culture and Greek rulers.
    • Alexandria (in Egypt) became a thriving intellectual center and the greatest library in the world – no ship was allowed to enter the port without first surrendering its books to be copied.
  • 33. So what happened?
    • As Alexander was conquering the East, a new power was rising the West:
    • Rome
    • Rome eventually conquered Greece, but culturally the Greeks ruled the Romans.
    • But that’s a story for another day….