19th century europe


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19th century europe

  1. 1. 19 th Century Europe
  2. 2. Old and New, Side by Side <ul><li>Industrialism + Nationalism shattered the medieval mold of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Europe hit the Industrial Age at the same time that it was clinging to traditional attitudes and morals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Industrial Revolution <ul><li>The scientific achievements of the Enlightenment of the 1700s were finally put to good use </li></ul><ul><li>First big thing? The train. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products and people could get places faster and easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1820 a trip from Vienna to Paris took a week on foot or by horse carriage. By train it took a day. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Trains linked European countries together </li></ul><ul><li>From 1830-1860 1/6 of the world’s rails were laid. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe’s economy shifted from agriculture to industry and farmers flooded the cities looking for factory jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments spread out across the world to look for raw materials and labor (i.e. slaves). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Britain built an empire that at its peak included almost ¼ of the world’s land and people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The sun never sets on the British Empire.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are downsides to the revolution, though: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slums, over-crowded cities, soot pollution, child labor, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Man, worshipped by the Renaissance, became a commodity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Socialism (and Communism) <ul><li>Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote about and spread the idea that the workers, not the factory owners, should be the one who benefit the most from its products. </li></ul><ul><li>They predicted that a worker (proletarian) revolution would overthrow the capitalist (bourgeois) establishment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>There never was a classic “worker’s revolution” </li></ul><ul><li>However, laws that benefited the workers came about because of Socialist ideas (labor unions, child labor restrictions, bathroom breaks, etc.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Industrial Age Art <ul><li>New materials to play with: </li></ul><ul><li>concrete, iron, and glass. </li></ul><ul><li>More buildings were built in the 19 th century than in all the previous years of history combined! </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Eiffel Tower 1889 <ul><li>Built on the 100 th anniversary of the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Serves no purpose other than to impress people. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by bridge-builder Gustave Eiffel </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nationalism <ul><li>Keep in mind that 150 years ago, Germany, Italy, Poland, and other countries didn’t exist yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe was more of a patchwork quilt of baronies, dukedoms, and little kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers often spoke a different language than their subjects and lived far away. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>People wanted a government that spoke their language, shared their ethnic heritage, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When farmers and peasants moved into the cities to work in factories, they brought their local languages and customs with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Writers wrote in the people’s language, </li></ul><ul><li>Painters painted scenes from the people’s lives and histories. </li></ul><ul><li>Composers built entire symphonies around folk tunes and stories. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Patriots rose up to take the governments back from the foreigners who rules over them. </li></ul><ul><li>People took pride in their nations and nationalities! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Italy Unites <ul><li>Victor Emmanuel II was the only Italian-blooded king, and the movement centered around him (VERDI!) until in 1860 he was crowned “King of Italy”. </li></ul><ul><li>(The Pope in Rome held out until 1870.) </li></ul><ul><li>Before, French kings ruled Italy’s north and Spanish kings ruled the south. </li></ul><ul><li>After Napoleon came through, the idea of a unified nation grew. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Germany Unites <ul><li>In 1850, Germany was 39 little countries. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1870, Germany was Europe’s biggest economic power. </li></ul><ul><li>Otto von Bismark was the force behind the unification. </li></ul>“ Not by speeches and majority votes are the great questions of the day decided, but by blood and iron.”
  15. 15. The Victorian Era <ul><li>(An explanation of “ British ”) </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire was ruled from 1837-1901 by a plump, shy girl named Victoria. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A time of peace, prosperity, and a Golden Age of science, literature, and middle-class moralities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Victorian London <ul><li>Rigidly divided into classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The underbelly of London was dirty, poor, disease-ridden, and dangerous. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Charles Dickens <ul><li>The governmental reforms that changed conditions for the poor were boosted by Dickens’ writings. </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Twist , Great Expectations , A Tale of Two Cities , etc. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Just when things were going well… <ul><li>Germany, the last of the powers to join the capitalistic race, was a big and hungry bully without its own place in the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>The technology that had made life better would also make machine guns, nerve gas, and bomb-dropping airplanes. </li></ul><ul><li> The 20 th Century! </li></ul>