Exploring the scope of cost effective aflatoxin risk reduction strategies
Exploring the Scope of Cost-Effective Aflatoxin Risk Reduction Strategies in Maize and Groundnut Value Chains to Improve Market Access and Health of the Poor in Africa Clare Narrod, IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences International Center for the Improvement of Maize ACDI/VOCA/Kenya Maize Development Programand Wheat Kenya Agricultural Research Institute International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Institut d’Economie Rurale Arid Tropics The Eastern Africa Grain Council University of Pittsburgh
Economic losses estimated to be large - dearth of systematic studies that empirically estimate economic losses (health, income) for all stakeholders along the value chain economic impact of interventions socio-economic factors affecting adoption Number of biological studies on control options; hasn’t been large scale adoption.
Agricultural Dietary (preharvest, postharvest) Enterosorption (clays, Conventional breeding chlorophyllin) Chemoprevention Transgenic breeding observed that in Kenya poor ACDI/Voca has What is the cost-effectiveness of (Oltipraz, triterpenoids, control options Irrigationproducers are the least likely to adopt aflatoxin risk (singularly and in combination) asisothiocyanates) products move Biocontrol for poor producers/processorsthey lack the reduction technologies since in developing “Good agronomic practices” Anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS, greennecessary resources, and, thus, they are the group countries? tea polyphenols, allicin) Improved drying, storage, most susceptible to aflatoxin exposure. transportation Ammoniation Clinical HBV vaccination
To identify pro-poorcost-effectiveaflatoxin risk-reduction strategiesin order to assess theuptake of thesestrategies and tosuggest interventionsthat ensure high ratesof adoptability alongvalue chains.
Multi-disciplinary research team Economic Impact Perceptions of aflatoxin and WTP-Health • KAP (Knowledge Attitudes Perception-Household level analysis (Income, Actions)Gender)-Trade • Valuation of demand risk reduction measues • Auctions (demand) Endpoints of Disease Prevalence interest: exposure -Collection of prevelance Risk Analysis 1) Market data along value chains in •Risk maps access/ different ecological zones income/ •Risk assessment poverty •Cost effectiveness reduction analysis 2) Health Communication and Advocacy
Mali: Kita, Kayes, and Koulikoro Districts ▪ 70 % of groundnuts produced in Western Mali ▪ Comprise all groundnut-producing agro- ecological zones Kenya: Nyanza Province (South West) ▪ Transect from Kisii to Homabay (high - low elevations) Upper East ▪ Transect from Embu to Mbeere (high - low lands) Lower East ▪ Transect that includes Machakos and Makueni Districts
Prevalence data collected from different AEZ from 2009-2011(Kenya) and 2009-2010 (Mali) at pre-harvest and in storage (15 to 30days interval), and in the markets (every month). Livelihoods impact Qualitative focus group survey Quantitative household surveys at four levels Pilot survey - June- July 2010 Household surveys – October 2010 –January 2011 Community level surveys – October 2010 –January 2011 Socio-economic data collection - March 2011 of hh where prevalence collected
ENABLINGENVIRONMENT MOA KARI KEPHIS NAAICP KEBS Etc. POSHO MILLERS VALUE LOCAL CONSUMERS CHAIN FARMERS LOCAL RETAILERS ACTORS TRADERS SUPERMARKETS NCPB LARGE SCALE COMMERCIAL TRADERS MILLERS BUSINESS & AGRI-INPUT GOVERNMENT POSHOEXTENSION TRADERS EXTENSION NGO’S MEDIA MILLS SERVICES / DEALERS OFFICERS COMMUNITY GROUPS, CHURCHES, MOSQUES Etc
Partners:Donor: Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationCenter/ Universities IFPRI: C. Narrod (Project lead), P. Trench(Project manager), M. Tiongco, D. Roy, A. Saak, R. Scott, W. Collier, M. Elias, G. Gajate-Garrido, C. Alva. CIMMYT: J. Hellin, H. DeGroote, G. Mahuku, S. Kimenju, B. Munyua, Z. Gitonga ICRISAT: F. Waliyar, J. Ndjeunga, A. Diallo, M. Diallo, V. Reddy, C. Mutegi University of Pittsburgh: F. Wu, Y. Liu US Uniformed Health Services: P. Masuoka, J. GriecoCountry Partners ACDI/VOCA: S. Collins, S. Guantai, S. Walker Kenya Agricultural Research Institute: S. Nzioki, C. Bett Institut d’Economie Rurale: B. Diarra, O. Kodio, L. Diakite
Laying the groundwork for coordinated policy action for aflatoxin control so as to improve market access and health of the poor in Africa.
Maize! They call you mahindi in Kiswahili, bembe in Kikamba How nice to mention. Oh Aflatoxin! Where did you come from? When the rain falls we harvest maize in plenty. When it doesn’t it dries out. Oh Aflatoxin! Where did you come from? Maize, we love to roast and like to boil. Even ugali, our staple food. Aflatoxin! Where did you come from? We enjoy maize very much. However, the devil, not the weevil, has stolen you Aflatoxin! Where did you come from? Aflatoxin they call you. You have stolen so many innocent lives Aflatoxin! Where did you come from?