Economic importance of different maize storage structures in kenya
Economic importance of different maize storage structures in Kenya Charles Bett , Hugo De Groote, Clare Narrod Clare and Rosemarie Scott Aflacontrol Conference, November 30, 2011, Southern Sun Hotel, Nairobi International Food Policy Research Institute Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences International Center for the Improvement of Maize ACDI/VOCA/Kenya Maize Development Programand Wheat Kenya Agricultural Research Institute International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Institut d’Economie Rurale Arid Tropics The Eastern Africa Grain Council University of Pittsburgh
Most maize in Kenya is produced and consumed on-farm thus the need for storage structures. Farmers stock the highest amounts of maize, followed by traders, NCPB and then Millers (Table 1) By region, the Rift Valley province, stocks the highest quantities compared to other provinces. To safeguard the maize with the farmers from damage or contamination by diseases (e.g., aflatoxin) pests and theft there is need for improved storage facilities. Thus this study was undertaken with an objective of describing the current storage practices, facilities and determining their economic importance.
A multi stage sampling procedure List of sub-locations (Census 2009) obtained from KNBS Used proportion to size methodology to select sub-locations Preparatory visits were made to the selected sub-locations where the sampling frame dawn. 12 farmers was randomly selected from each sub-location A 50% percent were selected as the replacement households. Target sample 1452 – Achieved – 1344 Data collection - October 2010 to January 2011.
Design Realized Number of Number of Number of households Number of households per household Number of per Number of sublocations sublocaton s sublocations sublocaton householdsLowland Tropics 15 12 180 15 6 90Dry mid-altitudes 18 12 216 17 12 204Dry transitional 18 12 216 18 12 215Moist Transitional 30 12 360 30 12 355Moist Mid-altitudes 20 12 240 20 12 240Highlands 20 12 240 20 12 240total 121 1452 1344
Maize Zones Low Tropics (LT) ▪ Coast Province Dry Medium Altitude (DM) ▪ Eastern Province Dry Transitional (DT) ▪ Eastern Province Moist Transitional (MT) ▪ Central and Eastern Provinces High Tropics (HT) ▪ Rift Valley and Central Provinces Moist Medium Altitude (MM) ▪ Western and Nyanza Provinces
Long term storage facilities Separate housing for storage Improved granary Silo Large pots Traditional crib Living house for storage Short term storage facilities Polypropylene sisal bags Baskets
Improved granary An improved granary - made of wooden wall with supporting poles or stones and roofed with iron sheets. In the study 12% of the sampled households were using the improved granary mainly in the LT, HT and MT maize zones. Granary has good ventilation and aeration thus discourages growth of moulds.
Metal Silo An improved maize storage container made of metal sheet. Maize stored in the metal silo is not attacked by pests and is less infested by moulds. Aflatoxin levels reduced by 60% on average. Only 0.38% of HH reported use from two maize zones, DT and DM. Major disadvantage - High cost and the limited storage capacity
Large pots Large pots are multipurpose storage facilities made of hardened clay through heating for several hours. Less than 2% of the sampled households reported using pots for maize storage. Major disadvantage – fragility and limited capacity.
Traditional crib A traditional storage structure made of local material available in a particular region. 6.5% of the respondents were using the traditional crib mainly in the DT (3.39%) and DM (2.17%) Cheap to construct, good ventilation and aeration thus reduces mouldy growths. Disadvantage - Insecure and requires seasonal repairs.
Living house for storage One room in the main house set aside for maize storage. Reason : Security This trend is common in the DT (15.54%), MT (11.86%) and LT (11.58%) Major disadvantage: May encourage growth of moulds and likelihood of aflatoxin infection due to high moisture in the house
Sisal bags In this study close to 90% of the Short duration storage facilities farmers were using them with the used widely in Kenya till the DM (17.6%0), DT (21.28%) and MT introduction of plastic bags. (17.5%) reporting the highest usage. In this survey only about 9% still use the bags with LT leading.Polypropylene bags Short duration plastic bags widely used in Kenya. Sizes range from 25 - 100kg bags. Average costs - Kshs 25 – 50 per piece a price affordable to most farmers.
Baskets A traditional facility made of reeds through weaving. The facility is temporary storage for maize before transferring to more permanent structures or when preparing to take the maize for milling or sale. Used mainly in the DT, DM and MT while lowest usage was reported in the LT (0.28%). Advantage: Good ventilation and aeration thus may not be conducive for mouldy growths. Disadvantage: Limited capacity and not for large maize quantities
600050004000 Cost of storing maize3000 in different maize stoarge2000 facilities Overall1000 0 sep. Hsing Trad. crib Trad. Crib Impr. Wdn Fire place Room in hse Impr. wicker Basket Metal silo (RB) (FB) store store
Declining use of storage structures. Separate housing for storage is the most important in terms of quantity and value of maize stored and also in terms of cost of maize stored per ton . Important factors to consider in choice and dissemination of storage facilities: Ventilation Security (both against theft and mouldiness There is need to enhance the security features of improved granary if it is to replace the preferred separate structures which tends to be closed with little air circulation and could increase aflatoxin contamination.
We acknowledge the following institutions and partners for the roles they played in making the study successful: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) for channelling the funds for the survey and technical support, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) for implementing the survey and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) for technical back-up and advice. Bill and Melinda Gates for providing the funds to IFPRI for the survey. 18 enumerators and 3 supervisors for their role in data collection Data entry clerks for their role in data inputting, The provincial administration for their role in sampling, and Respondents for their willingness to participate in the survey.
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