Aflacontrol Pilot Project Conference, Southern Sun Hotel 13 th  January 2011 Agronomic practices, post harvest handling an...
Food Grains <ul><li>Grains are major staples in the tropics and the developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>Grains are highly ...
Importance of good Planning <ul><li>To achieve good quality in maize grains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan ahead and carry ou...
Early land preparation <ul><li>Plough to bury trash for ease of decomposition and a clean seedbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid...
Conservation tillage <ul><li>Practice Conservation Tillage to incorporate trash as a cover mulch and add organic matter to...
Timely Planting  <ul><li>Recommended varieties suited to agro-ecozone </li></ul><ul><li>Plant certified seed to maximize b...
Seed Selection and Variety <ul><li>Agro climatic suitability of the variety </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity in growth </li></...
Planting  <ul><li>Depth of planting not too shallow or too deep (5-8 cm). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desiccation or damage by p...
Fertilizer Application and nutrient requirement <ul><li>Maize requires up to 16 elements for healthy growth. Most of these...
Nutrient deficiencies and crop growth <ul><li>When fertilizer or organic matter is not used there is low nutrients in soil...
Emerging seedlings <ul><li>Emergency usually within 7 days of planting after onset of rains. </li></ul><ul><li>Scouting (c...
Control weeds, field pests and diseases <ul><li>Weeds harbour pests, compete for moisture and nutrients and suppress growt...
Field Pests  <ul><li>The maize crop is very nutritious and therefore attracts pests. Need for IPM. </li></ul><ul><li>These...
Maize diseases <ul><li>Diseases creates avenues for other pathogens including fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Most diseases are ma...
Growth to Maturity <ul><li>Within 2-3 weeks the nodal roots begin to develop, followed by rapid growth in the next 4-5 wee...
Management at silking stage <ul><li>The silking stage is when pollen is captured and fertilization occurs. </li></ul><ul><...
Moisture management continued <ul><li>This is the time of high moisture uptake. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought conditions will ...
Good Maize crop stand <ul><li>Proper spacing and plant density (about 55,000). </li></ul><ul><li>Clean crop field. </li></...
Harvesting <ul><li>Harvest early at physiological maturity (grain moisture content will be around 26%) </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Drying and conditioning <ul><li>The grain must be properly dried (<13.5% M.C). </li></ul><ul><li>Use tarpaulins or clean p...
Storage and management <ul><li>The storage is very important at the farm, trader, transporter, processor and consumer leve...
Asante <ul><li>With the support of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Agronomic practices, post harvest handling and management to mitigate for Aflatoxins in grains, Guantai S.M. ACDO/VOCA Kenya

3,309

Published on

Presentation from the Aflacontrol Conference on Aflatoxins, Food Safety and Food Security, Nairobi, Kenya January 2011

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,309
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Agronomic practices, post harvest handling and management to mitigate for Aflatoxins in grains, Guantai S.M. ACDO/VOCA Kenya

  1. 1. Aflacontrol Pilot Project Conference, Southern Sun Hotel 13 th January 2011 Agronomic practices, post harvest handling and management to mitigate Aflatoxins in grains Guantai S.M. ACDI/VOCA Kenya
  2. 2. Food Grains <ul><li>Grains are major staples in the tropics and the developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>Grains are highly nutritious hence form the bulk of the food eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Major component of animal feed industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Important industrial raw material. </li></ul><ul><li>Good substrate to other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Grown by virtually two in every three farmers in Kenya. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Importance of good Planning <ul><li>To achieve good quality in maize grains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan ahead and carry out the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much land to plant and how to plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early seedbed preparation; preferably immediately after harvest of previous crop when soil is still wet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil testing to get proper guidance on nutrient requirement. (This can be carried after a given period or in stages if land size is big). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire certified seeds and other farm inputs on time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice crop rotation to avoid pathogen accumulation and to replenish nutrients. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Early land preparation <ul><li>Plough to bury trash for ease of decomposition and a clean seedbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid hard pan and destruction of the soil structure and the flora and fauna. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and water conservation practices adopted. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conservation tillage <ul><li>Practice Conservation Tillage to incorporate trash as a cover mulch and add organic matter to soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Chisel plough to break hard pans and create channels for water percolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Liming needed in acidic soils to ameliorate the soil. ( Effect usually noticed in subsequent seasons). </li></ul><ul><li>Use Glyphosate to clear unwanted vegetation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Timely Planting <ul><li>Recommended varieties suited to agro-ecozone </li></ul><ul><li>Plant certified seed to maximize benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Plant at onset of rains or just before rains </li></ul><ul><li>Clean seedbed---- maize best on loamy deep soils, pH 5-7. </li></ul><ul><li>Check and calibrate all equipment and machinery prior to operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember maize requires at least 500 – 700 mm of well distributed rains during it’s growing period. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Seed Selection and Variety <ul><li>Agro climatic suitability of the variety </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity in growth </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and pest tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Standability </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity period </li></ul><ul><li>Sheathing </li></ul><ul><li>Drooping ear </li></ul><ul><li>Yield potential </li></ul>
  8. 8. Planting <ul><li>Depth of planting not too shallow or too deep (5-8 cm). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desiccation or damage by pests if shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seed exhaust food before emergence if deep. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planting fertilizer (Phosphate, preferably DAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of fertilizer application below the seed or to the side of Seed (10 cm deep, or to the side) </li></ul><ul><li>For soils low in P and K as a starter application 10-15 cm deep is recommended. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fertilizer Application and nutrient requirement <ul><li>Maize requires up to 16 elements for healthy growth. Most of these are required only in minute quantities. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important nutrients required are Nitrogen phosphorous, Potassium and sulphur and to some extent calcium and magnesium. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is required for plant growth and makes up to 1-4 % of the plants dry matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous plays a key role in the transfer of energy and photosynthesis. It is required at planting time. </li></ul><ul><li>Maize takes up considerable nutrients from the soil and some of them are retained in the stover and the grain after harvest hence the need to replenish. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nutrient deficiencies and crop growth <ul><li>When fertilizer or organic matter is not used there is low nutrients in soil leading to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stunted plants with poor root formation. Leaves turn purplish. Small cob curved at top (starved of P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stunted plants, yellowish leaf colour and small cob a result of N 2 deficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easily attacked by fungi and diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor yields lead to temptation to retain suspect grains </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Emerging seedlings <ul><li>Emergency usually within 7 days of planting after onset of rains. </li></ul><ul><li>Scouting (check on soil crust, soil pests, poor germination). </li></ul><ul><li>Gap if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out first weeding at 3-5 leaf stage </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out second weeding at Knee high </li></ul><ul><li>Top Dressing with N 2 (approx..50cm high or 6 - 8 leaf stage. Split N 2 application recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Dust for stalk borer (recommended spot application). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Poor growth result in weak plants that are easily attacked by pests, diseases and fungi) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Control weeds, field pests and diseases <ul><li>Weeds harbour pests, compete for moisture and nutrients and suppress growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Field pests cause 14% loss or more. </li></ul><ul><li>They create avenues for disease and fungal infestation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhealthy crops easily attached by Fungi and other pathogens, while low yields create temptation to retain poor grains) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Field Pests <ul><li>The maize crop is very nutritious and therefore attracts pests. Need for IPM. </li></ul><ul><li>These are leaf eaters, borers and suckers. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers need to scout the field and carry out spot application of the recommended pesticide. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss in yields result in temptation to retain poor quality grains </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Maize diseases <ul><li>Diseases creates avenues for other pathogens including fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Most diseases are managed by use of certified seeds treated with a pesticide and fungicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Other approaches to control are breeding for tolerant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Use of biotechnology to develop herbicide resistant biotypes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Growth to Maturity <ul><li>Within 2-3 weeks the nodal roots begin to develop, followed by rapid growth in the next 4-5 weeks and by V 15 it is about 12 days to silking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure roots not damaged during weeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At maturity the plant will have grown up to 20 leaves </li></ul><ul><li>From about 2 weeks to tasseling and 2 weeks after maize is very sensitive to moisture stress. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed maize is a good candidate for fungal and disease attach </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Management at silking stage <ul><li>The silking stage is when pollen is captured and fertilization occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of fertilized ovules determine number of kernels. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a critical period and any stress will cause poor pollination and seed set. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a period of high nutrient uptake hence need for a second dose of top dressing </li></ul>
  17. 17. Moisture management continued <ul><li>This is the time of high moisture uptake. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought conditions will lead to high crop damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress will create opportunity for fungal and pathogen infestation </li></ul><ul><li>(Courtesy of SeedCo) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Good Maize crop stand <ul><li>Proper spacing and plant density (about 55,000). </li></ul><ul><li>Clean crop field. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are an assurance of stress free crop with high yields and grains free of diseases, pests and fungi </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Harvesting <ul><li>Harvest early at physiological maturity (grain moisture content will be around 26%) </li></ul><ul><li>Stook maize for two or more weeks to dry on the field (grain moisture will reduce to 18%). </li></ul><ul><li>De husk and remove from field for shelling, conditioning, further drying to 13.5% m.c. and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure crop is not left on ground and bare soil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal spores are found on the soil </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Drying and conditioning <ul><li>The grain must be properly dried (<13.5% M.C). </li></ul><ul><li>Use tarpaulins or clean paved surface for drying the grain. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaned and sieved to remove broken, foreign matter, diseased and rotten grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Dust for pests (apply the pesticide on cool grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed and bagged in natural fibre bags for storage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain that is broken or with foreign matter attracts moisture and pests leading to spoilage and or fungal growth </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Storage and management <ul><li>The storage is very important at the farm, trader, transporter, processor and consumer level. </li></ul><ul><li>Common practice by farmers ---store grain in residential houses </li></ul><ul><li>Grains stored in pp or plastic bags common </li></ul><ul><li>Do not commingle new and old stocks or treated and untreated stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>FIFO and good records </li></ul>
  22. 22. Asante <ul><li>With the support of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation </li></ul>

×