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Neural Control Of Jumping
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Neural Control Of Jumping

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  • 1. Neural Control of Jumping By: Jenna and Kelsey!
  • 2.
    • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) contains sensory nerves that sense changes in an individual’s environment
    • When a sensory neuron senses a change it sends an action potential to the spinal cord which sends the message to the brain
    • The brain or the spinal cord, which makes up the central nervous system, (CNS), depending on the severity of the change, interprets the message
    • The CNS sends back a response through an action potential back through a motor nerve which tells the muscle what to do in response to the change
  • 3. Sensory neurons, the 5 senses, starts the neural message
  • 4.
    • The neuron is initially in a resting potential state where it is negative on the inside of the cell and positive on the outside. This is created by a sodium potassium pump that actively transports Na+ and K+ across the cell membrane.
    • Depolarization is the action potential traveling along the neuron. Depolarization begins when the stimuli opens sodium channels causing a temporary change in the cells polarization.(Relative to one another- positive on the inside, negative on the outside)
    • Repolarization begins immediately following depolarization where the resting potential is restored. This is known as the refractory period.
  • 5.
    • The gap between neurons is known as a synapse.
    • Communication across the synapse happens by Ca++ rushing into the neuron through voltage-gated channels.
    • This increase in Ca++ causes synaptic vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic messengers and spill neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis.
    • Neurotransmitter is received by the post-synaptic cell because receptors recognize the neurotransmitter.
    • This causes ion channels to open and impulse is transmitted.
                                               
  • 6.
    • The somatic motor neuron that innervates skeletal muscle fibers is called a motor neuron.
    • The axon of the motor neuron extends to the muscle that it is responsible for innervating.
    • Once the axon reaches the muscle, which is known as the neuromuscular junction, it splits into collateral branches which innervates a single muscle fiber.
    • Each motor neuron and and all the muscle fibers that it innervates is known as a motor unit.
    • When a single motor neuron is activated, all of the muscle fibers that it innervates are stimulated to contract.
    • The more nerves there are telling the muscle to contract the higher an individual can jump, known as Neural-Plasticity.
  • 7.
    • Fast twitch muscles have to do with anaerobic metabolism due to due to less myoglobin and mitochondria
    • Fast twitch muscles fatigue quicker, b ut are better at generating more power in short bursts than slow twitch muscles are
    • Slow twitch muscles have a lot of myoglobin, which carries oxygen
    • Slow twitch muscles have higher aerobic metabolism and mitochondria and are therefore more capable of endurance activities or activities that do not require maximum strength.
    • Jumping uses more fast twitch muscles than it does slow twitch.
  • 8.
    • Muscle spindles are small sensory organs that are enclosed within a capsule
    • A muscle spindle detects changes in the stretch of the muscle
    • A muscle spindle assists in the regulation of movement and helps maintain posture.
    • A muscle spindle sends signals to the brain then the brain sends the signal back to the quadricept telling it how much to stretch or contract before a person is about to jump.
  • 9.
    • A golgi tendon is located at the insertion of skeletal into the muscle fibers of skeletal muscles.
    • They serve as “safety devices” that help prevent excessive force during muscle contraction.
    • Golgi tendon organs send how far the individual wants to jump to the spinal cord through sensory neurons which travels to the brain.
    • The brain interprets the sensory message and formulates a response, sends the message back through motor neurons which tells the gogli tendon organs how much to monitor the muscle contraction before the individual jumps.
  • 10.
    • Neuromuscular fatigue results when the synapse is not being communicated over
    • This happens when the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, is blocked by free radicals and the impulse fails to cross the synaptic cleft
    • Therefore the muscles get a delayed message or no message at all to contract resulting in a less powerful jump.
    Key: Acetlycholine Free Radicals Receptors